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boat, loaded until the gunwales were scarcely above out of water ; “but I believe, after all, it was a pre. I had I been alone ; but Catharine was with me, and had water. We had all been wearied out with constant mature fright. The words had hardly passed his lips any one offered to have taken her, I would have conlabour, and the complaint of excessive thirst became when the vessel seemed to quiver, and in an instant sented reluctantly, in spite of my poverty. In fitting general. On opening our only cask, it was discovered went down like lead. I have been told and have read

her out with clothing, and myself also, no matter how that in the hurry we had taken brandy instead of of cries and screams from the victims in such cases ;

simply, my guineas were consumed to a fraction. I water. What was to be done in this dilemma? The but we heard none. In fact, it was as quick as light thought, should it come to the worst, I could raise someEnglishman, Campbell, overheard as, for we were ning. The waters closed as easily over the sunken thing more from my watch. I hired a small room in one

of the back streets at a hundred dollars a year, including not more than fifty feet off, and, going below, soon bark as if they had never felt the presenee of such an breakfast and tea. As for dinner, though I regularly returned with a small keg, which he threw over to inconsiderable atom on their mighty surface. Not an

left the store apparently for it, a few biscuits and cheese, From this slender store a mouthful, and scarcely eddy was seen ; not a fragment Hoated.

or something of the kind, sufficed. It took the rest of more, was distributed to each person. As the sea had “ Cut the painter," cried the captain ; " quick, my salary to board, clothe, and educate my little ward at become more calm, and the ship swam well, instanta. quick, my lads.” The axe was mislaid. There was the neighbouring village of Brooklyn. As I had various neous danger was not feared ; yet every eye was fre. a moment's pause-a moment of horror; for the next small items of expense, the strictest economy could not quently fixed on the horizon, in hope of espying a sail. we would be drawn down by the sunken ship. have kept within my means, had it not been for my skill

The moment the long-boat had left the ship, the “ Knives !” shouted the captain ; “has no one a in copying music, which I had formerly practised much steward, black cook, and several hardened fellows, knife ?" Two or three sailors' knives were imme- for amusement. broke open the lockers, and got out the liquors, which diately unclasped, and in active operation. The rope

After a lapse of six months, my employer gave me they freely distributed. Madeira, Champagne, and tightened, the prow of the boat was depressed, while lodgings back of the store, perhaps as mueh to guard it rich Bordeaux cordials, laid in for the cabin passen. we all rose up in breathless expectation. The nervous

against thieves as from any other motive. I had served gers, were drunk in reckless profusion. A number arms of the sailors were plied to the utmost, and the

two years, when a couple of hundred dollars was volun. of men were soon intoxicated, and by their hallooing, cord, not more than a second before it would bave lighted in the hope of a little more spare time and re

arily added to my salary, and for a moment I felt deshouting, and singing, rendered the scene more awful. been too late, was severed.

creation. My next reflection determined me to persevere During the day I had been too much engaged in The breezé springing up, the sail of the long-boat in my course of life. At every succeeding visit I had pumping and working to think of other matters. As was hoisted, and we bore away. During this time, become more and more attached to Catharine, and she soon as I was in the boat, I remembered Catharine Catharine was slowly recovering. She had swallowed appeared devoted to me. She was always on the watch Campbell, and entreated the captain to take her aboard. but little water, as her submersion was momentary. on my visiting days, and would come running towards Thank your stars you are safe yourself. Do you When somewhat restored, she inquired, “Where is me with extended arms as far off as she could descry me. think the parents would be separated from their only father and mother ?” I could make no reply. She

I afterwards sent Catharine to Troy, on the Hudson, child ?-and besides, there is no place for another, were looked round on the water with an affrighted air. where there was a school of great reputation, and diit a cat." Several times the little thing had been to “ The ship is sunk!” exclaimed she. “Yes, my little rected that no expense should be spared in either the the vessel's side, and cried, stretching out her arms, girl," replied the captain, with an emotion even he useful or ornamental branches. She took the separation “ Do take me with you! do take me, and father, and

so much to heart, that had not all the arrangements been

could not suppress ; " and all that were in her are mother !” No one answered, and at last I turned my sunk also.” She threw herself on my neck, and cried yielded to her entreaties. She clung convulsively round

made and the money paid in advance, I would have head, to avoid seeing suffering that I could not relieve. bitterly. Seeing her wet and chilled, one of the As night approached, the captain ordered the sailors handed me his pea-jacket, in which I wrapped her. When, however, I explained things to her, she

my neck, begging me to let her remain, or to go with painter to be lengthened, and a man with an axe to her, and, exhausted in body and mind, she soon wept quietly submitted, though her pallid cheek and swelling stand at the bow, ready to cut away in case the ship herself to sleep in my lap. When, however, she awoke, bosom spoke more distinctly her deep feeling. should founder. The weather was pretty calm, and her lamentations for her poor father and mother"

After her departure, I used my utmost endeavours to wearied as I was, I could have slept anywhere, had were renewed.

ascertain something about her family. Soon after the it pot been for the cold, which was doubly felt in our

When things were a little in order, our only cask shipwreck, I had made some inquiries ; but I was in state of exhanstion. It was as much as we could do, of biscuits was opened for distribution, but they were truth a mere boy, unacquainted with business of such by pressing close together, to keep a little heat in our

found injured by salt water, excepting a few, which

a nature. I now wrote to my friends in Europe on the bodies. During the livelong night, shouting, danc

Water was also subject, and had advertisements inserted in a number of ing, singing, profane swearing, peals of drunken doled out, the captain himself pouring it into the cup the London and provincial papers ; but without gaining laughter, intermixed with quarrelling and fighting, were heard from the leaking vessel.

for each one separately, to prevent the exhausted any intelligence w batever
wretches from taking an undue share. Catharine's

I had now remained six years in the same establish. calm. The bosom of the vast circle of clear azure tensity which showed she was dying of thirst, though treated me more like a son than a stranger. My wages

A little after daybreak the wind died away to dead eyes followed the cup as it passed round, with an in- ment, with apparently inereasing satisfaction on both water was smooth as polished crystal, and gently rose, she uttered not a word. The captain, at my request, had also been increased at different times, till I was quite dying away in long undulations. The shades of night put in my portion and hers together. My throat was still mingled with the dawn in the west; but east. parched; but I barely bathed iny lips, and gave the

at my ease; especially as my parents continued to send

me every year a good supply of clothing, which cost ward, a bright pearly hue, intermingled with rosy light, cup to the pale and suffering child." She swallowed little in Europe, but was valuable here. Originally, my tinged the tleecy clouds, and was reflected on the broad the contents at a draught, and then for the first time intention was to return to my native country as soon as mirror below. 'At length the swell entirely subsided, looked in my face and smiled. Yet the next in. I had accumulated something ; but I had formed many and the sun rose in dazzling brilliancy from an un.

stant, burying her face against my breast, she wept acquaintances, and become so satisfied with my situation, broken ocean of molten gold. In the midst stood our again.

that I began to consider myself as settled for life. In a ship with her white sails hanging loosely against the How soon the human mind becomes apathetic Since the commencement of our misfortunes, every All our hopes were in soon falling in with a ship. short time, my employer imparted a share in the busi

ness to me, with which I felt perfectly satisfied. to one continued form of danger ! As the sea was still, eye had been frequently stretched round the horizon.

Catharine's education was now completed, and, at the and the vessel Poated well, hope revived within us and As the sun was declining, the breeze freshened, and

recommendation of the principal of the school, I removed our deserted companions. In looking at the young the water dashed so freely over the sides that we

her to the boarding-house of a lady of her acquaintance. and healthy faces around me, and the beautiful ap- were steadily employed in baling it out. Meanwhile, somewhat critical. Every evening I visited the house at

My situation with respect to my fair protegee was now pearance of nature, I in vain tried to realise the prox. one of the sailors, in stepping heedlessly over a bench, which she resided. I was extremely fond of music, and imity of death. We had become quite gay, chatting put his foot on our compass and crushed it to pieces. she both played on the piano and sung with uncommon and joking freely on every passing circumstance. The 'Without a guide on the trackless ocean, our situation sweetness and execution. As there were two other captain alone partook not of our hilarity. In the

was in truth hopeless. Our provisions were nearly agreeable young ladies in the house, a number of genfirst moment of danger, he had exhibited a composure exhausted, and should our boat ride out the night, tlemen were often there. With her beauty and talents, which continued still unchanged. When I intimated

starvation stared us in the face. The breeze became Catharine was quite a belle. I felt uneasy when I saw to him that the vessel might not sink for some days, a strong gale, lightning flashed in the livid clouds, others near her, or praising her singing and playing. In be merely compressed his lips and shook his head with and muttering thunders were heard nearer and nearer.

spite of me, I could not pay her a single compliment, a most melancholy expression. Before sunset, the skies were so enveloped in gloom

even when I felt all that others said ; yet her eyes al. The scene on shipboard disclosed by morning was

that a premature twilight had come on.

As the wa

ways sparkled as I entered the room, or if I asked her but a repetition of the preceding evening. The ma. ter dashed more frequently and abundantly over the those I recommended. Whenever a walk was proposed

to sing. She practised the pieces I liked, and bought jority of the passengers, still under the influence of gunwale, the captain at last exclaimed, “My friends, liquor, continued their boisterous mirth, while a few it is all over.

in the evening, she took my arm. At first, I found the

In less than an hour we will be with others, overwhelmed with the prospect, walked the those whom we have just seen swallowed up."

young men that visited Catharine pleasant ; but after. deck slowly and silently, or were seated immoveable

ward, just in proportion as they were talkative or witty,

The storm soon broke in all its fury, and darkness ren. pictures of despair. The Campbells, as during the dered our situation as dismal as it could possibly be. repress.

I felt a growing dislike for them, which I in vain tried io whole voyage, were entirely alone. The husband was When all hope was gone, and we expected every mo. One evening, being unoccupied, I went to see Cathasitting to the wind ward, near the companion-way, ment to go down, our straining eyes caught sigut of a rine immediately after dinner. The servant informed ine, with one arm around his wife, and both exhibited an vessel lying to.

What a relief was this! We hailed the as I entered, that the family was out, but would soon reair of firm and dignitied composure. Their daughter ship, and were speedily rescued from our dreadful situ. turn. I had often wished to be alone with her; yet my moved about from place to place, the sea being so

heart throbbed so violently, and my tongue stuck so to calm that the parents permitted her to go at large. In fifteen days we arrived in New York. On entering the roof my mouth, that I could scarcely utter a word.

The captain ordered the boat to be drawn near the the beautiful bay, I felt the full extent of my situation- She looked confused also. vessel for a moment, in order to give some directions, without money, friends, or acqnaintances. But I hap- “ Brother," said she, after a momentary pause, “I and the little girl immediately ran alongside, extend

pened to look at Catharine, and reflected that she was am happy to speak with you a moment alone. I expect

6 Won't ing her arms as before, and crying to me,

even more desolate, and a female too! * Poor little to leave here soon." you take us too ? Do, Mr Ferguson-good Mr Fer. creature," said I, involuntarily expressing my feelings “ Leave here soon, Catharine !" I exclaiined, starting.

“ For mercy's sake, where are you going?”. guson. Won't you take your own little Catharine " aloud, “whatever happens, I will not desert you." "I My heart sank within me at the thrilling tones of the

know you will not,” replied she, raising her arms to em- “I have been too long a pensioner on your bounty,

brace me, “No, never,” I exclaimed, with energy. and—” child. “I cannot take you, Catharine," I replied. I was rich in resolutions and wishes, but my whole “ Never mention it again, Catharine, if you would not "Would to God I could, my dear.” She climbed worldly store consisted of about twenty guineas and my wound my feelings. You have been my greatest—my partly up the bulwark, still entreating, “ Pray take watch. My only clothing was the suit on my back, which only happiness." us too, good Mr Ferguson." While thus on the very was not very new before, and had become thoroughly Her eyes filled with tears; but she assumed some verge, ihe vessel made a heavy lurch, and the little discoloured by abundant drenchings of sea-water. firmness, as if her miod had been made up before. one was evidently losing her balance.

“ Take care,”

my hope was on my friend the captain, and that hope “I feel, my dear brother, the whole extent of your shonted every one from the boat and ship, but the was not misplaced. Before landing, he promised to do kindness; but I would be unworthy of myself and your caution came too late. She pitoned headlong into

his best for me. As soon as he was ashore, he took me generosity, were I to remain a dead weight on your the sea. I plunged into the water before she had

with him to the City Hotel. A number of friends called hands, when your liberality has placed me in a condition well touched it, and a few rapid strukes brought me

in the evening to congratulate him on his wonderful es- to support myself. A teacher of music and drawing is up to her. Seizing her by her flowing hair, just as

cape, and he ordered in a quantity of Champagne. In wanted in a female school not far from the city, and with she was sinking, I vore her to the boat. A general apoplectic fit. He was a short corpulent man, and the of getting the situation. For the last two years I have

the recommendations I can obtain from Troy, I am sure the midst of the hilarity, he fell down and expired in an bazza greeted my success.

Alarmed at the lurch, the captain then dropped off to the full length of the

exertions he had undergone, and his anxiety of mias, laboured indefatigably to fit myself for such a place, and painter, and I could only see the agonised actions of no doubt hurried the catastrophe,

I hope my success has not been.contemptible."

My only anxieiy was now to get employment, hoping I would have interrupted ber, but she spoke with a the parents, and their arms stretched towards where that as my diligence and qualifications were known, i resoluteness which deterred me. Approaching her, I their lifeless daughter was borne.

could at least make a support. Eventually I found a took her hand, “My dear Catharine, I had hoped wo I thought she was going down," said the captain, place at three hundred dollars a-year, in a store of fancy should never more be separated.” She looked down, as louksing at the ship. Wai siuud almost as high as ever soovis in Maidon Lane. This might have been enougil if overcome with emotion.



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“ You will not now leave me,” I continued. “ It seems been immediately found in New York, where he had the symptoms which come on are so serious, the ra. as if fate had united our destinies, and my mind has so been taken with the rheumatism on his first landing, and pidity of their progress so great and so fatal, that very dwelt on you alone, that the world would be to me a from whence he had never travelled ; and that he had little can be done. Besides the means we have recom. blank without you.'

willingly agreed to return to his native land for a small mended, powerful stimulants are to be given internally, Catharine turned partly from me, but withdrew not gratuity.

and the best perhaps is hartshorn. In the East Indies, her hand, which tremblingly returned the pressure from When I asked the old man if he knew William Camp- the natives administer a remedy which has been called mine. bell, he burst into tears. “ Did I know him!” he ex

the Tanjore pile, the chief ingredient of which has “ It is useless to tell you I love you. Will you be claimed. “ What do you know about him?" mine, Catharine ?"

1 entreated him to speak freely, as my question sprang any but a medical man would be justified in resort

been discovered to be arseniç; but such means scarcely "No," sobbed she, painfully; " I cannot ; I will not.” from no idle or impertinent curiosity,

My heart was now too full, and it burst forth in spite of “ Yes," said the old man, “ I saw him on board when ing to. me.' “ Catharine, I am afraid that you look upon Mr he left his country, and received from him what I have

It is somewbat singular that the poison of serpents Selwyn with more favour than you do upon me. But I carried with me ever since. He pressed me to accept should be perfectly inert when taken into the stomach, love you too deeply to see you the wife of another; and his watch, but I would have died sooner than have robbed a fact, however, which appears to have been known therefore I must leave you, I must place distance be- him of all he had left.” Here Cradock drew from his from the earliest ages, when such wounds were sucked tween us." Catharine started. “ And do you really pocket a small Morocco box, and took from it a minia- with impunity; and we learn that, when Cato marched love me?" she said. “ Is it not mere pity-charity for iure in an ebony frame. Notwithstanding the length of the remains of Pompey's army through Africa, he an orphan?' “ Would to God it were!”“ Then, in time, I immediately recognised the features of Catha- wisely informed the soldiers that they might drink of deed, I am happy," she exclaimed, and threw herself rine's father.

the waters that contained serpents without injury to weeping on my neck.

“ And was Campbell his real name ?" I inquired.

themselves. The revulsion of my feelings was so sudden, for a mo.

Thus, the bite of a single viper will No matter what it was," firmly answered the mendi. ment I was without the power of moving or uttering a

very speedily deprive a pigeon of life, and a single

“ The sea rolls over every thing connected with word. We soon came to an explanation. Catharine told hin, and the secret I promised to keep shall be as still bite by no means exhausts the whole poison of the me, that even at school her fancy had dwelt on me alone, as his rest."

gland; but a piece of bread moistened with the whole and that as she advanced in age, and saw more of the Just then Catharine entered the room, but seeing us

of the poison of ten vipers, and given to a pigeon, sill world, she distrusted her feelings, fearing her childish apparently occupied, instantly withdrew. “For mercy's produce no effect. To be effectual, therefore, it is fondness might strengthen into a deeper affection; and sake!” exclaimed the old man. “ who is that young lady?” necessary that the poison of serpents should be apthat this at times had rendered her melancholy; and that “She is my wife, and the daughter of William Campbell." | plied to a recent wound. It may be applied to the once, during her stay at school, having heard it reported “ How! was he not then lost at sea ? I thought the surface of the body without any harm aceruing. I was to be married, it had thrown her into fainting fits, whole were wrecked ?" “No; the father and mother The bite of many foreign snakes is attended with which her teachers could not understand. She said, perished, but I saved the daughter you have just seen." peculiarly dreadful consequences. The author of the since her residence in New York, though she often * Then one of the name of Malone still exists?" “ Wilo | Excursions in New South Wales, speaking of the reAattered herself with having made an impression on me, liam Campbell and

William Malone were then the same?' sult of a bite from the death or deaf adder, gays, "im. fears obtruded themselves on her mind, that I, who had “ They were. Bowed down by poverty, he hoped to mediately decomposition commenced, and, in a very already done so much for her, might, out of pure kind- better his fortune abroad, and, perhaps out of false ness, carry my sense of duty farther; and it was for this pride, changed his name, that his degradation, should he

short space of time, the body was in such a state that reason, that even while her heart bounded with delight continue unfortunate, might not reach his acquaintances, it was with difficulty removed to where the grave had at my first avowal, that she, in spite of herself, had re

who had been and particularly his hard-hearted father-in-law. I fol- been dug. My informant,” he says, jected me. lowed him to Greenock, and would have crossed the wa

twenty-two years in the colony, emphatically added, Having no one to consult, and few preparations to ter with him had he not positively refused. No one but

that when a person is bitten by a death adder, he nake, our wedding took place in a short time. Though his father and mother knew his destination, nor did they has scarcely time to exclaim, Lord have mercy not wealthy, I was in a condition to keep house with even know the name he assumed."

upon me!' before he becomes a lifeless corpse. It is perfect comfort.

My chain of evidence was now perfectly clear, as it affirmed that, in Africa,” continues this author, Three years had rolled away, when, looking over an was not difficult to prove by my fellow-passengers, some “there are several, the bite of which causes a most hor. English newspaper, I noticed an inquiry for William of whom lived in New York, that Catharine was the rible death. The person bitten feels drowsy, and the Malone, bis wife, and daughter, who were supposed to daughter of Campbell, and the manner of his death. In- form melts at once into a mass of putrefaction. The have sailed for New South Wales or the United States deed, so conclusive was the proof, that my wife's pro- burning snake of India can cause instant death, the nine years before. I could remember no such person, perty, which is considerable, was given up without a con- blood flowing from the eyes, nose, mouth, and ears, and yet the name seemed familiar to me. At last it struck test." I shall renounce business as speedily as I can well exuding from the pores. An American serpent, called me that I had seen it in one of two volumes given to me wind up my affairs ; but I shall return to America, and de la crux, is said to kill in the same manner; finally, by Catharine's father, which were in my pocket at the take up my residence there for life.

the bite of the najer is represented to be so fatal, that time of the shipwreck. I hunted up the book, and sure

a person bitten by one will die in the course of halt enough I found “ William Malone" written on the mar

UPON POISONS AND POISONING. an hour.” But these are foreign to our present par. gin of one of the pages, partly erased. I then examined

pose, and we shall proceed to the bite of rabid or inad the other book presented me by Campbell, which I had The animal poisons, which first come under our no. indeed never opened before, and discovered " Catharine tice, include the sting and bite of certain animals, and animals ; at the head of which stands the dog. Dormer” clearly enough, though attempts had been others when taken internally as food. And, first, of ter, is applied to that dreadful, and as far as our pre

The term hydrophobia, which means a fear of wamade to efface it. While holding the volumes in my the bite of serpents-a very large class of reptiles, of sent knowledge extends, invariably fatal disease, arishand, three silhouettes fell out, on which were inscribed in pencil, “ William Malone, Catharine Malone, and which, however, Plenck assures us that only twenty- ing from the bite of rabid animals, and produced in Catharine Dormer Malone." The last was of a little four species are venomous. Of these, Europe has only the human frame by the introduction of a poison pe. girl. 1 informed Catharine of my discovery, and told five, and Britain, happily, but one-the common viper culiar to animals affected with canine madness. This her I hoped it would enable me to trace out her family: or adder. There is a marked difference between the poison is introduced with the saliva ; that is, the saShe immediately showed me a small gold locket she had

teeth of the innocuous and poisonous snakes : in the liva of animals labouring under the disease acquires posed might mean the name on the small silhouette. always worn, bearing the letters C.D.M., which we supo former there are four rows, two towards the palate / the dreadful property of communicating it to man or As the investigation might be a long and troublesome and two towards the front of the jaw; while in the will not in this place inquire if any other Auid than

other'animals when infused into their system. We one, I resolved to go to Europe, especially as our mer- poisonous kinds there are only two of these parallel the saliva can communicate the disease ; we believe cantile affairs rendered it desirable. "On arriving in Eng- rows-namely, the palatine teeth—and, instead of the there is none, nor do we think that the perspiration land, Catharine and I went to Exeter, where the advero others, there are simply two large fangs projecting or breath of an infected animal can communicate it, tisement was dated. I there ascertained that a young man, of great respectability but no fortune, named Wilo towards the edge of the mouth, and these are the and still less do we think it ever arises spontaneously; liam Malone, had made a runaway match with the only poisonous fangs. The venom of these animals is con

but these discussions do not accord with our present daughter of a Mr Dormer, a wealthy landholder ; that stained in a bag situated on both sides of the head, purpose. The dog, wolf, fox, cat, with the horse, ass, after expending what little he had, and failing in his at which, when the animal intends to bite, it presses, by mule, cow, sheep, pig, and perhaps the goat, are lia. tempts at farming, the husband had left Exeter with his means of a muscular arrangement for the purpose, the disease can only be communicated by the dog, woli

, wife and a young daughter; but no one knew where he had gone. The father and mother of Malone had both and the poison flows from it along a duct to the base fox, and cat. The wolf suffers much from the dis. died soon after the departure of their only child, and re- of the tooth, which is moveable, very sharp, and hol.

ease ; and the late Duke of Richmond lost his life in cently Dormer was also deceased ; leaving, in the hour lowed throughout its length; throug this canal the consequence of hydrophobia contracted from the bite of final repentance, the whole of his fortune to his daughter and her issue. The executors of Malone, the poison progresses, and issues into the wound by the of a fox in Canada. When a dog labours under the father, readily permitted me to examine his papers. opening which is near its end, for the point of the complaint, his manner becomes much altered; he is Among them I discovered a letter, in which William Ma tooth itself 18 hard and solid. If these fangs be re. peevish and sullen ; be scarcely will notice those to lone informed his parents

that he would sail the next day moved, or their structure destroyed, the animal is whom he has been accustomed; he will get away from from Greenock for New York-the day exactly on which rendered harmless ; and thus mountebanks are wont,

home and wander about. He will not go out of his I had

way to attack individuals or brute animals, but he is All this satisted me pretty well of the parentage or whenever they suffer vipers to bite them before spec. very apt to bite those who come across him. He picks Catharine. Many persons also were struck with her tators, to stop with cement the perforations of the up and swallows small objects ; straw, bits of grass. strong resemblance to William Malone ; but legal proof teeth, or destroy the glands in which the poison is and dirty substances of any kind. When he is tied was wanting, and nothing else would answer, as ihere secreted. The only venomous serpent in Britain, as up, and towards the latter period of the complaint, he were distant relatives well disposed to contend to the we have already mentioned, is the viper, and the will gnaw and bite the objects around him; be will utmost for the property: When I had almost despaired of success, I was told general to endanger the life of man.

power of that reptile is so slight and feeble, as not in grow angry, and become very wild in his appearance; that John Cradock, a faithful old servant, had accom

Small animals his jaws are continually covered with tough saliva ; panied William Malone's family when they left Exeter, may be killed by a viper, but its bite does not usually and at last he dies in all the horrors of confirmed madbut had never returned. I immediately went to Gree: kill a dog ; according to the experiments of Forster, ness. The disease is usually communicated to the nock, to try and trace him out. There I ascertained

it requires three or four viper bites to kill a dog. human subject by a bite; in fact, the saliva of a rabid that a John Cradock had been a servant in one of the circumstances, however, such as great debility of animal must be brought into contact with a recent principal inns, but that he had sailed some years ago for body, disturbance and irregularity of the digestive wound, or with an ulcer or abraded surface; and it America; and that as he was an old man in infirm health, apparatus, or unusual heat of the season, have some. is not absolutely necessary that this should be done was probably dead. My informant stated, he had indeed times led to fatal results in the human subject. through the medium of a bite. Not long ago, a lady heard a rumour that Cradock was liviog in New York in In the treatment of injuries of this kind, the prin. of rank had a French poodle, of which she was very great indigence. I now employed an eminent counsellor, cipal object is to prevent the passage of the poison fond, and allowed to lick her face. She had a small who told me that he had strong hopes of establishing my from the wounded part into the body; and hence it pimple on her chin, of which she had rubbed off the wife's parentage ; but at the same time told me candidly is of advantage to apply a tight ligature above the top; and allowing the dog to indulge in its usual ca. that my proof was not so conclusive that a jury would bite; that is, between it and the heart. This of resses, it licked this pimple, of which the surface was give a verdict in my favour. He advised me, before

course is only advisable to be done immediately after exposed, and thus she acquired the disease of hydrobringing an action, to discover John Cradock, if pos- the accident; for if swelling bas taken place, it is phobia, of which she died. Wounds are not equally sible, as he was probably the only one that could prove likely to do more harm than good. The part is to be effective in conveying the poison, particularly if a per. that Campbell was an assumed name. This I immedi. ately did.

most carefully washed, so as to remove all venomous son is bitten on a part covered with clothes ; in which Upwards of two months had elapsed since I had written matter, and then the surface of the wound may be case the teeth of the animal are in a manner wiped or to America, when one morning a well-known old New pared out with a sharp penknife ; at any rate, it cleaned by passing through the cloth. An interval of York beggar entered my room. I inquired what wonder

should be well scaritied and laid open, to afford the time elapses between the infliction of the wound and bad brought him to Europe. “I have," said he, “ a opportunity of more complete ablution. These means the appearance of any symptoms ; generally speaking, letter from your partner which will explain every thing." will generally stiflice when the bite has been inflicted the disease shows itself between the thirtieth and for The letter stated that the bearer, Julia Cradock, had l by the British viper ; but with regard to other species. I cieth day. The only symptom to which we shall al.

Jude, is an extraordinary aversion

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or dread of drink caused their death. Linnæus gays that six berries town of Peebles, and undertook only occasional la. which seizes the unfortunate patient; this, when ad. will kill a wolf, and he once saw a girl die from eating bour. While here, he committed a burglary under ded to the excessive degree of salivation with which twelve of them.

very remarkable circumstances. The store-cellars of it is accompanied, leave no doubt as to the cause. The subject of Vegetable Poisons will be concluder, a respectable grocer were situated in a close behind With regard to the treatment of hydrophobia, we along with a notice of joisons of a mineral nature, in his shop, and were accessible both in that quarter and

from an alley on the other side, the latter being a a subsequent article. know of none; but much may be done in the way of

thoroughfare. One very stormy night, Scottie proprevention ; and the means we are about to recommend

ceeded to the place with a horse and cart, which he sbould be put in practice after every, or any bite, no


stationed in Eddlestone Water, near the bottom of the matter how slight, that is received from a dog or other animal. They are simple in themselves, and will ge.

It has been already shown, in the article entitled the ailey. He then made a detour, and, coming down the nerally prevent much fear and anxiety, if not on the Sheepstealing Dog, that crimes of great magnitude alley, gave the storehouse door one heavy blow with

a forehammer, the noise of which mighi readily be part of the patient, among his friends and connections. seldom occur amongst the rustic people of PeeblesVery hot water should be poured from a teakettle into shire, and that, when they do occur, they invariably supposed by the neighbours to be occasioned in some the wound, the vessel being held four or five feet

create a great sensation, and are long remembered. same detour, he came once more down the alley, and above it ; if a common syringe, or squirt, is at hand,

gave one more heavy knock with his hammer. Again About twenty years ago, an individual of the gene. the water should be injected into the wound; and

and again he did this, till the lock gave way, and ad. this ablution should be carried on for three or four rally decent and respectable class of farm-servants athours. Burning the part with caustic is not a safe tracted the notice of the community in this sequestered tity of soap, sugar, spirits, and other matters, with

mission was gained. He then carried off a great quan. method, as we cannot be certain of applying it to the region, by a series of daring and dexterous robberies, which he loaded his cart. When satisfied, so far as it whole wound; and some of the saliva may perhaps

was possible for such a person to be so, he drove the as well as by the ingenuity with which for a time he

Indeed, the only escape being touched with it.

vehicle up the water for a little way, and landed at a plan entirely to be depended upon, is cutting ont the contrived to baffle the search of justice. Scottie-such bitten part; taking care that all the flesh with which was the familiar name of this person, and it would be place where carts were in the practice of crossing; the animal's teeth came in contact be removed. If a pity to mar its impish effect by mentioning the real thus taking care that there should be no trace of wheels

in the neighbourhood of the alley, or from that place one-was a native of Hawick, but for many years had this be effectually done, there can be no fear of hydro

to his own house, where he proceeded to deposit his been settled in the neighbourhood of Peebles. He was ill-gotten stures. phobia; and if a medical man or qualified person can. not be procured within an hour or two, during which

a little thick set fellow, of great personal strength, and Some years after the robbery at the Whitehaugh, time the mode of washing we have recommended is to

an excellent servant in every point over and above the same honest travelling.merchant was despoiled, be persevered in, any body with a sharp penknife might honesty. For instance, he could sow with both hands, under

exactly similar circumstances, at the farm-house may be saved from a death most terrible to the india and thus finish a whole “rig” at one walk. It is also of Lochurd, in the western part of the county. Scottie vidnal, and most appalling to those interested in his related of him, with something like the same wonder had tracked Mr Tait and his caravan or cart from wellbeing.

which usually garnishes a tale of Wallace, that, being Skirling fair, and, after possessing himself of a new the common wasp, and the small wasp each of which horse, he was found next morning, to his master's posited in Golanberry Wood, on the property of Sir

We havethree species of wasp in Britain—the hornet, interrupted one day in ploughing by the sickness of a supply of goods, hid a large portion of thein under the possesses the property of producing by its sting vio- great surprise, between the stilts as usual, the place of | Thomas Gibson Carmichael. It happened, however, jent and painful inflammation; there are also seven the horse being supplied by the bull, which, by an al. that, some time before this event, Tait had seen bim species of the genus apis; the most remarkable of most incredible exertion of strength and ingenuity, he mowing in a field on the farm of Bonnington, and had which are the small field-bee, the common hive-bee, had compelled to pass beneath the yoke. Though a his suspicion excited by observing, in the back of the humble-bee, and the great bumble-bee. The sin married man with a family, he was very“ regardless” Scottie's waistcoat, which the coat usually covered, * gle sting of any of these cannot be regarded as at. tended with danger; and the same means of relief as in speech, which was considered as almost his only piece of flannel which he knew to have been part of recommended for the bites of ripers, may here also be fault, till greater ones were discovered. It was after, haugh. He therefore conceived himself justified in employed. The supposed power of the toad to spit wards ascertained, that from his earliest years he had apprehending Scottie upon a justice's warrant. With ont a poisonous fluid, has, by many experiments, been been addicted to pilfering, insomuch that he could not all his dexterity, Scottie was weak in geveral chaso satisfactorily refuted, that we need not enter upon pass any house whatever without devising ways and racter, little acquainted with the ways of the world, the subject ; this poor animal, though vilified and means for robbing it. He experienced, indeed, a kind and withal of that cimid spirit which prompts a crouch. traduced, is perfectly innocuous.

of torment from the restless activity of his predatory ing under danger as the best means of avoiding it. With regard to poisonous fishes, and especially of disposition, which haunted him with schemes innu.

He therefore made a full confession, and offered im. the more common one, the mussel, we are inclined to merable, at times when his prudence knew there were

mediately to give up the whole of the goods lately think that much depends upon the unhealthy condi.

stolen, evidently supposing that he would thus make no proper means of satisfying it. Under an impres. his peace with justice. He even became jocuse with tion of the animal, and the peculiar habit of body of the individual eating it. Every body is aware that sion that the proceedings of such a singular being in

Mr Tait, whom he had known fainiliarly in former one person may harmlessly

eat of a fish which dis the midst of a scene of rural simplicity and honesty, years, and remarked with great coolness, “ Lush, agrees with another; and also, that substances the may supply details for the gratification of a philoso. Geordie, ye never hae ony siller i' your pack.” Tait least putrescent, as long-kept game &c. are highly in- phical curiosity, without doing any harm, we have accompanied him to the stack yard of Lochurd, where jurious. But much obscurity attends this department taken some pains to make ourselves acquainted with several webs were found, and afterwards to Golanof our subject; we know, however, that the softest them, and shall now lay them before our readers.

berry Wood, on entering which he told the party that kinds of fish become soonest putrid, and hence we see

“the yolk o' the matter," that is, the better part of

The first "place" we are aware of his having occu. the policy of the Hebrew legislator... " whatsoever pied in Tweeddale, was that of ploughman at the ing himself satisfied as to the completeness of the sur.

the spoil, lay here. On the injured merchant expressbath no fins nor scales in the waters, that shall be an abomination unto you."

Whitehaugh (a farm belonging to Sir John Hay, render, Scottie turned to him briskly, and, in a friendly If a case of poisoning from eating

fish should pre married farm-servants, be dwelt in a small cottage honest man ?" _an expression which has ever since

about a mile from Peebles), where, as is usual with and candid tone, said, “Now, Geordie, am I no an sent itself, we cannot do better than administer an emetic, and the best is a teaspoonful of mustard in a near his master's house. So slight were the depreda- been proverbial in that part of the country. To his tumbler of warm water; and this should be followed tions he committed in this place, that they were only own great disappointment, he was manacled and by a smart purgative dose.

with difficulty recollected afterwards, when his cha brought down to the jail of Peebles. We now come to a consideration of those poisons racter had become matter of public fame. He was

It was on a wintry day at the end of the year 1809, which belong to the vegetable kingdom. In this de- very active, however, among the neighbouring farms, place of confinement. He was in the act of dressing

that Scottie made his 'celebrated escape from this partment of our subject, we may begin with the poison and hardly a milk-house within four or five miles himself, and had not yet put on his coat, when the ous vegetable substances which are found growing escaped being broken into, and cheese carried off. He wild among our hedges, our plains, our woods, and likewise was a thorough adept in cow-milking. It of porridge presented him what he thought a good

entrance of the jailor's wife with his morning's mess hills, and which may become the agents of much uneasiness, or even death, to the unsuspecting and

was his common practice to steal out at the dead of opportunity of breaking his bonds. He accordingly Jand, but rare in Scotland, and of a highly poison. loosely secured byres, there contrived to ease every could, crying to the few loungers who stood in his And, first, of a very common plant in Eng. night with a pail, and, gaining an entrance to the thrust the woman aside, rushed down stairs, and

scampered along the neighbouring bridge as fast as he ous nature the wild vine or bryony (Bryonia diæcia); cow in the stalls of a small portion of its milk. He was the flowers of which are greenish, with small red ber. cunning enough to take only a little from every cow, cleared the town in a minute, and, chancing to find

way, to let him run, as it was for life! He thus ries, and a spindle-shaped root, like a radish or carrot, so that a suspicion of the cows being milked never once which has a very fetid smell : it was formerly employed entered the mind of the farmers and their wives and der the charge of a boy, he leaped on its back, and

a horse at water at the farther end of the bridge, un. in medicine, but is now banished from the pharmacopæia. A small quantity of it is poisonous, produc.

servants. From these beginnings in crime, great deeds galloped off in the direction of Manor, hardly any ing violent inflammation of the bowels. Of the several

in time followed.

one attempting to follow him. The horse was found species of ranunculus, common every where, the same Some time after Scottie had left the Whitehaugh at no great distance, having apparently been aban. may be said; and many unpleasant accidents have been for the Park, a farm at no great distance, a travelling doned on account of the snow, which lay loo deeply occasioned by them. So powerful is the action of these haberdasher, who carried his goods in a caravan, came

on the ground to allow of its passing freely. But plants, that, when bruised and applied to the skin, to the former furm-house, and, according to his wont, furrow he left in the snow, tinged, it was said, here

Scottie himself could only be traced farther by the they cause small ulcers to arise ; and thus beggars took up his lodgings there for the night. The car. often employ them as a means of exciting commisera.

and there with blood. It was alleged that he inades tion. So common is this practice, that, on the Conti: riage containing his goods, which was placed at the double far up Manor Water, in order to mislead pura nens, the ranunculuses or buttercups have obtained the end of the house, was found next morning, to the great suit; but this cannot be stated with certainty. It is name of herbe aux gueux, or beggar's plants. They alarm of the household, to have been robbed of clothes known, however, that he spent the first night at the carry with them, however, a punishment for those and trinkets to a very large amount. Scottie, it af. lonely, sheiling of Glensax in Newby Hope. The who use them, as the sores they create are both pain. terwards appeared, had executed this robbery with his and there was now far more pity for the misery which ful and difficult to heal. The anemone is another customary ingenuity. He had come about midnight, he must be enduring from the inclemency of the sea. poisonous plant; and the Caltha palustris, the marsh when he knew every one would be asleep, and seeing son, than there had been commiseration for his fate marigold, or Mayflower, is a powerful acrid. The sta. there would be danger in touching the caravan so near vesecre (Delphinium staphysagria) and the clematis the bedroom windows of his former master, he had nighi, between twelve and one o'clock, the goodman

as a prisoner in danger of the law. On the second _“ The favoured flower, Whieh boasts the name of virgin's bower"rolled it away to a considerable distance, having first, and good wife of the Whitehaugh heard a tapping at

their bedroom window, and, on inquiring who was

however, twisted a number of short straw ropes, must also be avoided, as well as all the daffodil tribe. which he bound round the wheels to prevent them there, heard a dolorous voice saying, Fi's me it's all must have admired in March, when, as Cowper and abstracted as many of the most valuable articles, and, under the impulse of benevolence, was about to

from making a noise. He then broke open the cart, puir Scottie-„oh let me in—I'm deein' o' cauld and sings, it is,

hunger !” The worthy farmer immediately got up, “ Though leafless, well attired, and thick beset including some silver watches, as he could conveniently admit the unhappy wretch, when his wife, who saw

With blushing i reaths, investing every spray." carry away. Every attempt to discover the perpetrator danger to good fame in such a proceeding, interposed, The singular beauty of the berries of this plant has or mode of this robbery proved for a long time vain. and prevailed upon him to limit his kindness to a teinoften tempted children to eat of them, and sometimes Scottie now settled himself with his family in the porary succour. On going to the window and louking

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out, they saw the poor creature still in the half dress listy compositors are constantly at work, some of whom agents, too, almost all advertisements are transmitted in which he had made his escape, and were told, in have already set up the beginning, whilst others are for the paper, upon which they receive a commission. the voice of misery itself, that his shoes were in tatters, committing to type the yet undried manuscript of the We will not attempt to give a calculation of the in. and his stockings were masses of ice. Directing him continuation of a speech, whose middle portion is tra- dividual circulation of the various London journals, to wait in the shed till they should come to him, they velling to the office in the pocket of the hasty reporter, or even of their total amount, as such statement is hastily gathered a few articles which they thought and whose eloquent conclusion is perhaps at that very liable to be very erroneous. We cannot err far, how. would be of service in his present distressed condition, moment making the walls of St Stephen's vibrate with ever, in giving the following statement from the Times, and to these they forth with made him welcome, but the applause of its hearers. These congregated types, respecting its own cireulation and that of several of upon

the express condition that he should not remain as fast as they are composed, are passed in portions to its contemporaries, in 1829, by which some idea may where he was. The lady advised him to give himself other hands, till at last the scattered fragments of be gleaned respecting the magnitude and importance np, as he was almost sure to be taken, and by his the debate, forming, when united with the ordinary of ihe London press, even in a financial point of present course was only encountering much unneces. matter, eight and forty columns, re-appear in regular view. It says-_-" We have been requested by the sary pain. But this he could not think of doing. order on the platform of the printing-press. The hand gentleman interested to publish the following state. “Oh, no, mistress," said he ; “they'll hang me." of man is now too slow for the demands of his curi.

Scottie, nevertheless, concealed himself for a long osity, but the power of steam comes to his assistance. Upwards of L.53,000 is annually contributed to time at the Whitehaugh, though without the know- ! Iuk is rapidly supplied to the moving types by the the revenue by one individual. Mr Clement, proprie. ledge of its truly respectable tenants. Being perfectly most perfect mechanism; four attendants incessantly tor of the Morning Chronicle, who possesses the largest acquainted with the place, he had stolen back some introduce the edges of large sheets of white paper to newspaper establishment in London, paid last year, time after, and formed a kind of nest for himself the junction of two great rollers, which seem to devour between January 1st and December 31st, 1828, for within a long peas-stack, which, being erected with them with unsated appetite ; other rollers convey them stamp and excise duties for that journal and his three a very roomy hollow for air, was peculiarly well to the type already inked, and having brought them weekly papers, no less than L.53,500. The number adapted to the purpose. When, in the course of sum. into rapid and successive contact, redeliver them to of fourpenny stamps (which is the red mark at the mer, the stack was cut down, Scottie was found to four other assistants, completely printed by the almost corner of every paper) was 2,735,865 ; Mr Clement's have dug upwards and sideways, and thus made a momentary touch. Thus, in one hour, 4000 sheets of consumption being more than one-tenth part of the kind of bed, in which were a plaid, a nightcap, and paper are printed on one side ; and an impression of stamps used by all the newspapers printed in England, a large “rung" for defence. “A most characteristic 12,000 copies, from above 300,000 moveable pieces of of which there are printed in London 49, and in the circumstance was the finding of a lot of undressed metal, is produced for the public in six hours !"*

country 151, together with daily and weekly journals quills, which the wretch had evidently plucked from It should be mentioned that at present there are 200, consuming, according to the Parliamentary re. the geese through the mere spirit of appropriation, as two printing-machines of the largest size in the Times turn, about 25,000,000 of fourpenny stamps. The he could not possibly have any use for thein. It was ofice; one being devoted to the printing of the first quantity of paper used was 5471 reams ; each ream generally believed, that, while here, he often visited side of the paper, and the other being devoted to the weighed 40 lbs.; the excise on which was 10s. the his family by night, at their house in Peebles. printing of the second. This causes an immense ac

His subsequent career may be briefly related. After celeration in the process of taking the impressions. The number of advertisements inserted in Mr Cle. serving for sone time as a labourer in Dumfriesshire, One of the most remarkable characteristics of mo. ment's papers in the year was 29,633 ; the duty upon where he disguised himself by fixing on a new crop of dern newspapers, as compared with the older ones, is the each advertisement being 3s. 6d.' Thus the sums paid hair with pitch, he was seized in the act of breaking a

formidable extension of their size. The restriction upon to the revenue by Mr Clement's news paper concern house at Notfat, which he supposed to be unoccupied. the size of newspapers was abolished some years ago, and in the past year of 1823, wereBeing then brought to trial at Jedburgh for his tirst the opportunity was eagerly seized by the more enter

2,735,868 news stamps

L.45,597 15 0 robbery, he obtained a restriction of the libel by confes prising proprietors of the daily journals to enlarge their Dury on 29,038 advertisements, at 3s. 6d. 5,185 15 6 sion, and was condemned to transportation for life. It sheets, without at the same time charging any thing | Exciae on 5471 reams of paper, at 103. 2,735 10 0 is to be hoped, that, in the country to which he was additional for the increased quantity of reading. Of conveyed, he has applied his ingenuity to purposes the enormous mass of matter now contained in some

Total L.53,519 0 6 better calculated for his own advantage, and that of of these journals, the following description of the

We had never intended again to obtrude what his fellow.creatures, tlian any he seemed ever to have Times, given at the time by a contemporary print, may be called our own private concerns on publie at. in view in the scene of his earlier years.

upon a second er largement of the former in 1829, may tention, but the insertion of the previous paragraph
give our readers some idea :-" The Times, this day,
instead of giving a supplementary sheet, is printed of duty in ourselves to take the opportunity of placing

at the request of Mr Clement, makes it almost a sort THE LONDON PRESS.

upon one entire sheet of paper, measuring four feet in MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT.

a counter-statement before our readers. Mr Clement length and three in breadth, and containing fortyIn continuation of a late article which treated of the eight columns of matter, of which rather more than is the proprietor of four newspapers, and the total capital employed in the management of the London abiky pre ridderost 950.00ad verticementer being consider: Os. Gd. We will shortly oppose to this the contritu newspapers, we proceed to give an ontline of the me.

lumns of reports and news of various kinds printed in tion to the revenue of the Times alone, and will adopt chanical means by which these organs of public intel- small type, and containing more than 45,000 words, the method of calculation used by Mr Clement:

L.48.516 13 4 ligence are produced. Formerly, ordinary presses and about three columns in the larger type, contain: 1 News stamps, 3,046,500

6 were employed to work the whole of these sheets, from ing more than 6000 words ; so that there are nearly Dutyon 92,969 advertisements, at 3s. 6d. 16,269 11

Excise on 6093 reams of paper

3,351 3 0 that which circulated a few hundreds to that which 150,000 words in the paper. This quantity of mat.

ter would form considerably more than a thick octavo circulated as many thousands. As only about 250 | volunue of any of the modern works as they are now

Total L.68,137 7 10 sheets can be printed, and that on one side only, in printed. Indeed, on calculating the quantity of one leaving an excess in favour of the Times alone, over an hour, it may readily be supposed, that if a single of the most recent, and by no means the least closely the four papers published by Mr Clement, of L.14,618, press bad alone been employed for some of the papers printed, we sind that the contents of the Times of this 7s. 4d. We will not do so invidions a thing as point

out the enormous excess of contribution paid by the of larger circulation, the news would have been old, eighty pages the contents of the volume we have ex. day, if printed in the same manner, would exceed by

Times over any one of the four journals alluded to." and another intelligencer ready to be issued, before amined. On referring to one of the earliest newspa.

It must be observed, that the above calculation was the whole of the subscribers were supplied. As a pers in this country, we find its contents to be equal made previous to the reduction of the tax of 3s. Cd. on partial remedy of this inconvenience, more than one to less than 1-100ch part of the Times of this

day. every advertisement to Is. 6d., by a late act of Parlia. set of types were set up, and more than one press em- Considering the shortness of time which must have

What effect that alteration has bad on this ployed in throwing of; but this was at once an expen: tion of the labours of getting up such a sheet, the ing.

elapsed between the commencement and the termina. source of the revenue, we have no means of ascertain. sive and most imperfect process. The nature of the old printing-press, in fact, set a kind of limit to the have fallen little short of one hundred. There inay circulation of a newspaper, and it was long anxiously be some who will dread the task of getting through an

THE “TERROR BY NIGHT.” desired that means might be devised for extending its octavo volume at their breakfast talle.” It must here for a considerable number of years, particularly powers.

be mentioned that the Times is by no means the largest since Canadian timber came into such extensive use We have understood that, about twenty years ago, paper in London ; some of the weekly papers contain in the construction of dwellings, the common house a proprietor of the Times newspaper employed a Gering more than double the quantity above stated. The man mechanist, named Koenig, to construct a ma. price of these papers, however, is generally much bug, or Cimex leclularius, has been rapidly on the in. chine which should supply an increased mumber of larger than that of the daily ones.

crease in all parts of Britain. “In no part of Lon. impressions within a given time. After repeated After the papers are printed off, those on the esta-don (according to the Monthly Magazine) are these failures, and the incurring of much expense, the at. Wishment have no trouble with their distribution or noxious insects to be met with in such abundance as tempt succeeded so far, that about twelve or thirteen otherwise. They are taken by the publisher, and in the new houses erected in the Regent's Park, into hundred entire impressions were produced in an hour; disposed of to two classes of individuals the news. a number which subsequent improvements have inore venders and the news-agents. The former purchase which they have been introduced in the American than doubled. For a history and description, how them for ready money at something less than sixpence timber employed in their construction. On examin. ever, of the printing-machine-that splendid step in each, and supply the local readers at the regular ing the timber as it comes from the ship (continues the march of literature-we may refer to the 35th charge of sevenpence; the difference of price being this authority) it will be found that the bugs absonumber of Chambers's Information for the People, ar- their protit.. The news.agents are a highly respect. lutely fill up the crevices." With regard to the exact ticle ART OF PRINTING. In order to convey some able class of individuals, who supply newspapers regu: location of bugs in the metropolis, we are unable to idea of an establishment in which a printing-machine larly to such individuals in town and country as may is employed, we present the account of the Times of. be pleased to order them. They are responsible for say any thing ; but we can mention what is notorifice, given by Nir Babbage, in his Economy of Nu all risk to the proprietors; their only remuneration ously the case in Edinburgh, that bugs are to be chinery and Manufactures :

being the same difference of price at which the newg. found in the greatest swarms in the newest parts of “ The establishment of the Times newspaper," says venders purchase and sell the papers. Through these the town, and in some streets and places more than be, “is an example, on a large scale, of a manufacsory, in which the division of labour, both mental and

others. In the Old Town, where native hardwood

• Mr Babbage adds, in a footnote to the above passage--" The bodily, is admirably illustrated; and in which also the author, with one of his friends, was recently induced to visit this

has often been used in building, bugs are compara. effect of the domestic economy is well exemplified. It

mnost interesting establishment after midnight, and during the pro, tively unknown, except in houses kept by persons of is scarcely imagined, by the thousands who read that

gas, and was li:ht as day; there was neither noise nor bustle ; and uncleanly habits ; but in these instances they are paper in various quarters of the globe, what a scene of the visitors were received with such calm and polite attention, that

more on the surface and in the furniture of the dwella organised activity the factory presents during the they did not until afterwards become sensible of the inconvenience whole night, or what a quantity of talent and mecha.

which suc) intruders, at a moinent of the greatest pressure, must ings than any where else. In the New Town, on the

Occasion; nor reflect that the tranquillity they adinired was the nical skill is put in aetion for their amusement and result of intense and regulated occupation. But the effect of such other band, bugs are engrafted in the constitution of information. Nearly one hundred persons are em.

cheeks in the current of business will appear, on recolecting, thal, ployed in this establishment; and during the session as 4019 newspapers are printed off on one side within the hour,

the buildings. They are in the large unplained tim. every minute is attended with a loss of 66 impressions. The quar- bers, such as the joists and beams, and from thence of Parliament, at least twelve reporters are constantly attending the Houses of Commons and Lords; each

reasonable w claim for the gratification of his curiosity (and to they pour out in thousands, if their colonies are not in his turn, after about an hour's work, retiring to

him this time is but a moment) may cause a failure in the delivery carefully secluded or blockaded by oil paint applied

of 1000 copies, and disappoint a proportionate number of expectranslate into ordinary writing the speech he has just

tant readers in some of our distant towns, to which the morning to the walls and the crevices round the skirting boards, heard and noted in short-hand. In the meantime, liut each day."

papers are dispatclied by the earliest and inost rapid conveyances doors, &c. That such is the case, there can be uc



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CHAMBERS'S EDINBURGH JOURNAL. manner of doubt. Indeed, we have proved the fact present day will smile at learning that twelve live gan to think we had been mistaken, when suddenly from actual observation and exạerience. It certainly bugs taken fasting (four per diem) was an approved the loud trampling of horses' feet, as they whirled up does appear strange how the newest, highest-rented, remedy against the colic. Whether the apparent the sweep below the windows, followed by a peal and finest finished houses, should generally be most rarity of these insects in England was the result of the long and loud upon the bell, announced, beyond ques. aflicted with the presence of these nauseous vermin; superior cleanliness of its inhabitants over those of tion, the summons for my departure. The door being but the circumstance is entirely attributable to their France, Germany, and Italy, as Mouffet states, may thrown open, steps were heard loud and fast; and, in introduction through the medium of the rough tim. perhaps indeed be doubted; certain it is that it now the next moment, ushered by a servant, stalked for. bers. In the vuter clefts of the logs of wood the thrives in our climate as well as elsewhere, sometimes, ward, booted and fully equipped, my travelling com. living animals or their germ find a habitation, and especially when unmolested, swarming to a most in panion—if such a word can at all express the relation these logs being cut into smaller pieces, but without tolerable degree, not only in inhabited, but also in between the arrogant young blood, just fresh from cleaning their outsides, thence the myriads of bugs, empty houses, getting under the wainscotting, &c. assuming the toga virilis, and a modest child of prosmall and large, the newly hatched and the aged, where it appears strange that it should be able to found sensibilities, but shy and reserved beyond even creep forth at the approach of summer, or, moved obtain nourishment.

English reserve. The aged servant, with apparently by the heat of the apartments, seek the surface of Numerous remedies have been from time to time constrained civility, presented my mother's compli. the walls and foors, where their chief store of nou- proposed by various writers, for the purpose either of ments to him, with a request that he would take rishment is to be found. When they thus develope driving away or killing these insects, which are almost breakfast. This he bastily and rather peremptorily themselves, nothing, as we have said, will suppress as notorious for their disagreeable scent as for their declined. Me, however, he condescended to notice them but a plentiful exhibition of paint, along with annoying propensities. Of these remedies, Mouffet with an approving nod, slightly inquiring if I were the scrupulous cleanliness.

gives a long list; Mr Brande has given another in young gentleman who shared his post-chaise. But Most unfortunately for the comfort of many fami- the index to the Materia Medica. We have known without allowing time for an answer, and striking his lies, it is a oustom of house-proprietors in Edinburgh that an uninhabited house which swarmed with these boot impatiently with a riding.whip, he hoped I was and perhaps in other places-to leave houses un insects has been completely cleared by a powerful ready. Not until he has gone up to my mistress,' painted in any respect, for several years after their fumigation of brimstone. And Southall, who ob. replied my old protector, in a tone of some asperity. erection. The walls are left with the bare plaster, tained from his 'ancient black negro' the secret of Thither I ascended. What counsels and directions and the doors and other woodwork are left similarly making a fluid for the prevention of bug bites, states I might happen to receive at the maternal toilet, nabare, without colour, varnish, or paint. Possibly this it to have been made by boiling several strong herbs, turally I have forgotten. The most memorable cirpractice may arise from a desire to allow the house in as herb Robert, cormint, &c. in water, and adding cumstance to me was, that I, wbo had never till that all its parts to be thoroughly dried and seasoned. But corrosive sublimate and sal ammonia ; this liquid time possessed the least or most contemptible coin, it must be lamented that such a practice should pre- being applied with a sponge to furniture, &c. Our received, in a network purse, five glittering guineas, vail. It would be infinitely preferable to allow the readers will perhaps smile at this statement, and in. with instructions to put three immediately into Me timbers, &c. to be well seasoned before being used, quire how the negro had gained a knowledge of Eng- A-ll's hands, and the rest when he should call for and to paint and paper the houses before they were lish herbs, and the other substances employed, and them. The rest of my mother's counsels, if deep, entered by families. Were people a little more cau. will probably be inclined to think the whole story to were not long; she, who had always something of a tious in entering as the first tenants of new houses, savour rather of quackery. We will only add, that Roman firmness, shed more milk of roses, I believe, the practice would soon be discontinued. From what these remedies are for the most part either insuffi. upon my cheeks than tears ; and why not? What we have learned on this subject, we would advise no cient or dangerous, and that by carefully examining should there be to her corresponding to an ignorant family to enter a new house, however clean in appear furniture infested at the commencement of the spring, child's sense of pathos, in a little journey of about a ance, till it be painted, and, in the proper sense of the and by strict cleanliness, they will either be entirely hundred miles ? Outside her door, however, there word, finished.

destroyed, or their numbers considerably reduced." awaited me some silly creatures, women of course, old In London, where we believe no family whatever

and young, from the nursery and the kitchen, who would enter a house till papered and painted, it would

gave and who received those fervent kisses, wbich wait seem that even these precautions are in some places


only upon love without awe and without disguise. found unavailing ; and, therefore, it becomes obviously


I found myself lifted into the chaise : counsels the duty of house builders in London, Edinburgli

, Upon this subject there appears an entertaining well. about the night and the cold, flowing in upon me, to and every where else, to use the utmost care in pre- written article in the twelfth number of Tait's Edin. / which my companion listened with derision or asto. venting unclean timbers being introduced into build. burgh Magazine, published a few weeks ago, from which nishinent. I and he had each our separate corner: ings. The logs of wood ought to be dressed or plained we present the following sketch :-"Whilst reverting to and, except to request that I would draw up one of the on the outside ; at least none of the outer rinds should these remembrances of my childbood (says the writer), glasses, I do not think be condescended to address be made nse of. All preparations of the timber, such may add, by way of illustration, and at the risk of one word to me until dusk, when we found ourselves as sawing and plaining, should also take place apart gossiping, a brief notice of my very first journey. I rattling into Chesterfield, having barely accomplished from the premises in course of erection. By these might be then seven years old. A young gentleman, four stages, or furty or forty-two miles, in about nine means we might expect to procure comfortable dwell. che son of a wealthy banker, had to return home for hours. This, except on the Bath or great north roads, ings, altogether free of the nuisance now under our tne Christmas holidays to a town in Lincolnshire, dis may be taken as a standard amount of performance notice. As, however, we have no doubt that many tant from the public school, where he was pursuing in 1794 (the year I am recording), and even ten years builders, whose only object is to make the most of his education, about a hundred miles. This school later. In these present hurrying and tumultuous their bonses at the least possible expense, will either was in the neighbourhood of my father's house. There days, whether time is really of more value, I cannot sneer at or pay no sort of attention to measures of this were at that time no coaches in that direction ; now say; but all people on the establishment of inns are nature, it ought to be the duty of families about to rent there are many every day. The young gentleman required to suppose it of the most awful value. Now. houses, to refuse to occupy any dwelling until it be in advertised for a person to share the expense of a post. a-days, no sooner have the horses stopped at the gate. every respect finished.

We would likewise recom. chaise. By accident, or chiefly, I believe, out of com. way of a posting-house, than a summons is passed mnend gentlemen about to build houses for themselves, pliment to the gentleness of my manners, and the down to the stables; and in less than one minute, to expend a trifle in preparing and cleaning their tim-depth of my affections, I had an invitation of some upon a great road, the horses next in rotation, always ber; the satisfaction arising from such a measure of standing to the same town, where I happened to have ready harnessed, when expecting to come on duty, precaution will alone compensate for the outlay. a female relation of mature age, besides so:ne youthful are heard trouting down the yard. Putting to,'

Perbaps the following particulars in connection with cousins. The two travellers-elect soon heard of each and transferring the luggage (supposing your convey. this subject, which appear in the BRITISH CYCLOPÆDIA other, and the arrangement was easily completed. It ance a common post-chaise), once a work of at least (Orr and Smith, London), will not be unacceptable to was my earliest migration from the paternal (or, as I twenty minutes, is now easily accomplished in three. our readers. “The original English name, as we ought then to call it, the maternal) roof; and the And scarcely bave you paid the ex-postilion before learn from Moutfet, was different from that now uni. anxieties of pleasure, too tumultuous, with some slight his successor has mounted; the ostler is standing versally given to this insect, which in his time (1634) sense of undefined' fears, combined to agitate my ready with the steps in his hands, to receive his invari. was termed wall-louse, and Messrs Kirby and Spence childish feelings. I had a vague slight apprehension able sixpence ; the door is closed ; the representative suggest that the term bug, which is a Celtic word sig- of my fellow-traveller, whom I had never seen, and waiter bows his acknowledgment for the house, and nifying a ghost or goblin, was applied to them after whom my nursery-maid, when dressing me, bad de. you are off at a pace never less than ten miles an hour; Ray's time, most probably because they were consi. scribed in no very amiable colours. But a good dealihe total detention at each stage not averaging above dered as 'terrors by night;' hence our English word more I thought of Sherwood Forest, which, as I had four minutes. Then (i. e. at the latter end of the bug-bear: and in like manner the passage in the been told, we should cross after the night set in. At eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth century) Psalms, " Thou shalt not be afraid for the terror by six o'clock, I descended, and not, as usual, to the half an hour was the minimum of time spent at each night' (xci. 5.), is rendered in Matthew's Bible Thou children's room, but, on this special morning of my change of horses. Your arrival produced a great sbalt not need be afraid of any bugs by night.' life, to a room called the breakfast-room, where bustle of unloading and unharnessing; as a matter of

Southall, in his Treatise upon the Cimex lectularius, found a blazing fire, candles lighted, and the whole course you alighted and went into the inn; if you published at Ipswich in 1793, and which reached a breakfast equipage, as if for my mother, set out, to sallied out to report progress, after waiting twenty second edition, states that the first appearance of my astonishment, for no greater personage than my. minutes, no signs appeared of any stir about the sta. bugs in London occurred after the great fire in 1666, self. The scene being in England, and on a Decem. bles. The most choleric person could not much ex'which learned men,' says he, united in thinking ber morning, I need scarcely say that it rained; the pedite preparations, which loitered not so much froin were imported with the new deal timber, as the bugs rain beat violently against the windows, the wind any indolence in the attendants as from faulty arwere naturally fond of turpentine woods.' That the raved ; and an aged servant who did the honours of rangements and total defect of foresight. The pace latcer circumstance took place, is perhaps perfectly the breakfast table, pressed me urgently and often to was such as the roads of that day allowed ; never so correct ; indeed, Linnæus was of opinion that this eat. I need not say that I had no appetite ; the ful. much as six miles an hour, except upon a very great insect is not originally a native of Europe, and that it ness of my heart, both from busy anticipation, and road ; and then only by extra payment to the driver. was imported from America ; but there is abundance from the parting which was at hand, had made me in. Yet even under this comparatively miserable sys. of evidence to show that they were known in England capable of any other thought, or feeling, or attention, tem, how superior was England, as a land for the before the great fire, since Mouffet records the cir. but such as pointed to the coming journey.

traveller, to all the rest of the world, Sweden only excumstance which occurred in 1503, of a Dr Pennius Thirty-nine, or possibly, I believe, even forty years, cepted. being called in great baste to visit two noble ladies have passed since that December morning in my own What

old parlours in those days ! low-roofed, residing at a little village called Mortlake, on the life to which I am now recurring, and yet, even to glowing with ample tires, and fenced from the blasts banks of the Thames, who were greatly alarmed by this moment, I recollect the audible throbbing of of doors by screens, whose foldings were, or seemed to the appearance of bug bites, which were considered heart, the leap and rushing of blood, with which, be, infiuite ! What motherly landladies ! won, how as symptoms of the plague or some such contagious during a deep lull of the wind, the aged attendant said, readily, to kindness the most lavish, by the mere at. disease, and whose fears were only dispelled by the cap- without hurry or agitation, but with something of a tractions of simplicity and youthful innocence, and ture of the insects and the statement of their physician, solemn tone,'' That is the sound of wheels; I bear finding so much interest in the bare circumstance of who happened also to be a naturalist. As a native of the chaise. Mr H-1 will be here directly. The being à traveller at a childish age ! Then what Europe it has been known for centaries, being noticed road ran, for some distance, by a course pretty nearly blooming young handmaidens, how different from the by Aristotle (Hist. liv. 5. chap. xxxi.) under the name equidistant from the house, so that the groaning of knowing and worldly demireps of modern highroads ! oi Coris, by Galen, Dioscorides, Pliny, &c. who state the wheels continued to catch the ear, as it swelled And sometimes grey-headed faithful waiters, how sin. the medical virtues which it was supposed to possess, upon the wiud, for some time without much altera. cere and how attentive, by comparison with their especially as a remedy against the bite of serpents. It tion. At length a right-angled turn brought the road flippant successors, the eterual Coming, sir,''Com. was also a pplied in numerous other diseases, as we continually and rapidly nearer to the gates of the ing, sir,' of our improved generation. learn from Mouffet, who has collected the learning of grounds, which had purposely been thrown open. At Such an honest old butler-looking servant waited the ancients and of the middle ages upon this and this point, however, a long career of raving arose ; on us during dinner at Cherlerfield, carving for me, other similar subjects. The medical student of the all other sounds were lost; and for some time I be. and urging me to eat. Even my coin panion found


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