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ral parts of the island. But they met above description in his mind's eye when with a noble and determined foe in Ca- he wrote that magnificent passage in ractatus, the son of King Cunobelinus. the “Lady of the Lake," where the Caractatus was finally defeated, and retreat in the island is discovered by carried captive, together with his wife the enemy : and children, to Rome.. His calm and “ Viewing the mountain's ridge askance, dignified demeanour before the Empe- The Saxons stood in sullen trance, ror Claudius conquered his haughty Till Moray pointed with his lance, conqueror. Claudius, we are told, re. And cried—Behold yon isle ! ceived him graciously, and restored him See ! none are left to guard its strand, to liberty.
But women weak that wring the hand : For some time after this the Roman 'Tis there of yore the robber band power was almost stationary in Britain, Their booty wont to pile ;until Suetonius Paulinus became go- My purse, with bonnet pieces store, vernor of the island. He saw that the
To him will swim a bow-shot o'er,
And loose a shallop from the shore. great bond of union among the Britons
Lightly we'll tame the war-wolf then, was the Druidical religion, and deter
Lords of his mate, and brood, and den.' mined, without delay, to extirpate it Forth from the ranks a spearman sprung, utterly. He proceeded at once to the On earth his casque and corslet rung, stronghold of Druidism, the island of He plunged him in the wave :Mona, now called Anglesea. The fol- All saw the deed—the purpose knew, lowing is the account which Tacitus has And to their clamours Benvenue given of this expedition :-“On the A mingled echo gave ; opposite shore there stood a wildly-di- The Saxons shout, their mate to cheer, versified host ; there were armed men The helpless females scream for fear, in dense array, and women running And yells for rage the mountaineer,” &c. among them, who, in dismal dresses The Romans made very little further and with dishevelled hair, like furies progress in Britain, notwithstanding the carried flaming torches. Around were victories of Suetonius, until the time of Druids, pouring forth curses, lifting up Agricola. Here then ends our second their hands to heaven, and striking ter- view of the Britons. It is evident that, ror, by the novelty of their appearance, under the circumstances, very little into the hearts of the Roman soldiers, change could possibly have taken place who, as if their limbs were paralysed, in the condition of the people, from the exposed themselves motionless to the landing of Cæsar up to the period at blows of the enemy. At last, aroused which we have arrived, except a change by the exhortations of their leader, and for the worse ; for war and national stimulating one another to despise a prosperity are totally incompatible.frantic band of women and priests, they The terms on which the conquerors make their onset, overthrow their foes, stood to the conquered completely preand burn them in the fires which they vented the introduction of Roman civi. themselves had kindled for others. A lization, except in the most indirect garrison was afterwards placed there way. So we may safely conjecture among the conquered, and the groves that as yet the Britons were far from sacred to their cruel superstition were being benefited by their acquaintance cut down."
with the Romans. This is a picture in words after the 3.-We now come to say a few words manner of Rembrandt. It is a mid- on the state of Britain, from the time night view of Druidism, under a strong of Agricola till the abandonment of the glare of light. There is not, we think, island by the Romans. a more impressive scene than this inva. About the year A.D. 78, Cneius Jusion of the island of Mona to be met lius Agricola undertook the government with in the entire acconnt of the Ro- of Britain. Under this distinguished man transactions in Britain. Even the man the Britons were made in reality resistance, defeat, and suicide of the subjects of Rome, not by force of arms, high-spirited and sensitive Boadicea, but by the mild and humanizing influence which took place soon after the forego- of civilization. The true and effectual ing event, do not excite so powerfully subjection of a people is accomplished the emotions of pity, wonder, and hor- only by the latter method ; and Agriror. Sir Walter Scott surely had the cola seems to have been fully aware of this. By rapidity, decision, and valoor, One is here tempted to ask, what when war was unavoidable, and by would have been the results to Britain mildness, justice, and benevolence in and to the world, if matters had gone time of peace, he spread the actual do- on in this manner for two or three cenminion of Rome in Britain to its utmost turies; and if Britain, thus Romanized, extent. According to Dr. Lingard : had becone an independent state? A “Sepsible of the errors of his predeces- vain, but, nevertheless, a very curious sors, he reformed the civil administra- question ; curious, because we see intion in all its branches, established a volved in the answer to it more or less more equitable system of taxation ; lis- of change in the condition of every tened with kindness to the complaints known country in the world. Thus we of the natives, and severely punished see it is with nations as well as with the tyranny of inferior officers. ... the minutest particle of matter ; no At his instigation the chieftains left change can be made on either without, their habitations in the forests, and re- at the same time, causing vast relative paired to the vicinity of the Roman changes on everything around. We stations. There they learned to admire know in part the laws of matter ; but the refinements of civilization, and ac- imagination fears to ask what are the quired a taste for improvement. The great and mysterious laws of nations ? use of the Roman toga began to super. It seems unnecessary to go into the sede that of the British mantle; houses, detail of the government of Britain as baths, and temples were built in the an integral portion of the vast Roman Roman fashion; children were instruct- empire. We may just mention those ed in the Roman language; and with gigantic structures of defence against the manners were adopted the vices of the inroads of the savage inhabitants the Romans. In these new pursuits the who roamed at large through the wilds spirit of independence speedily evapo- of Caledonia. They were successively rated ; and those hardy warriors, who raised by Agricola, Lollius Urbicus, and had so long braved the power of the Severus ; and the remains of some of emperors, insensibly dwindled into soft them to this day astonish the modern and effeminate provincials.” Here, forbeholder. Such examples as these the first time, we see the country ele- were of what energy, skill, and persevated into a position which entitled it verance are able to accomplish, ought to the name Roman Britain. Hence- to have taught the conquered Britons a forward Britain rapidly passed into the valuable national as well as moral lescondition of a Roman province. About son. this time, also, history is silent concerné Notwithstanding the many acts of ing Britain for the space of thirty years. injustice and cruelty which were perpeWhat a vast change must have taken trated on the Britons by successive Roplace during this period of comparative man governors, after the time of Agritranquillity, in the condition of Southern cola, they were becoming more Roman Britain especially. A knowledge of the every day. Roman roads, towns, and Roman modes of agriculture, of mining, other forerunners of civilization, were of conducting mercantile transactions, rapidly extending everywhere. But in and of the useful arts generally, doubt- course of time it was the lot of the proud less spread steadily and surely among conquerors themselves to submit to the the people. The refined cadence of Ro- yoke. Mighty Rome, enfeebled in conman song, and the stately march of sequence of its own vastness, was no Roman history, gradually softened the longer able to repel the attacks of the iron souls of these uneducated islanders, fierce barbarians of Northern Europe. and rendered them capable of feeling To save herself from destruction, she those numerous and delicate emotions recalled her legions from the extremi. peculiar to civilization. The Roman ties of the empire. Britain, no longer laws, the admiration of all ages, must protected by Roman discipline and vahave exerted a powerful influence over lour, became a prey to her old enemies, the social state of Britain. The intro- the Picts and Scots, who poured down duction of the fine arts, and all that we in vast numbers into the cultivated understand by Roman luxury, awak- plains of Southern Britain, plunder ened their imaginations, but enervated and havoc accompanying them wherever their frames.
By-and-bye, on these helpless Britons which is produced by a calm consideand marauding Scots came the great ration of the facts of the caso, that Saxon wave of invasion. The result is Britain is emphatically the greatest well known. The hardy Saxon free- nation in the world. In Britain, there booters became the masters of Britain, is the greatest amount of personal secuand, with the exception of the change rity—the greatest amount of social, effected by the Norman Conquest, laid intellectual, and moral liberty—the the foundation of the present English highest standard of civilization. In nation.
Britain, the mind of man is free to folIt does not come within the scope of low its highest aspirations after excelthis article to pursue the subject farther. lence, to push its inquiries after truth We conclude our remarks by saying to the farthest extent, and to communot in the spirit of a partial patriotism nicate freely whatever it conceives to be --not under the influence of a super- instrumental in advancing the great stitious veneration for past or present principles of Truth, Justice, Peace, and glory—but from the strong conviction the Progress of Man.
THE INVINCIBLE ARMADA,
FREELY TRANSLATED FROM SCHILLER.
THEY come-they come--the foemen's haughty ships,
With clang of fetters and a faith abhorred,
They come to waste thy shores with fire and sword.
Onward they sail with slow, majestic motion :
Beneath their mighty bulk, the awe-struck ocean.
Each tempest holds his breath : a breeze unfolds
Their flags, half imaged in the water's breast:
They calmly glide, and sky and ocean rest.
And still that nayy nears! a tempest-cloud,
Threatening to burst on thy devoted shore.
Shall wail thy doom when thou art free no more.
What saved thee then? Was it thy warriors, sprung
From mighty Norman chiefs, that fought of old ?
From kings, by men that knew their rights to hold ?
No! but thy God did not abandon thee
To be the prey of tyrants ; thee He cherished
And-the Armada perished:
OUR AMERICAN EMPIRE.
PART II. We resume our consideration of this subject from page 37.] IN our former article on this subject trade in fur: consequently, it cannot be we called the attention of our readers expected to promote colonization, for to the projected lines of railway that efficient cultivation is incompatible with are to connect the Eastern and Wes- the preservation of wild animals. Yet, tern extremities of the settled parts of at some future time the Hudson's Bay British America, and to the probable country will be wanted for colonization. effect of this increased facility of com- We conceive, therefore, that it will be munication in producing a closer poli- the duty of the British and Canadian tical union between our American Co- parliaments, jointly, to purchase the lonies.
rights of the Company, and to annex the There is another question of territo country to Canada. The Hudson's Bay rial politics of great, though not imme- country is contiguous to Canada, and diate, importance. We allude to the separated from it by no natural barrier ; Hudson's Bay Company's monopoly. from Canada it will be colonized, and This company enjoys the exclusive through Canada its commerce will pass. right of commerce, and a certain terri- A canal of two miles in length, which a torial jurisdiction, throughout those rapid renders necessary, will soon unite, vast regions which are watered by the if it does not already, the navigable streams that discharge themselves into waters of Lakes Huron and Superior; Hudson's Bay and the Arctic Ocean, from Lake Superior to Lake Winipeg together with so much of that part of there is a water communication by the Continent that lies between the means of various rivers and lakes, Rocky Mountains and the Pacific which is broken in many places by Ocean as belongs to the British Crown. “portages," where the light canoes of This company is the last survivor of the country are carried from one stream the many exclusive trading corporations to another, or past a rapid; and the which were constituted in former ge- river Saskatchewan, which tows into nerations, for the purpose of trading Lake Winipeg, affords a farther naviwith remote and barbarous countries. gation westward of several hundred These did good service in their time: miles, broken by but a single rapid, for, though no monopoly can be de- and with a seam of coal on its banks, fended when the choice is between mo- placed as if expressly for the supply of nopoly and free trade, yet it is probable steamers. When the country is suffithat cases existed where the choice was ciently settled to call for such facilities, between monopoly and no trade at all. a few miles of canal will suffice to avoid They pushed a trade when the enter the “portages;" and then there will be prise of private merchants would have a continuous inland navigation across been unable to do so, and, being armed more than half the breadth of North with somewhat of the powers of go. America, from the Atlantic almost to vernment, they were able to protect the foot of the Rocky Mountains. their dependents from the violence of The British territory lying between barbarians. Had the East India Com the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific, pany wever obtained a charter of ex- which is now occupied by the Hudson's clusive trade, the British would never Bay Company, ought not, however, to have become dominant in India. But be annexed to Canada, because its cosuch a monopoly, like every other ex- lonization and commerce will not flow clusive privilege, becomes an odious op- through Canada, but from Britain dipression the moment it ceases to be rect. It has no more to do with Canecessary. The monopoly of the East nada than with Australia, and will, no India Company was put down by the doubt, be a separate British Colony. It common sense of the British nation is a country of much milder climate that of the Hudson's Bay Company that to the East of the Rocky Mounhas been permitted, mainly through its tains, between the same parallels : it comparative insignificance, to remain produces timber of large size in some until now.
places, and in others it is open and This company has for its object the grassy, and well adapted for the rearing of cattle : it is capable of produc- spoken of its feasibility in America. ing whatever will grow in the British It is our belief that there would be no Islands. Vancouver's Island, which difficulty in making the railway in the forms a part of the region that we are manner proposed, if the country from speaking of, contains valuable seams of the Mississippi to San Francisco were easily-worked coal ; and a vein of gold practicable and fertile all the way. has been recently discovered in Queen But this is not the case. Between the Charlotte's Island, which is to the wide prairies of Louisiana and Texas, North of Vancouver's Island, and in- on the one side, and the fertile valleys habited only by Indians. A few years of California on the other, there lies a ago it appeared that the country beyond vast and scarcely habitable desert, like the Rocky Mountains, and north of those of Asia and Africa. A desert, California, would be one of the last unlike a forest or a prairie, cannot be places in the world to become of any increased in value by a railway running value, but the discovery of the Califor- through it ; so that this part of the nian gold mines, and the consequent line cannot be made with the funds establishment of a line of communica- arising from the sale of the adjacent tion between the Atlantic and Pacific lands. Mr. Whitney proposes to reOceans, by the Isthmus of Panama, serve some lots of land in the more have changed its prospects; and it is fertile districts for the purpose of deprobable that, at no distant period, fraying, by means of their sale, the ex. Vancouver's and Queen Charlotte's pense of making the railway through Islands, and the neighbouring Conti- the desert. This seems feasible enough; nent, will be peopled by a race of in- but, suppose the line made, the desert dustrious and thriving British settlers, will yield no local traffic, and can a exporting wheat, timber, and coals, to railway be worked in a country where California and the Sandwich Islands, water is only to be found at distant inand hides, tallow, and perhaps gold, to tervals ? Britain,
There is no such difficulty in the way We may here mention an extraordi- of making a railway from the Atlantic nary and gigantic, yet, in our opinion, to the Pacific through British territory, a practicable project. A line of rails for the desert does not extend so far way is to unite New York with the northward. We have seen that a railUpper Mississippi, and an American, way will be made from Halifax to QueMr. Whitney, proposes to continue this bec, and thence towards the south-west, to San Francisco. “ But how is this passing Montreal. Should the conto pay, for some generations to come ?!' struction of the Atlantic and Pacific In the same way that the Halifax and Junction Railway, through British terQuebec Railway will pay—by the in- ritory, be ever determined on, it will creased value given to the land through probably run from Montreal up the ferwhich the railway passes. Mr. Whit- tile valley of the Ottawa, which is at ney proposes that Congress should present the chief timber-producing regrant to him, for ever, the land for a gion of Canada, thence along the northcertain distance-thirty miles, if we ern shores of Lakes Huron and Superecollect rightly-on each side of the rior, through a rich mineral district : railway, on condition of his making the thence through a vast region, mostly railway, which, when made, is to be fertile, and chiefly consisting of prairies, for ever the property of the United to the Rocky Mountains; and through States; the funds for the construction the most practicable pass of those mounof the line, and the profits on the un- tains to some convenient port on the dertaking, to be supplied by the sale of Pacific Ocean. the land so granted ; and no part of The Rocky Mountains would not be the land to become the property of Mr. an insurmountable obstacle. It is noWhitney, or his representatives, until thing but the expense that prevents the the railway is actually made through Piedmontese Government from making such land.
a railway over, or rather under the The project of making a railway, Alps, at the pass of the Mont Cenis ; not to accommodate the population al- and the Rocky Mountains are not so ready in the country, but in hopes of high nor so difficult to make a road attracting settlers, sounds strangely through as the Alps. The expense of enough in Europe, but we have already this part of the line may be defrayed,