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a little, the same amount of silver was and to spare, for his new and extraorgiven for an article, but much fewer dinary expenses. But, after the most shillings. Every one, therefore, thought wonderful successes-after fairly taking that he would continue to suffer, from the breath from his proud enemy, and what was only a temporary inconve- making hiin cry“ peccavi"-he sunk nience ; the evils of the age were attri. into his usual easy-going disposition, buted to the Revolution, and the change and actually began to think that he had of rulers it had occasioned; and never, ill-used him. It is a most remarkable before or since, was England less in. proof of the generosity of the English clined to enter on a new contest. character, that the war, begun for such

The Tories, or the party which in- great objects as were at stake, when clined to France, were at that time in Europe fought over the dead carcase of power. William the Third never inter- the Spanish monarchy—and begun, fered in the internal politics of Eng- too, to avenge such an insult as Louis land ; he was content if his ministers the Fourteenth offered our ancestors, allowed him to be his own Foreign Se- when he made them a present of a king cretary. In truth, the taxes the war -should be concluded by giving up the had occasioned, and the misfortunes for whole of Spain and the Indies to the which his own government was blamed, house of Bourbon. More remarkable had long before made him unpopular, it is still, that the English should be

The fiction, as it is now generally be- conscious of this generous feature of lieved to have been, of the warming-pan their character, and should value themplot, had been sedulously kept alive by selves upon it. It is as trite as true a the Whigs. No weapon had been so romark, that an Englishman never useful to them as this. It damaged the strikes a fallen man; but the self-knowcharacter of King James in a way that ledge which this popular maxim implies nothing could repair ; it made the ques. is more remarkable than the fact itself. tion of the succession much simpler. The Romans, the only nation of antiTherefore, when the royal exile d'ed at quity who resembled the British in St. Germains, it was the worst policy any great characteristics, imitated the in the world for Louis to acknowledge Greeks, and other nations whom they his son as king of England. It was, in conquered : the English are not, and the first place, a perfectly empty com- cannot be, imitators; they know thempliment; in the second, an insult to the selves, and they know what would be whole English people, and a violation incongruous too well to adopt any foof the treaty of Ryswick. But the reign customs or sentiments. French monarch had recently added Another instance of that panic to Spain and the Netherlands to his do- which this country is liable, without minions, and he was so swollen with just cause, is furnished by the state of pride that he reckoned not the conse- popular opinion immediately previous quences. To a high-minded man, and to the breaking out of the Seven Years' to a high-minded nation, an insult is, War. In Macaulay's brilliant essay on perhaps, a greater provocation than an the early part of the great Lord Chatinjury. Forgetting bad trade, low hain's life, he mentions a book, now out rents, funded debts, Dutch mercenaries of print, called “ Brown's Estimate”— -all the grievances entailed on the a book, he says, universally read and country by the Revolution--the whole believed—which informed the nation English people sent up a cry for war. that it had miserably fallen off, buth in The king returned from Holland, dis- courage and wealth; that the French missed the Tories, put in the Whigs, were about to eat it up alive, and that and died in the midst of preparations it richly deserved its fate. Not long for the most extensive war which ever after the publication of the “ Estimate," Europe had seen since the crusades. war broke out; and its predictions ap

And now that John Bull had been peared verified by the loss of Portcured of his vapours, as by a shock from Mahon and the defeat of Byng. But an electric battery, he was a new man. those events were followed by successes He suddenly discovered that he was not only inferior to the victories of Marlgoing to the dogs as fast as he bad borough, Singular to say, too, the thought; that his business was prosper- samne leniency towards our enemies was ing, if he only paid proper attention to shown at the peace of Paris, in 1762, it ; and that he had money enough, as at the peace of Utrecht, in 1712.

Once again, and this time within the created as general and intense a sensamemory of man, England had resort to tion as the news of a battle fought in the quack doctors. Every one, except Spain. In small inatters, as well as perhaps, William Pitt the younger, great, they are punctilious. Indeed, thought that the country was going to the very insignificance of a right apbe ruined by the loss of America ; and, pears to the English a reason for insisttherefore, the most extraordinary reme- ing on it more rigorously. A great dies were advised. The most sweeping matter can defend itself on its owu me. of these, proposed annual parliaments rits ; principles, more than interests, are and universal suffrage ; a measure, or involved in the defence of small rights. set of measures, which the then Duke Few readers of history forget that the of Richmond warmly advocated. But case of John Hampden against the king England recovered herself in time for was for threeand-sixpence. the great struggle in which she became This is public spirit ; and it is mani. involved, ten years afterwards, with fested in the maintenance of public as France.

well as of private rights. The English For examples of the generosity of love their parks, their field-paths— England, what more need we mention everything that speaks of the old forthan the treatment of Bonaparte after gotten party-cry of Wilkes's time his first abdication ?-and the man- “ Liberty and Property.We believe ner in which every petty state in that this feeling has very niuch reconIndia is dealt with by the Company ? ciled the nation to the deinolition of the Bonaparte had to be put down twice Crystal Palace. The public is jealous before the English were convinced he of any intrusion on its property, even was not to be trusted. The Sultans of for a public object. Mysore had to learn two lessons before Now, what John Bull was once, he is their territory was annexed to the Com- still ; and we ought not to be surprised pany's dominions. The Sikhs had to if he is afflicted with his old fits of vabe conquered twice, before they were pours and fancies now and then. It is subdued. And it now appears that we said that modern invention has deprived were too lenient with the King of Ava, Britain of the advantages which her five-and-twenty years ago.

insular situation used to afford her. But the English are not more gene. But, is it not reasonable to suppose, rous than they are resolute in defending that the power which has the greatest their rights. Not forty years ago, an command of all kinds of mechanical action at law brought against a cele- appliances will profit most by them, brated member of a great aristocratic whether defended by wooden walls or connexion, for stopping up a field-path, stone-faced entrenchments ?

Sonnet to Melancholy.
WRITTEN AT THE GRAVE OF A SUICIDE,
BENEATH the hanging cliff, which throws a gloom
Of solemn awe athwart this lonely glen,
I love to feel thy strange, mysterious power,
And hold sad converse o'er his grassy tomb,
Who, maddened by the scorn and crimes of men,
Laid down his wretched life in evil hour,
And sought that happiness—which Fate
Denied to his existence-in the deep repose
Of Death's long sleep; hoping that, when he rose,
A better world might be his dwelling-place.
Or, if eternal the cold grave's embrace,
Then Feeling—which already too well tried,
And found but suffering-should extinguished be,

And all be lost in dark Oblivion's sea.
Black-Mountain, May 20, 1852.

THE HERMIT.

OUR AMERICAN EMPIRE.

PART III. [We conclude our consideration of this subject from page 90.] We have already expressed our opi- We do not anticipate such a result. vion that the Hudson's Bay Company's The British nation is wiser now than territory, as far as the Rocky Moun- when it suffered the ignorant and recktains, ought to be annexed to Canada, less ministers of George the Third to and that the Imperial Government lose the United States, and add 120 ought to sanction whatever treaty of millions to the national debt. But the union among themselves may be agreed course which we advocate would tend, on by our North American colonies. more than any other that could be

When these questions are settled, it adopted, to make such a catastrophe will be time to arrange, on a just and impossible. The connexion between permanent basis, the relation between ourselves and our American colonies, the mother country and the colonies. though mutually advantageous, is one We believe the only just arrangement of inferiority on their part; were they to be, the erection of British America annexed to the United States, it would into an independent kingdom, under be on terms of equality. It is in our the British crown.

power, and it is our duty, to concede to The despotism of the Colonial Office, them peacefully all that they could gain which has produced such disastrous re- by a revolution, retaining at the same sults in Australia and South Africa, istiine all that is valuable in the colonial unknown in North America. Our Ame- bund; for this bond ought not to be one rican colonies are self-governed, and of supremacy on the one side and sub. therefore well governed. Their people jection on the other, but of interest and could gain nothing whatever by separa. affection on the part of both. And, in tion from the British crown, except the order the more closely to cement this dignity of an independent nation, and union, we ought to stipulate, in the this is what we propose to grant them. treaty by which we recognise the inde.

But this, it will be said, would be pendence of British America, for perfect throwing our colonies away. No: it freedom of trade on both sides, and would be retaining them for ever, so far cheap postage. as we can hope that any work of man's We doubt not that our enemies on will last for ever. We hold the Ameri- the Continent and in the United States can colonies only so long as the colonists would hail such a treaty as the com. please. If any ministry violates their mencement of the dissolution of our emrights, as the ministers of George the pire ; and parallels would be drawn, in Third attacked the rights of what are lengthy newspaper articles, between the now the United States, or as the minis- abandonment of Britain by the Romans ters of the present Sovereign have dis- and the abandonment of Canada by the regarded the rights of Australia and British. But to all such talk we could South Africa, the duty of the colonists reply—“ Well, gentleinen, try to comis perfectly clear-to hoist the standard plete the parallel, by conquering Caof independence, and request the aid of nada, as the Saxons conquered Britain." the United States. The people of the · And the Americans would bave too United States will give their aid, whe- much sense to accept the challenge. ther the Government does or not; and They are ambitious, but calculating against the people of the States and of withal ; they love glory, but dislike the Colonies combined, the force of all danger ; their wars of aggression have the kingdoms in Europe could not per- all been against the weak. So long as manently retain a foot of land in Ame- the colonies are loyal to the British rica.*

crown they will strike no blow against * Had the Canadian rebellion been carried on by the British instead of the French colonists, the Americans would probably have given it much more assistance than they did. It is fortunate that the French Canadians, who are the least likely of all the colonists to be loyal to the British crown, are also the least likely to command the sympathies of the United States.

us there. It is often said that Canada trade, but it would be a fearful accesmust ultimately be annexed to the sion of power to the only maritime rival United States : that it is only“ a ques- we have. It would be the addition of tion of time.” But this cowardly fata- not only almost three millious of populism is unworthy of Britous. Why lation, but of a territory capable of supshould our authority be ever hated or porting many times that number; and our power be ever despised ? We be- the acquisition of that least assaillieve that the suppression of the rebel- able of all frontiers, the Frozen lion of the French Canadians, and the Ocean. And it would deprive us of subsequent union of Upper with Lower the important naval station of Hali. Cavada in 1841, formed the crisis of fax in Nova Scotia. But the estabCanadian history; and that now every lishment of the kingdom of British loyal emigrant who makes his home in America would keep our colonies British America, every reduction of the from ever joining the United States, duties that hampered our colonial trade, at least so long as a shred of the timeand every step in the direction of rapid honoured flag of Britain holds tvand cheap mail communication, tends to gether; and their harbours would be bind the mother country and the colo ours for all payal purposes, as much as nies more firmly together.

they are now. The possession of Canada adds no- If such an arrangement be made, our thing to our power ; it is rather a source sovereign should add to her titles that of weakness, for there the Americans of Queen of the Canadas, or whatever may strike a blow at onr einpire. But name is fixed on for the new kingdom. the possession of Nova Scotia is impor- The governor of British America should tant to our maritime supremacy, in take the title and rank of Viceroy ; and, consequence of its excellent naval posi- when possible, it would be desirable to tion and its supplies of ship-timber. - appoint one of the royal family to that For these reasons, it was once proposed post. by the Times (the same journal, recol. Then, being relieved for ever of the lect, which proposed to get rid of the expense and annoyance of governing a Irish difficulty by repealing the Irish colony, we should introduce a young upion), that we should abandon Canada, but full-grown state to the fraternity of but retain Nova Scotia and New Bruns- pations ; a state bound to us not by wick. Such a course, however, is impos- subjection, but by cheap. postage and sible ; for in that case Canada would free trade, by identity of interest, of be annexed to the United States, and blood, of language, and of religion ; by Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, fiud- attachment to ourselves, and loyalty to ing that we retained them for mere a common sovereign. The tranquillity convenience, would demand to be an- and peace of all North America would nexed also, and call in the Americans. receive an additional guarantee ; and Then we must choose between a peace- should the despots of the Old World ful but inglorious abandonment of our ever menace our national existence, colonies, and a second American Revo- the people of the new kingdom beyond lution as disastrous as the first.

the Atlantic would count their gold as The annexation of our colonies to the clay and their blood as water, when United States would not only be hum- spent in the defence of their mother bling to our dignity and injurious to our country.

[Note.-In our first article on this subject, we said that the Halifax and Quebec railway MOSES MENDELSSOHN.

was to run through a hundred miles of pine forest. We have since learned, however, that this line has been abandoned. The one the colonists have fixed on is to go from Halifax to St. John's, New Brunswick. and thence to pass through a settled country all the way. This route will give the trade of Quebec during the winter, when the St. Lawrence is frozen, to St. John's ; but the advantage which Halifax possesses, of being the nearest important port to the old world, will of course be materially increased by railway communication with the interior. The bill for this line has passed the legislatures of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. We regret, however, to perceive that the present Government have decided against applying to Parliament to guarantee the necessary loan : so that this important undertaking must be postponed for some time longer.]

This acute and elegant writer, as well invigorating my soul with his sublime as truly excellent man, was a Jew both instructions ?! by birth and conviction. He stands dis. Mendelssohn wandered through the tinguished among the many eminent streets of Berlin disconsolate and starvmen who, in modern times, have contri- ing, at the age of fourteen years. But buted to shed a lustre over the gloomy the spirit of genius and trust in Proviruins of the fallen house of Israel. Ger- dence were strong within him ; poverty man literature, as well as the degraded and solitude had no terrors for him, and despised Hebrew race, have been because his soul thirsted for truth and benefited by his 'life and labours. He wisdom. In the midst of his difficulties stood as mediator and as mutual friend and distress he applied to one who had between the bigoted Christian and the been previously his instructor at Dessau, poor German Israelite. It was his the rabbi, Frankel. He also happened to darling object to raise his brethren of meet here a Mr. Hyam Bamberg, who the seed of Abraham in the social scale, had the reputation of being a kind and to improve their intellectual and moral well-disposed man, and a great patron condition, and to defend them from of young Jews who had a desire to admisrepresentation and calumny. Nor vance themselves. This good man, at were his efforts unsuccessful. It is said the earnest solicitation of the rabbi, that no Jewish writer since Maimonides allowed Mendelssohn“ an attic to sleep has exerted a greater influence on the in and two days' board weekly." The Jewish mind. His literary productions noble-minded boy was more anxious are a valuable gift to his country ; but about procuring education for himself of far greater worth to his native land than of obtaining wealth and ease. To and his own race, were the high quali- develope the faculties of his mind, to ties of his moral nature, his magnavi- increase his store of knowledge, to get mity, his piety, and his pure and harm- larger views of truth, he left his native less life.

place, and came to Berliv. Here he Mendelssohn was born at Dessau in toiled year after year with an energy 1729. His father Mendel, who taught the and devotedness seldom equalled, never Jews' school in that city, lived in great excelled, in the prosecution of his fapoverty, and was utterly unable to edu- vourite project, surrounded by difficulties cate his son as he wished. The Mishna of the most appalling kind, with no and the Gemarra were all he could teachers, with no books, and frequently afford to give him ; and poor Mendels- without the means of appeasing his sohn speaks of being roused up at three hunger. As an instance of the ardour o'clock in a winter morning, wrapped with which he engaged in the pursuit in a cloak, and carried to the “ semi. of knowledge, may be mentioned the nary,” when only seven years old. manner in which he made himself ac

In his youth he happened to meet quainted with the Latin language. It with the More Nebochim, or Guide of is related of him, that having mastered the Perplexed, a work of Maimonides, the nouns and verbs, and procured an to the study of which he devoted him- old second-hand dictionary, he set himself with the most intense application. slf to translate into Latin, Locke's This book exercised a most important “Essay on the Human Understandinfluence over his whole future life. It ing," a task which he actually accomlaid the foundation of his mental cul- plished at that early stage of his pro. ture, and also of his bodily disease and gress; fighting his way through diffisuffering. “Maimonides," he said, “ is culties, metaphysical and philological, the cause of my deformity; he spoiled with a painful laboriousness unknown, my figure, and ruined my constitution; out of Germany, in modern times. but still I doat on him for the many Duriug all this time his finances were hours of dejection which he has con- in the most wretched condition. How verted into hours of rapture. And if he contrived to live at all, is matter of he has unwittingly weakened my body, astonishment. It seems that in addihas he not made ample atonement by tion to the magnanimous allowance of

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