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Effects of Excessive Mental Excite- London, Humbler Employments of 212 Railways in the United States 239 Trees, Chapter on

302 | London Press, Editorial Depart- Rat and Ferret

164 Trip from New York to Philadel.
Eggers of Labrador
399 ment of

18 | Reading
383 phia

410 Mechanical Department 46 Recluse, story

63 Túde, Monsieur de la

English Állotment System

London Systems
256 Recollections of a Soldier

95 Turning, Improvements in the Art
English Glees
381 London, 'Í'horburn's Ideas of 140 Recollections of the South-Sea of

English Songs

Lord Cullen
325 House
206 Uncivilised Nations

First Article
165 Louis Le Grand

133 Remarks upon Moral Education 351 Use and Abuse of Classical Edu-
Second Article
181 Louvre, the
213 Republic of Prairie Dogs
100 cation

Equality of Remuneration for La- Love me Love my Dog
183 Residence of Europeans in the Uses of Birds

402 Magnetic Influence

26 Himalaya Mountains
197 of Dissection

Executioner of Charles I.
317 Man and Tiger Combat
368 Resisting Medium
289 Vaccination

Exercise, Bodily
58 Manners, on
190 Restoration, Follies at the 268 Vails, Custom of giving

230 Mantis, the
384 | Riding, Rules for

295 Varieties of Colour among Man-
Fatal Effects of Over Study 278 Manufactures, Philosophy of 229 Riding the Stang

252 kind

Fergusson's Canadian Settlement 68 Manuscripts of Sir Walter Scott 21 Rise of the Rotheschildes

155 Vegetables

Few Days at Hamburg
391 Marvell, Andrew
84 Roads

63 Vegetable and Mineral Poisons 50
Few Days in France

Mason, Adventure of the
256 Romance of War

383 Vicissitudes in the Life of a Princess 290
Concluding Observations 12 Match-making in Calcutta 327 | Romans, Amusements of the 85 Visit to the Montrose Asylum

Few Words on a Branch of Rural Mechanism of Chambers's Journal 149 Ross's Expedition

346 Vitality,

174 | Medical Power of Nature
381 Rotheschildes, the

155 Viz., Little Master
First Primrose
83 Melton, Amusements at
166 Rules for Riding

295 Weeds
Fish Ponds
255 Mental Culture
144 | Rural Economy
190 | Whale, the

Five Kernels of Corn
287 | Mental Exercise
146 Russian Intrepidity
382 Whale, Adventure with a

Flood, Traditions of the
188 Meteoric Shower in America 287 Russian Sketches

189 Whales in the Mediterranean

Fly Fishing
127 | Mexico and Peru

253 Scattered Observations about What Good Roads accomplish 340
Follies and Frivolities at the Re-

Mind Murder
162 Words

365 Whist, Mrs Battle on
268 Mine, Monkwearmouth
199 Scenes and Adventures at Sea 133 Who should go to Canada

Forgotten English Poet
84 Misapplication of Talents
215 Scene at Jerusalem
357 | Wimble, Will

Forest on Fire
126 Miscellaneous Observations in Na- Scene in India

22 Wine Merchant and Cobbler 358
Forty-second Regiment

tural History
284 Schools in the Factory Districts 271 Witnesses, Punishment of

Fowls, on Breeding
174 Miseries of Human Life
103 Scott, Manuscripts of Sir Walter 21 Word or two for the Ass

French Serjeant
59 | Moles
120 Scottie

45 | Words, Observations on

French Laws and Courts
11 Monkey and the Crow
336 Scottish Dialect

Frendraught, Burning of

Monsieur de la Tude
147 Scottish Gipsies

Frenzy of Gentility

Mont Blanc

386 Scottish Songs
Game Birds

Montrose Asylum

First Article
266 Activity of Mind

Gardens for the Working Classes 359 Moral Education, on

Second Article
291 Advice to Emigrants

Gentle Art-Flies
15 Mrs Battle's Opinions on Whist 87 Third Article

356 Advice to Unmarried Ladies

Geographical Distribution of Ani-

Mutiny of the Bounty
157 Scraps from the Portfolio of a Na-

Affairs of Honour

177 | My First Action
247 turalist
236 Allotments

German Manners
391 Natural History of the Sponge
130 Seekers and Keepers

94 All Truths useful

German Settlement
6 Natural History, Observations on 284 Shakspeare and Scott

351 | American Advertisernent

Gipsies, Scottish
75 Navigation
98 Shakspeare in Scotland

199 American President's Drawing-
Glance at the New Forest 257 New Forest, Glance at the 257 Sheep-stealing Dog

13 Room

Glasgow, Society in
279 New way of Educating Ladies 398 Sherriff's Tour in America 60 American Wood Adventures

35 | Nodders
222 Shetland Islands
85 | Anatomical Studies

Gleanings from the Elements 306 | Occasional sketches of the Conti- Shipping of Great Britain and the

Ancient Writers, respect for 64
Gold and Silver Fish

United States

322 Apsley House:
Grant Thorburn's Ideas of London 140

300 Sieges
167 Arrangement of Portraits

Great Plague at Athens
364 Old English Manners,

Siege of Blair

310 Atlantic and Mediterranean, the 48
Greek Traditions of the Flood 188
Small Squire of the Reign of Silk Manufacture in France 246 Attacks upon Americans

Greyfriars' Cemetery

George II.
76 Simpson of Vauxhall

128 Authors and their Writings 280

Country Gentleman of the
Single Ladies in India
271 Avarice, Anecdotes of

Halley's Comet

Reign of Queen Anne 92 Singular Mode of Treatment for Bantam Cock

Highland Dress
414 Remaining Traits
116 Cholera
407 Bear, destroying a

Himalayas, Residence among the 197 Squire of the Seventeenth Cen- Singular Story of a Recluse 63 Beneficence

Hints about House-Furnishing 253

142 Sir Michael Scott
180 Blessing of Literature

Hints on House-Painting 327 Old and Young Gedge

269 Sketch of the Cagots

Bodily Changes

Hoffman's Account of Caverns in Omnibusses

77 Sketches from the Seasons
324 Brest

Western Virginia
182 Operation of the Laws of Nature 251 Slave-Market at Constantinople 168 Bricklayers, the

316 Organic Remains

10 Social State
366 Brief enough

Home Colony in Holland 414 Page of Comicalities

69 Society in Glasgow
279 British Mode of Fighting

Homely Sculpture
80 Paper-Making, Art of
119 Soils and Vegetation
106 Buchanan, Saying of

Honours paid to Men of Science 326 Parisian Tombstone Warehouse 159 Soldier of Fortune

126 Building a Pyramid

Household Recipes

118 Soldier, Recollections of å

248 Particulars regarding Canada


How to Keep a Cow and Pig 200 Pellico, story of

10 Songs, English
165, 181 Can she Spin ?

Human Stature
194 | Pere la Chaise in London
264 Songs and Management of Birds 123 Capture of Trinidad

Humbler Employments of London 212 Phenomena in Seeing Colours 117 Songs of Canaries

320 Carlyle, Anecdote of Dr

88 Philosophy of British Manufactures 229 South Sea House

206 Cats, Exhibition of

Ignorance, Doings of
103 Places of Resort for the Consump- South Sea Marauders

37 Causes for the Thriving of Towns 400
Improvement from Botanical Pur.

296 | Speech without a Tongue
125 Centipedes

199 Plague at Athens
364 Sponge, the
130 | Character

Improvement in the Iron Manu-

Pleasures of a Bad Day
277 Steam Carriages, Lecture on 279 Children of the Poor

210 | Pleasures of Being Unwell 367 Steamer on the Danube

288 Civilisation, Possibilities of greater 160
Improvements in the Art of Turn- Pleasure Tours


135 | Coincidences in the Lives of a Mar.
124 Banks of the Forth and Stir-

Stethoscopic Art
71 ried Pair

India, Scene in

237 Stock Jobber
286 Coming to Close Quarters

Indian Jugglers

351 Trosachs' and Loch Katrine 243 Stories of North American Indians 198 Comparison of Man to a Book 400
Indians, North American

Clyde, Loch Lomond, and In- Story of Captain X.

51 Compliment to the Ladies

Inferiority of Sons of Celebrated

10 Contentment
260 Story of Silvio Pellico

376 Popular Information on Science Sublime and Beautiful in Lan-

Conversation between a Weather.
Influence of Mental Cultivation on

Time Measurers
2 guage


glass and a Weather-cock 312
234 Organic Remains

To Suckling, Sir John

166 | Convicts in New South Wales 72

Magnetic Influence
26 Sunday in France
384 | Cook of Taste

Insensibility of Animals to Pain 329 The Compass

74 Superstitious Practices
320 Cost of a Fire in France

Institutions for the Blind
20 Art of Navigation
98 Sword Players of Last Century 188 Courtry Tower, a

Irish Sketches
16 Soils and Vegetation
106 Taking Dinner in China
204 Crime, Causes of

Irish Convent
408 Crystallisation
218 Tall and Short Men

292 Crossing a River in South America 415
Iron Manufacture
210 Transmutation of Species 273 Tardy the Poisoner

276 Cultivation, Effects of

Iron Mask, Prisoner in the
39 Resisting Medium
289 Terror by Night
46 Davie Lindsay

James I., Journey of
173 Vitality

396 That we should lie down with the Density of Bodies at Different
Joachim Murat
82 Electricity, &c.
410 Lamb


Journey of James I. from Edin-

Poets Laureate
114 Theory and Practice

77 Design in Dogs

burgh to London
173 Poisons and Poisoning
44 Thomas the Rhymer
93 Destruction of Sparrows

Judicial Torture in Scotland 121

Vegetable and Mineral
50 Thoughts on Mental Culture 144 Diamonds

• 175
Knowledge leads to Comfort 215 | Poor Passenger

135 Three Brothers of Galloway 62 Doctor's Advice to a Patient 400
Laird of Logan
191, 240 Popping the Question

69 Thrilling Incidents
182 Dog, Anecdote of a

Lamb, Charles
68 | Popular Information on Literature Thugs, the

333 Doze of two Ages

Language of Flowers

Rise of English Literature 338 Time

134 Drunkenness

Laws of Bodily Exercise
58 Prairie Dogs
100 | Time Measurers

2 Duration of Wisdom

Laws of Mental Exercise
146 Printing Machinery
150 Tombstone Warehouse
159 Dying, a Reason for

Leistering Ploy
214 Prisoner in the Iron Mask

39 Torpedo
93 Dying Philosopher

Letter from an M.P. to the Keeper Productiveness of Vegetables 374 Torture in Scotland

121 Early Rising

of his Country Residence
69 Progress of Rustic Improvement 245 Tough Yarn

125 Earthquakes

Little Master Viz.
248 Proverbs of Different Nations 390 Traditional History of Alaster Mac

Eastern Justice
Liverpool Merchant
390 Prussian Police
372 Col
373 Economy, Opinion of

Living in London and Edinburgh 332 Punishment of Witnesses 140 Transmutation of Species 273 Effects of Drunkenness

London Fog
358 Quoting

344 | Travelling Thirty Years Ago 47 | Elegant Highland Epitaph 80

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168 Incurable Disease

Emigrants, Advice to

400 Navigation by Treadmills


407 Siege of Oporto

Indian Fabrics

Encouragement for Schoolmasters 400

312 Negro Vanity


376 Silence, Value of


English and French Manners


Indian Wit

New Surgical Operation

344 Simplicity of great and useful Ideas 70

Escape Inferential

120 Influence of Music

48 | Niagara, Falls of the

160 Singular instance of Canine Saga-

Falls of the Niagara

160 Ingenious Mode of destroying a Niggardliness punished

304 city


False Metaphors

352 Bear :

72 Nobody will steal Years

120 Slaves in the Diamond Mines


Fernandez, Situation of Juan 164 Ingenious Mode of tying Horses 416 Odds and Ends

40, 72, 400 Slavery in Ancient Rome


Fine Saying

400 Ingenuity of a Beggar Boy 240 Old Authors

144 Slow Reception of Improvements 400

Fine Sentence in Hooker

64 Irish Horsedealer

112 Old English Hospitality

64 Small Allotments of Land


First Sight of Venice


Irish Jests

112 | Old Joe, an

72 Smellie's Philosophy of Natural

First View of Jerusalem

415 | Ivy

180 Parental Affection

160 History


Fishing for Sword Fish

72 Jack of Hilton

56 | Passage of the Balkan

304 | Sparrows


Foolish Custom reproved 328 Johnson's Opinion of Economy 72 Pearls going a-begging

375 Speech without a Tongue 125

French Beans

168 Jokes from Laird of Logan 240 | Petty Vexations

304 Spiders


French Pronunciation

48 Key to a Garland of Flowers 136 Pickling of Meat

376 Spontaneous Burning of Bodies



272 | King George I.

8 Playhouse Memoranda

144 | Statistics worth knowing


Garland of Flowers, Key to 136 Kitchen

112 Pleasant Travelling

312 Steam and Hand-Looms


Gas Lights, Precautions regard-

Ladies' Thin Shoes

415 Plough and Harrows

256 Sufhcient Reason for Dying 399


120 Lamp Glasses

352 Poisoning

207 Supineness of Jamaica Men

Gasten, Marquis de Renty

56 Last Friend

160 | Political Question illustrated 112 Supper against Dinner

Gentlemen's Show Seats

320 Leeches, Method of applying 368 Possibilities of greater Civilisation 160 Table-talk of Charles Lamb

Geological Changes

400 | Legal Phraseology

200 Postscript, a

112 | Taking Things coolly

Hedgehog, the

280 Letter of a French Emigrant 175 Potato, an early Cultivator of the 264 Temperance

Henry Prentice

264 | Letter of a Humble Scotsman 175 Potatoes, on storing

344 Tobacconist's Sign

Hero in Humble Life,


Lisbon at Night

48 Poverty not a natural Evil

151 To our Agricultural Readers



176, 216, 272, 296 | London Solitude

320 Printing in Portugal

216 Tortonia the Banker

Highland Epitaph

80 Lord Mansfield

288 Precautions regarding Gaslights 120 Travelling a Hundred Years since 168

Highland Martinet

376 | Luck or Fatalism

416 | Pretended Veneration for Old

Treacle or Molasses


Highland Pledge

240 Magnanimity

. 40 Authors

144 Turnpike Roads and Railways

Hint to Wives

240 Magnanimity of a Lion

400 Prevalent Causes of Crime 168 Uncollected Table-talk


Honesty Rewarded

240 Making Coffee

240 Prices of Labour

344 Value of Early Rising


Hoodwinked Pigeons

312 | Managing Wife

40 Progress of Science

344 Value of Silence


Hooker, fine Sentence in

64 Master and Slave


Prudent Gull, a


Value of Small Insects


Hospitality, Old English

64 Maternal Devotion

64 | Rheumatism

408 Warm Affection of Cats


How to please your Friends 280 May you Die among your

Rights and Lefts

104 Waters of the Atlantic


Human Life



16 Russian Coinage

96 Wearing Stockings

Humbug Author, a

88 Minister without a Head

160! Sagacity of Dogs

408 West Indian Four o'Clock


Hypocritical Respect for Ancient Monuments

400 | Sanatory Effects of Cultivation

64 What Dram Drinking is Doing 240


64 | Miscellanea

175 Saying of Pascal

407 Why cannot Apes talk ?


Illustration of a Political Question 112 Music, Influence of

48 Scott, Sir Walter

264 Wife, a Managing



328 | Mystification

112 Self-Conviction

112 Wild Rerenge


Imitation of the Ancients

184 Narrow Escape from Death 400 Shading the Eyes

400 Wine after Dinner


Imitation of a Cow

96 Natural Affection of a Lamb 256 Shall and Will

144 Winter in Holland


Importation of Horses to France

400 Nature of Labour

400 | Sheep

368 Wonderful Tree


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FIFTY-ONE Familiar Sketches and Moral Essays ; Two HUNDRED Miscellaneous Articles of Instruction and Entertainment; THIRTY-91x Stories, or Tales;
TWENTY-SIX Biographies of eminent Individuals; and Forty-one pieces of Poetry—making a total of THREE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-FOUR Articles, Two
HUNDRED AND SIXTEEN of which are original, the remainder being either selected or partially re-written ; besides Two HUNDRED Anecdotes and Paragraphs.

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No. 157.



CHAMBERS'S EDINBURGH JOURNAL. circuinstance in the highest degree creditable to the to have acquired increased powers of both instruction In addressing our readers at the commencement of public itself. It is our habitual impression and con- and entertainment, with views, almost new to us, of a new volume, we are rather complying with a custom viction, from all we have ever learned of the details of the social relations of our race. Unskilled as we which we appear to ourselves to have established, than our circulation, that a few delinquencies in the ethics may yet be in many departments of knowledge, we acting under any immediate desire of communicating of the Journal, or even a few transgressions of the find ourselves to be constantly advancing from less with the public. Our way is now so smooth—the bounds of good taste, not to speak of a partizanship in to greater things, and at the same time receiving a success of our lictle miscellany is so completely ascer politics, would instantly prove its ruin. We feel that deeper and deeper sense of the importance of using tained—and so little ever occurs to disturb the happy we stand only by our devotion to what is good, and these to the advantage of our fellow.creatures. We relation which seems to subsist between it and its our hostility to what is bad, in ordinary conduct; and therefore venture a humble but earnest hope that this readers, that we might perhaps have intermitted this if no other consideration made us the friends of vir. miscellany, through the improving faculties of both task for a year, without either disadvantage to our. tue, the commercial quality of prudence would come its writers and its readers, will be enabled to go on selves, or disappointment to the public. The occa. to our aid, and erase the peccant word, paragraph, or freshening and strengthening, and yet adopt higher sion, however, has occurred, and we have been tempted article. Many of our readers, while satisfied of the purposes and reach more splendid triumphs than any to seize it, if only for the purpose of conveying some purity of our general intentions, may be ignorant of yet contemplated. assurance of the continued prosperity of our work, the pains which are necessary in order to preserve a All that remains for us to do, is to advert to the and, consequently, of inspiring in those who approve quality of such importance. We can declare that InforMATION FOR THE People, which is now of its object, renewed hopes of the beneficial influence numberless topics and expressions which the conduct. concluded in fifty sheets similar to the numbers of which so copious and so constant an effusion of moral ors of hardly any other periodical work would think the Journal, each in general containing some parliterature may be expected to have upon society. objectionable, are avoided by us, and that we hardly ticular department of knowledge, created in a po! The success, then, of this Journal continues to be ever receive a contribution from the most practised | pular manner. Of this work, eighteen thousand proved, not only by an undiminished, or rather, we writers, which does not require purification before we copies at least bave been issued of each successive may say, an increasing circulation, but by innumer- deem it fit for insertion. Nor is it only in regard to number, and this success we deem in some measure able circumstances which, coming by chance under matters of moral decency that we tind it necessary to

even more agreeable than that of the more widely our notice, manifest to us the strong hold which it maintain a vigilant guard : we deem it only in a less diffused Journal, as the advantage of a miscellane. has taken of the public mind. It still penetrates into degree essential to exclude every thing that tends to

ous and entertaining character was here entirely every remote nook of the country; still travels from keep alive the recollection of the superstitions, savagery, wanting. When we mention that each of the sheets hand to hand over pastoral wastes—the fiery cross of and darker vices of the past—even the details of contains exactly the same quantity of literary matter knowledge-conveying pictures of life, and snatches ordinary warfare, and the drolleries of ordinary baccha- as a number of the Library of Useful Knowledge, the of science, and lessons of morality, where scarcely any nalian fellowship, we regard as in some measure objec. public may conceive what an important addition has such things were ever received before ; still visits, tionable, as tending to foster only the lower propensi- thus been made to the amount of reading produced and we would hope cheers, the labour-worn artizan, ties of our nature. In whatever degree, we are per by the moderately priced publications. The Infor. and animates to the struggle of the world the rousing suaded, a departure might be made from these rules,

MATION FOR THE PEOPLE, in its new character as a boy. As a single fact illustrative of its extensive re- would the circulation of this work decline from the volume, will be comparatively the cheapest work in ception among the working classes, we have been in universality which it has attained, and in so far would existence that bears the character of a collection of formed that, in a single cotton-work near Glasgow, it forfeit that reputation which, against every disad- treatises. At the price of an ordinary duodecimo, it no fewer than eighty-four copies are regularly pur. vantage of form and price, its right-forward good aims presents a series of between forty and fifty volumes** chased, notwithstanding that in such places a single have procured for it. The public, indeed, have this --for so they may be styled_each constructed with copy of a newspaper or other periodical work generally matter entirely in their own hands, and we consider it the utmost care, and with the advantage of the most serves a dozen readers. But it is not alone among impossible that our work should ever be less pure and

recent discoveries, and all of them very immediately the inferior orders of society that the Journal is cir- innocuous than it now is, unless the community shall bearing upon the necessities and uses of the people. culated. We have been given to understand that it suddenly become thoroughly vicious, or the light of

Note.-Our efforts in the diffusion of cheap litera. reaches the drawing-rooms of the most exalted per. reason be withdrawn from ourselves. We think it

ture baving been followed by the establishment of sons in the country, and the libraries of the most the more necessary to make this avowal, as it serves

various similarly moderate-priced publications, it may learned ; that, in the large towns, a vast proportion to meet the arguments of those who, taking upon sys. I perhaps have been anticipated that the circulation of the mercantile and professional persons of every

tem every degrading view of their species, allege that of CHAMBERS's Journal would therefore have been rank and order are its regular purchasers ; and that

, the bulk of the people of even this enlightened land in some degree lessened ; we are happy to say that in short, it pervades the whole of society. Let it not deliberately prefer an immoral and grovelling litera. this has not been in any respect the case, the world be imagined that we relate these circumstances in a spirit of personal boasting: unconscious as we are of But it is not only by such negative qualities—it is being seemingly wide enongh for the exertions of all. having ever anticipated them, they surprise ourselves not only by our continuing to think and write in the From the period of a few months after the commence.

ment of the Journal, when the work had become ge. as much as they can surprise others, and, so far as we spirit which it is no more than our duty as individual are not tempted to speak of them by a mere sense of citizens to cherish that we are to expect this publica has continued to be remarkably uniform ; the sale of

nerally known, till the present time, the circulation wonder, we are prompted to do so by that disin- tion to be supported. Great efforts, we are sensible

, each number, within a short period after its publication, terested feeling of philanthropic gratulation which must also be made to maintain that humble literary re. they can hardly fail to excite in every generous bo. putation which is also to be considered as an element in som. Is it possible—we would say, and say in all its success. In reference to this point, we can state with • The subjects of the INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLx may be

enumerated in the following systeinatic arrangemont :- Astronomy humility—to over-estimate the social blessings that a reasonable expectation of being credited, that vic

- Physical and Political Geography--Geology-Botany-History may be expected to flow from a work which is thus tory, so far as gained, has never lulled us for a mo.

of Mankind-- Account of the Human Body- Natural Theologyqualified to re-unite the sympathies of the most oppo. ment into security or indifference. We have not site and remote orders of the people—which can tell only been induced, by the approbation which the pub. Moral Philosophy-Duties of Life-History and Present State of

Education - Manufactures and Commerce of the World - Political the great about the humble, and the humble about the lic was pleased to bestow upon our trivial labours, to great, and promote a spirit of natural human kind. devote ourselves to them more and more unsparingly, Economy- Natural PhilosophyMechanics-Electricity and Gal

vanism-Hydrostatics and Hydraulics-Pneumatics, Acoustics, ness amongst all-which serves, it may be said, as but we have used the results of success in no niggard

and Aëronautics - Optics - Architecture - Chemistry-Chemistry an universal instructor and monitor, chastening the spirit in purchasing literary aid. While vigorously proud, chastising the vicious, guiding the ignorant to resolving to continue the exertions of every kind applied to the Aris-Printing - The Steam-EngineDomestic Eco

nomy and Cookery-Preservation of Health-History of the British correct views of society, and creating a diversion which have been already made, we must also confess

Empire-Resources of the British Empire-General Account of the every where from harmful indulgences to those that we look chiefly for the means of maintaining our

United States of America-Palestine-China-The East Indies thoughts which advance all who cherish them in the ground, to our own improvement and progressive ac

The West Indies-South America-Egypl— The Collon, Woollen, scale of being ? quirements. At the time when the Journal was

Sill, and Linen Manfuctures-Ilistory of the French Revolution While referring to this universality of circulation, commenced, our experience in literature was compa. - History of the American Revolution-Life of Benjamin Franklin it may be worth while to mention, that, to whatever ratively slight, and our studies had referred to a li- -Emigration to Canada, the United States, Nova Scotia and New causes the public may attribute it

, we have all along mited and in many respects useless range of knowledge. Brunswick, Van Diemen's Land, and New South Wales –Tr· Dog seen reason to ascribe, at least its continuance, to a With the progress of the work, we conceive ourselves | The Horsc.

No. 1, Vol. IV.


come more common.


being 50,000, while the subsequent or after demand, ercise oi genius arnong themselves; in the present day, where they are made by thousands. Among French as we have found, has been to the extent of not less this is a question which it is impossible to settle sa- watchmakers, Berthoud, Breguet, Chevalier, Cour.

voisier, Preud'homme, and others, are distinguished. than 5000 additional, making a total average circulatisfactorily.

In the fourteenth century, traces of clock work be- England and France bave been active in perfecting tion of 55,000 copies. Latterly, the demand for sets

Dante, the Italian poet, parti. the art of horology. The elegant Parisian pendulum of the work from the commencement has been very cularly mentions clocks. Richard, abbot of St Alban's clocks are well known, in which the art of the sculptor considerable, particularly from some of the British in England, made a clock, in 1326, such as had never is combined with that of the machinist. Elegance, colonies, to which not fewer than two hundred thou- been heard of till then. It not only indicated the course however, is their principal recommendation. It is sand numbers have been sent during the last twelve of the sun and moon, but also the ebb and flow of the much to be regretted that the present watches, even months. It is likewise gratifying for us to learn that made use of in the fourteenth century. It is thought durability to those of former times. tide. Large clocks on steeples, likewise, were first the inest, have not the finish which gave such great

This is particuCHAMBERS'S JOURNAL is now regularly reprinted in that one Jacob Dondi, in Padua, was the first who larly the case with French watches. We speak now New York; though this forms a branch of circulation made one of this kind ; at least his family was called of the better sort of watches; the ordinary ones are over which we of course can exercise no control. It after him dello Orologio. A German, Ilenry de Wyck, hardly worth the trifling sum which they cost: The

was celebrated in the same century for a large clock English watches are generally much more substantial was formerly stated that the quantity of paper used for

which he placed in a tower built by the command of and accurate in their workmanship than those of these sheets annually, amounted to 5416 reains; upon Charles V. king of France. This clock was preserved France or Geneva ; but it must be allowed that a great a calculation now made, we find that during the last till 1737. Watches are a much later invention, al. depreciation is taking place in this department of our three years we have consumed, reckoning the English i though it has been alleged that they were known in manufactures. Perfect accuracy in going, is now a and Scotch editions of our works, fully 20,000 reams,

the tourteenth century. The more general belief is, rare quality in a new made watch, unless it be of the

that they were contrived in 1510 by a person named most expensive kind. The most accurate of all time or the astonishing number of nine million six hundred Peter Hele. Reckoning back from the present era, measurers are chronometers, which are of a peculiar thousand sheets, which, by the heavy duty of 3d. per it may reasonably be concluded that clocks were in construction, and are much employed by navigators pound weight on the paper, have yielded a clear vented about seven hundred, and watches from three in determining the longitude at sea. In general, chro. revenue to government of L.6000.

to four hundred years ago, which is a very moderate nometers are much larger than common watches, and antiquity.

are hung in gimbals, in boxes six or eight incbes

The earliest made clocks wanted many of the con- square; but there are also many pocket chronometers POPULAR INFORMATION ON SCIENCE. trivances which now distinguish these valuable in. which, externally, have all the appearance of the bet.

struments. The first great improvement was the ter sort of pocket watches, and internally differ from In ancient times there were neither clocks nor watches Huygens in 1656, and which is of use in regulating balance and hair-spring are the principal agents in

addition of the pendulum, which was invented by these only in the construction of the balance. The by which time might be measured. The only instru- the motion of the wheelwork. The doctrine of the regulating the rate of going in a common watch, being ment in use calculated to be of service in this respect pendulum, which belongs to dynamics, or the science to this what the pendulum is to a common clock; was the sun-dial, which appears to have been known of bodies in motion, is one of great importance. A and this spring in the former, like the pendulum in

the latter, is subject to expansions and contractions in very early times. It was most likely invented by pendulum once put in motion would never cease to the Egyptians, from whom its use spread among the oscillate, or swing, were it not for the friction at the under different degrees of heat and cold, which of

point of suspension, and the resistance of the air. course affect the speed or rate of the machine; and Chaldeans and Jews, or Hebrews; it being mentioned Neither of these circumstances can ever be avoided the methods of correcting this inaccuracy mark the in the Old Testament, in the book of Isaiah, chapter entirely, and bave to be provided against by certain difference between the watch and chronometer. These xxxviii. verse 8., “Behold I will bring again the arrangements: The times of the vibrations of the

are very numerous. With British and American na. shadow of the degrees, whereby it is gone down in rendukun chiefly depend on three circumstances, rigatorí, chronometers are more common than with

the angle by which the heavy body of the penduluun those of any other nation. the dial of Abaz by the sun,” and so forth, by which is removed from the vertical line ; second, the length Wooden clorks are made chiefly in the Schwarz. we may learn that the sun.dial was the instrument in of the pendulum; and, third, the accelerating power wald, or Black Forest, in South Germany, and furnisla use for measuring time at that remote period.

of gravity. The principal thing to be attended to is an important object of manufacture for this mountain. The Greeks became acquainted with the sun.dial the length. A short pendulum oscillates quickly, a ous and barren country. It is said that 70,000 of such from the Jews, and from the Greeks it was derived arranging the length must keep in view the situation long penduluın more slowly. But the clockmaker in clocks are made there annually; and.great numbers

are sent to North and South America, and all over by the Romans, who were the means of introducing on the earth's surface where the clock is to be placed ; | Europe. it into the western nations of Europe. The Romans for the pendulum which will suit at one degree of lacame to a knowledge of the use of dials in a remark. titude will not answer at another. The reason for

TIE USES OF ADVERSITY, able way. In one of their warlike excursions, they this is, that the power of gravity, that is, the unseen

A STORY. saw one, and carried it off as a part of their spoil, power which attracts all things to the earth's sur. and placed it in the forum of Rome; but it being face, acts more strongly at one part than another, from At the age of twenty.one, the young, gay, and volup. constructed for a place four degrees different, they the discilla:ions of the pendulúin in such a manner

the peculiar shape of the globe, and this power atiects tuous Earl of Glenthorn succeeded to the vast pos. found that it could not indicate the true time—a cir- that the pendulum of a clock must be made somewhat

sessions of his family; an event to which he had cumstance they had not anticipated, as in these times shorter at the equator than towards the poles. The anxiously looked forward during the, to bim, tedious little or nothing was known of degrees of latitude or oscillations of the pendulum have hence served as

years of minority. But this consummation of his Jongitude. It is probable that they soon rectified the data whereupon to draw conclusions regarding the hopes and prospects did not relieve the young noble. dial to the situation of Rome. Before they thus be. power of gravity in different parts of the world. The man from that dreadful malady to which those are came acquainted with sin.dials, they measured tiine honour of being the inventor of the balance-spring subject, and to which lie was already a prey, who are by means of a thing called a clepsydra—a word sign in watches was contested by liuygens and the Eng. in possession of all that there is to desire on earth, nifying in Greek, I steal water, the time being rec- list philosopher Hooke. in order to prevent frickuned by the dropping of water; and it was the duty vion, Lacio, a Genevan, invented the method of bor.

who have nothing to employ them, and nothing to of a slave to attend and make a sound at the recur. ing hules in diamonds or rubies for the pivots to re.

fear or to hope; where every wish lias only to be ex. rence of every certain number of drops. Clepsydra volve in, which was found a great improveinent. Thus pressed to be gratified, and where every command were long used in both Greek and Roman courts and chronometers had their origin, in which the English has only to be issued to be obeyed. This malady, for assemblies, and, like our sand-glasses, they deter- have a tained great perfection. This nation also in which we have no English name, is entitled by the mined the time which members were permitted to vented repeaters. An individual of the name of Barlow | French ennui-a terin now naturalised among t us. speak.

tirst made ore, in 1670, for Charles II ; and Grahain As sun-dials were available only while the sun was the inventor of the compensation-pendulamin 1715. cunning and dishonest guardian in every desire, how.

While yet a boy, the earl, who was indulged by a shone, the invention of some kind of instrument which This was perfected by Harrison, who torined the pen.

ever wayward or foolish, which his imagination could could measure time both during darkness and sun. dulum of nine round roils, five of which were of iron shine, became a matter of anxious research to many and four of brass. With the e pendulurns the astro.

suggest, and which wealth could gratify, was rendered reflective persons ; but this appears to have been a nomical clocks are still provided, and perfect depen. less life. The busile and excitation consequent on his

miserable liy this oppressive vacuity of mind and aime matter of extraordinary difficulty. Sun-dials for the dence may be placed in the regularity of their action. accession to the entire control of his large possessions, day, and clepsydra for the night or cloudy weather, Amongst the important inventions of the 18th cen

subdued for a time that feeling of apathy and listless. were in use for many centuries after the destruction tury, the astronomical clocks of the clergyman Hiahn,

ness which in the midst of every luxury and enjoyment of the Roman empire and the establishment of Chris. in Echterdingen, Wurtemburg, deserve to be particu

was rendering his life miserable. It was, however, tianity. It is related in an ancient chronicle that larly named. lle formed the idea of measuring time Charlemaglie, king of France, received a present of in its while externt.

but for a time that it had this effect. No sooner had The principal hand in his in

the novelty of his situation worn off, than the demon a clock from the caliph Haroun Alraschid in the year strument is that of universal history. This turns on 809, but on the best investigations it is found that this a table, and indicates the piincipal epochs of history, rendered him more wretched than ever.

of ennui seized again upon the unhappy earl, and

In vain he was only a species of clepsydra, and not a clock with according to the chronology of the Old Testament, had recourse to all the usual expedients with which wheels and other mechanisin. According to the best and the great events of future times, according to the fashion and fully endeavour to relieve themselves of authenticated accounts, it appears that we are indebted calculations of Bengel, founded on the Apocalypse. the burden of time. He associated himself with de. to the monks of the middle ages for the invention of Its revolution embraces a period of nearly eight thou: bauchees, and in their society indulged himself in clocks or time-keepers. These men, who formed the sand years. Another hand on this table marks the only learned classes of their time, enjoyed consider. year of the century, and makes its circuit in one hun horse-racers, and finally took to gambling, at which,

every species of excess. He mingled with boxers and able seclusion, free from the necessity of providing for dred years. Still more remarkable is the representa immensely wealthy as he was, he soon lost stich suins, their support; and when not engaged in devotional | tion of the motions of the planets known at the time exercises, they often practiseth various arts now en.

as, together with the robberies of his stewards and of the inventor, and of the systems of Ptolemy and tirely committed to the hands of the artizan and Copernicus. They and their satellites perform their servants, whose duings he was too indoient to check, tradesman. At what precise period cocks were first revolutions in exactly the same time as they actually him, and compelled him to look out for such a matri. made by the monks, is not known; but it is ascer- do in the heavens; and these automata not only have monial alliance as shvuld relieve him from his difti. tained from old chronicles, that such instruments, the central motion, but their course is also eccentrical culties. In this he succeeded. He married a lady put in motion by wheels, were made use of in the and elliptic, like that of the heavenly orbs, and the of large fortune ; but as money had been the object of inonasteries in the twelfth century, and that they an- motion is sometimes slower, sometimes quicker, and

the one, and a title that of the other, neither added nounced the termination of every hour by strokes on even retrograde. This instrument must have been the

to their happiness by the connection, which was finally a bell. The hand for marking the time is likewise fruit of deep knowledge, indefatigable research, and

dissolved by the almost inevitable result of such ill. mentioned in these old records. In the thirteenth the calculations of years. It is much to be regret. assorted matches. Lady Glenthoru, shortly after their century, there is mention made of a clock, given by ted that the limited means of the artist prevented marriage, eloped with a Captain Crawley, a sort of sultan Saladin to the emperor Frederic II., and which his machine from being better finished, and that he fac-t tuin of the earl's one of those hangers-on who was put in motion by wheels. It not only marked was not acquainted with clock-making in its present the hours, but also the course of the sun, of the moon, advanced state, and with the excellent instruments

. This story has been condensed from one of Miss Edgeworth's the planets, in the zodiac. Some have concluded that which have been invented since his time.

best tales depicting fashionable life, entitled " Ennui.” Our obthe Saracens must have learned the art of clock-inak. The country where wütches are manufactured in

ject in giving it in this form and place is to point out the wretched ing from the recluses in Eastern monasteries ; but the greatest numbeis is French Switzerland, particue resuits of idioness, and the value of compulsory industry in inthey may have acquired their knowledge for the ex. ! larly at Gerlevd, La-Chaux-de Fonds, Lucle, &c., I proving the anind.

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