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their bodies, or the nervous energy, is excited, and which it accidentally held in the earth; for a poker, it “Ah, Monsieur !” replied he, with a graceful bow, the sensation experienced by the most remote of the has been found, acquires a certain degree of magnetic that at once acknowledged the compliment and adnumber. But the first, or toucher of the wire, feels it power, from standing in an angular position with re- mitted the fact. “Methinks it was well worth submuch more vividly, for in him the agitation of the gard to the earth. But the most plausible theory of mitting to some little delay at the poste,” continued I, nervous or electric Auid is strongly excited, while magnetism seems to be, that it arises from the attrac- “since it was to produce to us the satisfaction of being in the last the oscillations are more feeble from dis- tions and repulsions of the currents of electricity, which driven by one who, I protest, is the very pink of all tance and the imperfect conducting power of human are constantly circulating round every magnet, and in- | postilions." bodies. It is scarcely necessary to allude to the ana- deed round every body that possesses the electric power Ah, Monsieur is too good,” replied François, with logy in the transference and diffusion of heat, as the in a high degree. Steel, struck by lightning, or a another inclination of his body and slide of his right same theory which we have applied to electricity and strong shock of electricity, acquires magnetism; and foot, which, considering the hill we were then climb. light, has been long admitted with regard to heat. it is curious that a shock which renders iron only a ing, displayed an inconceivable knowledge of the art The tendency to establish an equilibrium is a strong temporary magnet, affects steel permanently,

faire la reverence. “ But,” continued he, “ I hope point of resemblance between heat and electricity, and When a wire conducting electricity is placed parallel Messieurs les voyageurs will not for one moment beihe repulsion of heated particles in all bodies, whether to a magnetic needle properly suspended, the needle lieve that I could have dared to have detained then solid, tinid, or acriform, appears to be regulated by will deviate from its original or natural direction. without strong reasons for doing so. “ Doubtless," the same laws which guide the phenomena of electrical This deviation was found, by Professor Oersted of Co- said I. .“ But what were your reasons, if I may ven, repulsion ; for the repellant power is not to be attri-penhagen, to follow a uniform law, which led him to ture to inquire into them ” “ I have two,” replied buted to the particles of the bodies, but to the mole- the conclusion, as stated above, that electrical currents François, with a mysterious air; “ each in itself so cules of caloric, which repel each other when excited, moved in a circular direction round every magnet. powerful, that Monsieur cannot fail to admit them to and thus expand the body, or substance in which they Heat, it is proved, lies dormant in bodies ; light, as in be irresistible.” “ Out with them, then !” said I. are in action, which is exactly similar to the operation phosphorescent substances, does the same; and there is “ Since Monsieur is pleased to listen to me, then,” of the electric power. Between light and heat a strik- no difficulty in supposing that iron, which is in great said François, " I shall presume to tell him that my ing analogy exists, with regard to their refrangible abundance on the earth's surface, absorbs and retains first reason is, that this is a jour de fête (festival) at St and reflectible powers. When a ray of light moves in electricity, of which it is an excellent conductor, in a Symphorien de Lay, whither I have at this moment one medium, it does not change its direction, but certain state of condensation, and is affected by laws of the honour of conveying the carriage of les deux Mespasses in a straight line; when the medium, however, attraction resembling those which actuate the ordinary sieurs Anglais, with three of the best horses in the is changed, it takes an oblique direction, and is then electric power. But an experiment nearly conclusive universe, and Monsieur will himself at once perceive said to be refracted. When a ray of light strikes with regard to the identity of electricity and magnet- the importance of my taking sufficient time to enable obliquely against a plane surface, it is reflected from ism, has been lately performed by Professor Faraday, me to make such a toilette as should not dishonour it in an angle equal to that at which it talls. These for which that accomplished philosopher deserves the him or his equipage on so important an occasion.” are well-known facts, but they are worthy of notice, thanks of all lovers of science. From a horse-shoe “ Your first reason is so strong, and so well put, because they maintain the analogy between light and magnet of no great power, he succeeded in eliciting Monsieur François,” said I, smiling, “ that it seems heat, for the latter follows precisely the same laws of electric sparks, or at least sparks of white light, in to me that a second were almost unnecessary.”. “But refraction and reflection which light is subject to. every respect resembling the electric. This is by far Monsieur will find that my second reason, when he

With respect to power, the similitude of light and the most decisive proof we have yet got on the subject. comes to know it, is yet more powerful,” replied he, electricity is particularly striking. When light is We may conclude with quoting from a late number of with a certain polite air of waggery. “Ha, ha!” said condensed by means of a large lens, it excites, or per- the Information for the People, the theory which is 1, "come away with it, then, if you please.” haps we should rather say, becomes, the most intense held regarding the earth's influence on the magnet.

With the gracious permission of Monsieur, I shall heat. In its focus oxides may be restored to the me

“In explanation of that influence by which the mag- defer producing it for the present,” replied he, with tallic state, ores reduced, and gold brought to the boil- netic needle is kept always in a position nearly coin- another exquisite bow; “ and if Messieurs will now ing point.' What was the power which enabled Sir ciding with the meridian, it is conjectured that currents do me the honour to condescend so far as to replace Humphry Davy to gain an immortal name by his dis- of electricity, analogous to those which circulate round themselves in the carriage, I shall be able to master covery of the metallic basis of the alkalies and earths ? every magnet, are constantly flowing round the globe, the rest of this slope without giving them any further It was the application of electricity to the same pur- as the current of electricity in a galvanic apparatus personal fatigue.” poses, which, we have said, concentrated light can ac- moves in an unbroken circuit from the negative to the So be it !” exclaimed I, shaking my head and complish, the reduction of potash, soda, and other positive pole, and from it, by the connecting wire, laughing, and seating ourselves in the carriage ; and metallic oxides, to their basis of ore; a task the more round again to the negative pole. The direction of François having put up the steps and shut the door, difficult, because these ores have yet been nowhere these currents is inferred to be the same as bas been all further conversation was put a stop to by the in found in a simple state, Can different powers follow stated with regard to artificial magnets; and it is sim- cessant crick-cracking of his whip. 80 many similar laws, and produce so many similar ef- ply by the attractions and repulsions of these terres.

From the top of the hill we enjoyed a most extensive fects ? 'Vegetables thrive in light and die in darkness : trial enrrents, bringing the currents round the needle prospect. Below us lay the deep and narrow valley we beds of flowers, when insulated and frequently electri- to coincide with them, that the latter always points to had left, and farther off the broad plain of the Loire fied, have their growth accelerated. Heat, however the north.”

stretching away beyond Roanne, and finely bounded derived, hatches eggs, and electricity, repeatedly ap

by those mountains, over which the rising sun had plied, does the same. The expansion of fluids is caused

ST SYMPHORIEN DE LAY. seen us journeying in the morning. The glorious orb both by electricity and light; both of them precipitate

was now declining towards the horizon, and we enlime from lime-ivater, and change vegetable blue

joyed the contemplation of the magnificence of nature juices to red. The following experiment shows that (From the Scottish Annual ; Glasgow, J. Reid & Co. 1836.]

glowing beneath the full brilliancy shed over it by his electricity can cause transparency :-Let one end of a EVENING was approaching as my friend and I stopped parting rays. The face of the country more immedichain be connected with a charged jar, and its other to change horses at Roanne, in order to prosecute our ately around us was very singular. Our road towards end lie on the table : place the other end of a chain journey to Lyons. We were most unaccountably de- St Symphorien de Lay ran along the ridge, which disabout half an inch from it, and place a decanter of wa- tained for an unusual length of time, and it required closed to us all those great amphitheatric hollows and ter on these separated ends. If now the jar be dis- all the politeness of a very civil postmaster to keep us round intervening hills, of which its varied surface charged through these chains, in the dark the water in any thing like tolerable humour. At length we was so strangely composed. It was sweet to look will appear beautifully luminous. If we consider that found ourselves en route, and we proceeded at a rat- down into these depths, which every where exhibited light lay latent in the glass and water, and only re- tling pace along a chaussée, running for a considerable the most industrious cultivation, and where modest but quired the excitement of some luminous body to ren. way across the plain, until the road finally turned

into comfortable dwellings were scattered about in every der it visible, we can easily account for the brilliant a small but romantic valley, I may with truth affirm retiring nook. There was nothing, it is true, which light by the agency of the spark. Many more experi- that this lovely spot had the merit of presenting us could be called strikingly grand, or pre-eminently ments might be advanced in proof of the theory which with the first scenery we had yet met with in France beautiful, or even individually interesting, in the feaholds light, electricity, and heat, to be merely modifi- which had any pretensions to be designated by the tures either of nature or of art which presented themcations of one and the same power ; but enough has term romantic. The bottom was narrow, and seques- selves to our eyes. It was, after all, little else but a been said to show their wonderful similarity in the tered, and sweet, and peaceful, like the simple High- succession of scenes of mere cultivation. But all nature most important points, and active minds may easily land glen. A clear and lively stream foamed and was calm, and a peaceful air of rural simplicity and push the inquiry further. They certainly obey, in sparkled through it; and beautiful rocks of porphyry innocency seemed to blend itself with the drooping many respects, similar laws, are endowed with similar arose here and there from its margin, in bold and pic- shades of evening, as they descended from heaven upon powers, and produce similar effects.

turesque masses. Nature, persecuted, beclipped, and these humble roofs; and this alone was sufficient to Galvanism and magnetism, as mentioned at the befrizzled as she is throughout the whole length and spread a charm over them, which nothing else could commencement of this article, are now also admitted breadth of this most artificial kingdom, might well equal. Our minds busied themselves in penetrating to be identical with electricity. Galvanism may be have been glad to avail herself of such a retirement to within their thresholds, and in holding imaginary said to consist of a series of electrical phenomena, in snatch a few moments of repose.

converse with their inmates; and thus a thousand which the electricity is developed without the aid of As we proceeded, we began to ascend the mountains, agreeable associations were awakened within us-s0 friction, and where chemical action, unknown in sim- and our road became very steep. The evening was de- that we drove on towards St Symphorien de Lay, in ple electrical developement, takes place. A simple lightful, and we got out of the carriage to walk up that pleased and pliable temper' of mind which natugalvanic circle consists of three conductors of electri- the long hill.. I have a natural inclination to gain rally disposes us to harmonise most fully with the city, of which one must be solid and one fluid, while good-will, if I possibly can do so, from all mankind, feelings of our fellow-mortals, whether they be those the third may be either solid or Auid. Copper, zinc, whatever may be their rank or condition. As I trust of pleasure or of pain. and a solution of muriatic acid, are an example of one I shall never condescend to purchase it from the great We entered the little bourg, and our heartstrings of these circles ; and a number of these, arranged in by meanness or subserviency, so neither shall I submit were instantly touched by sounds of mirth and revelry, succession as in a galvanic trough, are sufficient for the to gather it from the small by unworthy means, But We found its inhabitants indulging in all the exuberevolution of the electric power. Two laws of electri- if I can work mine easy way with my fellow human ance of rustic joy. A narrow, crooked, and awkward city, which we have stated, seem to be the basis of beings, by the mere expenditure of a few honest civi- street, brought us into a confined market-place, the galvanism, namely, its existence in a latent state in all lities, I hope I may do so without the risk of incurring breadth of which was so small, and the projection of matter, and its constant tendency to establish an equi. any great degree of blame. Our postilion was a fine the roofs so great, that a large canvass awning had librium. The chemical action between the fuids and handsome young fellow, and the good-humoured smile been, with very great care, drawn entirely across it, solids in the galvanic circle, is probably the exciting which played over a very lively and ingenuous coun- so as to cover it completely from the sky. A band of power which renders the latent electricity active ; and tenance, seemed to court converse. His hair was musicians, by no means despicable in performance, its evolution follows from the tendency of the fluid to plaited and powdered in an excessive degree-his were seated on the upper steps of the outer stair of a enter all bodies not already surcharged, and its constant quene was magnifique and every part of his dress sort of town-house, which formed an admirable or. motion from the negative to the positive pole. The was so supereminently spruce, that I could not help chestra. The whole presented the appearance of a identity of the galvanic and electric principles in their suspecting that nature had given him a more than vast ballroom, which was well crowded with peasants effects is so well understood now-a-days, that convenio ordinary share of that vanity which is said by us of both sexes, and we regretted that the passage of ence or a difference in power are the only reasons for grunbling matter-of-fact sons of Britain to be so much the carriage should unavoidably break through the the use of the one in preference to the other in expe- the characteristic of his countrymen. I won his heart phalanx of dancers. Our postilion, however, who rimenting, and for this reason we shall proceed to in the lighting of the tinder that ignited my own cigar, seemed to be familiarly recognised by individuals from magnetism. and that with which I presented him.

various parts of this gay assemblage, cracked his wluip The natural magnet is a ponderous iron-stone of a “Why, friend, you are by much the smartest of all with increased activity, as he dashed fearlessly in blackish colour, and possessed of the power of attract the many smart postilions who have driven us any among them, scattering them in dismay to right and ing other substances of a metallic character. It was where between Paris and Roanne," said I, as we went left; and, amidst the pride of his professional triumph, long supposed to derive its power from the position puiting up the hill together.

he threw about very arch Innks, that seemed to say,


“ Messieurs, if I do mar your sport at present, depend and ponderous than the rest, leaving his own orbit, concerned, it would be sufficiently pre-eminent, not upon it I shall do my best to mend it by and bye;" came like an awful comet to jostle the lesser planets only as might regard the mere kingdom of France, but and having, with great seeming impatience, at last from their spheres. But even such an occurrence as every other country of Europe also, we thought that extricated himself from the crowd, he drove us like this occasioned no derangement of that composed and they might well enough dispense with the loss of all fury down the street to our inn.

well-regulated air of politeness which reigned every the honour which our presence could have bestowed on "This was the festival of St Symphorien, the patron where among them. A bow of apology was made and it. Yet were we by no means insensible to the warm of this little town. Determined to enjoy as much as graciously received, and then matters went on as be expressions of gratitude which these worthy, people circumstances would permit, of a scene which promised fore. That decorous ceremonial that befits a ball- showered upon us. Our good wishes, uttered over a to be so hilarious, we hurried over our hasty meal, and room prevailed every where throughout, whilst it was hearty parting wine cup, and a small present which we sallied forth to witness the amusement that was going enlivened by a full infusion of that joyous bounding of made to the bride, to assist in the provision of her on. The vicinity of our inn was very dark and silent, the heart which naturally takes place in the lightsome trousseau, were received with heartfelt joy and grati

. chiefly because it was at a considerable distance from bosom of rural innocence, when indulging in virtuous tude, and with many fervent benedictions from the the market-place, then the great centre of attraction. recreation. What a contrast, thought 1, between this party; and when they took their leave, I could per. As we advanced up the street, however, bright lights unalloyed scene of pure enjoyment, and that brutal ceive tears glistening in the dark eyes of Marie. began at intervals to glare across the way, in broad debasement of human nature, which, I grieve to say, Never shall I forget the rustic festival of the little and brilliant masses, from the interior of some of the we so often see exhibited in the drunkenness, riot, mountain bourg of St Symphorien de Lay. houses on either hand. By these we were enabled to obscenity, and debauchery of an English fair ! work our passage from one to another, by a navigation By way of a little variety, we left this great central somewhat resembling that of a ship beating up some ballroom, and wandered into other parts of the bourg.

BAZAARS OF CONSTANTINOPLE. narrow channel, by tacking from light to light. By We found music and dancing every where. In one (From " Willis's Pencillings by the Way," or sketehes by a degrees the buzz of human voices became louder and place we discovered a genteel party of well-dressed

American, recently published.] Jouder, as we moved onwards; the blazing lights be- | young ladies and gentlemen, in the well-furnished Bring all the shops of New York, Philadelphia, and came more universal, and the whole town appeared apartment of a handsome house, with the windows Boston together around the City Hall; remove their alive. Every window was wide open, giving free ad- thrown open, dancing quadrilles to music played to fronts, pile up all their goods on shelves facing the mission to the genial air from without. Every cabaret, them in the street, altogether regardless of the pas- street; cover the whole with a roof, and metamorphose every little auberge that we looked into, was tilled with sengers that stopped to admire them. All ranks and your trim clerks into bearded, turbaned, and solemn thick-set groups of the most joyous faces of both sexes, conditions were doing their best to testify their re- old Mussulmen, smooth Jews, and calpacked and rosy surrounding plentiful tables, where large flasks of wine spect for the saint under whose protection they lived ; Armenians, and you will have something like the crowned every feast. Wilkie might have here found and if music and dancing were gratifying to him, he grand bazaar of Constantinople. Yet you can searcely tifty subjects for first-rate pictures, without moving must have been that night supremely blest.

get an idea of it without having been there. It is a more than as many yards. What strong and expres- On our return to the market-place, we found the city under cover. You walk all day, and day after sive countenances !-- how eagerly were the heads thrust indefatigable feet of the dancers there still in active day, from one street to another, winding and turning, forward and the necks strained, each in the vain at- motion. We stood for some time gazing on them and trudging up hill and down, and never go out of .tempt to be individually heard !-- what a confused Ba- with intense pleasure, and conversing now and then doors. The roof is as high as those of our three-story bel of voices !—what a profuse expenditure of lungs !- familiarly with the elder peasants of both sexes. One houses, and the dim light so favourable to shopkeepers what volubility of utterance, altogether thrown away old farmer politely made room for us on the bench comes struggling down through skylights never cleanwhere all were talkers and none were listeners !-what where he sat, and we accepted his courtesy more from ed except by the rains of heaven. shouting !—what stentorian chaunting !-and what complaisance than from fatigue. As I sat talking to Strolling through the bazaar is an endless amusepeals of laughter! But amidst all their revelry we him, his eyes suddenly shot past me to some more dis- ment. It is slow work, for the streets are as crowded could nowhere discover any thing like inebriety, or its tant object. I turned mine to see what or who it was as a church-aisle after service ; and, pushed aside one J'et more disagreeable offspring, riot and quarrel; all that had so strongly attracted them, when I beheld moment by a bevy of Turkish ladies, shuffling along of which are but too frequently found to be the natural the beautiful brunette leaning on the arm of François, in their yellow slippers, muffled to the eyes; the next attendants on similar scenes of jollification in our own and altogether absorbed in the interest of the soft by a fat slave carrying a child ; again by a kervas arncountry.

things which he appeared to be pouring into her ear. ed to the teeth, and clearing the way for some coming As we approached the little market-place, the sounds “ Ha, Monsieur," said I to the old man, “I see dignitary, you find your only policy is to draw in your of merriment increased. We now found that chan- that though age has shed some of its frosts on your elbows, and suffer the motley crowd to shove you about deliers, curiously constructed of wood and pasteboard, head, you still have an eye capable of estimating beauty. at their pleasure. had been suspended by ropes from the lofty canvass She is very lovely."

Each shop in this world of traffic may be two yards roof, and these having been fitted with a great num- “She is the daughter of a poor widow," replied the wide. The owner sits cross-legged on the broad counber of candles, the place was now as light as day. farmer somewhat gruftly; "and she is no match for ter below, the height of a chair from the ground, and What a mingled sound of busy voices ! Here, on my son François. When I am gone, he will have a hands you all you want without stirring from his seal. seats along the walls, sat the old men and matrons, small patrimony, and he ought to marry better." One broad bench or counter runs the length of the stretching their lantern jaws and black muzzles from A little further converse with him informed me that street, and the different shops are only divided by the ear to ear in one universal grin of delight, and jabber- the old man had been misled by the old mercenary slight partition of the shelves. The purchaser seats ing to one another in ecstacy, as they gazed on the principle, and that he wished to make out his son's himself on the counter, to be out of the way of the gambols of their progeny, and recalled the merry happiness by means which could never have accom- crowd, and the shopman spreads out his goods on his days when they were themselves young. There stood plished it. He had some plan of tying him to some knees, never condescending to open his lips except to the maidens scattered about in smart parties, trigly rustic heiress whom he could not abide. I proceeded tell you the price. If he exclaims “bono,” or “ kalo" dressed in their gayest attire, and having their wooden instantly to attack his better feelings and his good (the only word a real Turk ever knows of another lansabots exchanged for shoes of a lighter material and sense; and ere we parted, we had come to a somewhat guage), he is stared at by his neighbours as a man would fashion. The youths were clad in cotton jackets of better understanding. Meanwhile, amidst the keen- be in Broadway who should break out with an Italian various gaudy hues, of which, however, a light blue ness of our discussion, the subjects of it had vanished. bravura. Ten to one, while you are examining his was the most prevalent colour. Their hair was trimmed I would fain have spoken once more to François, but goods, the bearded trader creeps through the hole leadand powdered with the greatest nicety. These rustic I looked every where for him in vain.

ing to his kennel of a dormitory in the rear, washes cavaliers were moving about in fluctuating and pro- Having torn ourselves away from this gladdening himself and returns to his counter, where, spreading miscuous throngs; gliding ainong the little knots of and refreshing scene of rustic happiness, we with his sacred carpet in the direction of Mecca, he goes beauties, and darting their sprightly remarks to this some difficulty found our way home through the dark through his prayers and prostrations, perfectly unconwell-known face or to that, and exciting blushes, or some street that led to our inn. Just as we entered scious of your presence, or that of the passing crowd. poutings, or smart repartee, according to the disposic within the field of light that streamed from the thresh- No vocation interferes with his religious duty. Five tion or temper of her upon whom they might fall. old, François appeared like an apparition before us times a-day, if he were running from the plague, the We remarked one lovely, fresh, and blooming bru- from the shadow of the neighbouring wall.

Mussulman would find time for prayers, nette, on whose pensive countenance these random “Will Messieurs les Anglais condescend,” said he, The Frank purchaser attracts a great deal of curioarrows of gallantry produced no change. Unheeding with a bow and an air altogether indescribable, as he sity. As he points to an embroidered handkerchief, all around her, she stood apart, leaning against a pro- led his blushing partner forth to present her to us- or a rich shawl, or a pair of gold-worked slippers, jecting buttress; and her dark eyes seemed to rove “Will Messieurs les Anglais do me the honour to con- Turkish ladies of the first rank, gathering their yesha eagerly and anxiously through the crowd, as if in descend to permit me to make them acquainted with macks or veils over their faces, stop close to his side, search of some object interesting to herself alone. this my second reason of which I took the liberty to not minding if they push him a little to get nearer the

The band, which had retired for refreshment, now speak to them. Marie, do me the favour to ask the desired article. Feeling not the least timidity, except returned, and the music struck up. Inspired by its forgiveness of these gentlemen for the detention which for their faces, these true children of Eve examine the lively strains, the beaux approached the belles with I occasioned them this afternoon at Roanne, for you goods in barter, watch the stranger's countenance, and their cocked hats in their hands, and with a succes- know that it was the desire I felt of appearing quite it he takes off his glove, or pulls out his purse, take it sion of bows, any one of which might have been suf- comme il faut in your bright eyes, which was the cause up and look at it, without ever saying “ by your ticient to have carried the day in a competition for the oi my fault."

leave.” Their curiosity often extends to your dress, situation of dancing-master to an English boarding- “ This new apology of yours is infinitely the most and they put out their little henna-stained fingers and school, each addressed his lady with the most pro- powerful of the two, François,” said I; “it is irresis- pass them over the sleeve of your coat with a gurgling found respect, and humbly soliciting the extreme tible ! She is your betrothed, doubtless! If so, as expression of admiration at its fineness; or if you have honour of Mademoiselle's hand, each led his curtseying you certainly are the pink of all the knights of the rings or a watch-guard, they lift your hand or pull out partner forth. In an instant the centre of the place double-peaked saddle and boots, so, methinks, you are your watch with no kind of scruple. I bare met with was converted into one vast vortex of waltzes and now also the happiest of all postilions." « Alas, several instances of this in the course of my rambles; quadrilles ; in the midst of which we very soon descried Monsieur !” said François, with a sigh, “the fates but a day or two ago I found myself rather more than our lively, postilion, spinning it and footing it away have conspired against us. My cruel father opposes usual a subject of curiosity. I was alone in the street with an air that betrayed the fullest consciousness of our union, and Marie will not consent to be mine of embroidered handkerchiefs (every minute article has his own superior grace and agility. We could read without his approbation.".

its peculiar bazaar), and, wishing to look at some of another emotion in his eyes, too, for they were rivetted “ Allons !” cried I; “ let us talk over this matter uncommon beauty, I called one of the many Jews al. on the dark sparklers of her with whom he danced. in the house here;" and entering the little inn, I ways near a stranger to turn a penny by interpreting She was the fresh and blooming brunette, whose well. opened the door of the room which had been appro- for him, and was soon up to the elbows in goods that turned form we had already remarked leaning against priated to us, where, to the great surprise of the lovers, would tempt a female angel out of Paradise. As I was the buttress. How different was the expression which 1 forth with introduced them into the presence of the selecting one for a purchase, a woman plumped down now animated her beautiful features, as she gave her old farmer. I need hardly say that he was by this upon the seat beside me, and fixed her great, black, self up with perfect rapture to that delirium of joy in time fully prepared to make the young couple happy, unwinking eyes upon my face, while an Abyssinian which she was whirled by the vigorous arm of her and the astonishment and delight of both may be easily slave and a white woman, both apparently her depen. partner! Her soul seemed to exhale itself, as it were, imagined. “In a few days,” said François, “ we shall dents, stood respectfully at her back. A small tur. from the lattices of her long dark eyelashes. It was be married ; and if Messieurs les Anglais would but quoise ring (the favourite colour in Turkey) first ateasy to guess how matters stood between them; and condescend to be present at our nuptials, Marie and I tracted her attention. She took up my hand, and we watched them with a peculiar degree of interest, as would indeed be the happiest and most highly honoured turned it over in her soft, fat fingers, and dropped it they re-appeared from time to time amidst the circling couple in all France."

again without saying a word. I looked at my inter. eddies of the dance, where the pairs were revolving Our plans were, unfortunately, not such as to admit preter, but he seemed to think it nothing extraordinary, round and round, with all the regularity of the orbs of our yielding to a request which would have been and I went on with my bargain. Presently my fine in some great planetarium. It did now and then productive of so much gratification to us; but being eyed friend pulled me by the sleeve, and, as I leaned bappen, indeed, that some errant body, more clumsy satisfied that, so far as the happiness of the couple was toward her, rubbed her forefinger very quickly over my cheek, looking at me intently all the while. I was which were but a ginger-bread expenditure, becomes mother's legal acquaintance, by putting cases to them a little disturbed with the lady's familiarity, and asked a rich man's purchase. my Jew what she wanted. I found that my rubicund

from an abridgement of Coke's Institutes, which he

We entered a street of confectioners. The East is had read and mastered. complexion was something uncommon among these famous for its sweetmeats, and truly a more tempting dark-skinned Orientals, and she wished to satisfy her. array never visited the Christmas dream of a school

The leaning of Jones's genius seems to have been self that I was not painted ! My Constantinople friends boy; Even Felix, the patissier nonpareil of Paris, towards the study of languages. It may be very inform me that such liberties are not at all. parti- might take a lesson in jellies. And then for candy" frequently remarked, that individuals who possess the cular,

of all colours of the rainbow (not shut enviously in knack of acquiring languages, seldom have a genius In the centre of the bazaar is situated what is called with pitiful glass cases, but piled up to the ceiling in a the bezestein. You descend into it from four di- shop all in the street, as it might be in Utopia, with for any thing else ; but such does not appear to have rections by massive gates, which are shut, and all nothing to pay)—it is like a scene in the Arabian been the case with respect to Jones, whose intellect persons excluded, except between seven and twelve Nights. The last part of the parenthesis is almost grasped at several of the most important departments of the forenoon. This is the core of Constantinople true, for with a small coin of the value of two Ame of human knowledge and polite learning. While at --the soul and citadel of Orientalism. It is de- rican cents, I bought of a certain kind called in Turkish Oxford, he became desirous of studying the Oriental voted to the sale of arms and to costly articles only. peace to your throat" (they call things by such poeThe roof is loftier and the light more dim than in the tical names in the East),

the quarter of which I could languages

, and he supported a native of Aleppo, at his outer bazaars, and the merchants who occupy its stalls not have eaten, even in my best“ days of sugar-candy." own expense, to instruct him in the pronunciation of are old and of established credit. Here are subjects The women of Constantinople, I am told, almost live the Arabic tongue. The Greek and Latin languages for the pencil! If you can take your eye from those on confectionery. They eat incredible quantities. The he was already master of. During the college vaca

Damascus sabres, with their jewelled hilts and costly sultan's eight hundred wives and women employ five tions, he embraced the opportunity of learning riding scabbards, or from those gemmed daggers and guns hundred cooks, and consume two thousand five hundred and fencing, and to read all the best authors in Ita

inlaid with silver and gold, cast a glance along that pounds of sugar daily! It is probably the most ex. dim avenue, and see what a range there is of glorious pensive item of the seraglio kitchen.

lian, Spanish, Portuguese, and French. To these old grey-beards, with their snowy turbans ! These One of the regular lions" of Constantinople is a accomplishments, he found leisure to add dancing, are the Turks of the old régime, before Sultan Mah. kibaub-shop, or Turkish restaurant. In a ramble the use of the broadsword, music, and the art of playmoud disfigured himself with a coat like a dog of a with our consul, the other day, in search of the newly ing on the Welsh harp, the instrument of the country Christian," and broke in upon the customs of the discovered cistern of a thousand-and-one columns, Orient. These are your opium-eaters, who smoke we found

ourselves, at the hungry hour of twelve, op- of his forefathers. even in their sleep, and would not touch wine if it posite a famous shop near the slave-market. I was While engaged in these various studies, he did not were handed them by houris ! These are your fatal- rather staggered at the first glance. A greasy fellow, allow himself to rest in the pursuit of the object he ists, who would scarce take the trouble to get out of with his shirt rolled to his shoulders, stood near the had in view, namely, a fellowship, in order to spare the way of a lion, and who are as certain of the miracle door, commending his shop to the world by slapping his mother the expense of his education. Not sucof Mahomet's coffin as of the length of the pipe, or on the flank a whole mutton that hung beside him, of the quality of the tobacco of Shiraz !.

while, as a customer came in, he dexterously whipped ceeding to his wish in obtaining this object of his amI have spent many an hour in the bezestein, steeping out a slice, bad it cut in a twinkling into bits as large bition, he accepted, in 1765, the office of tutor to Lord my fancy in its rich Orientalism, and sometimes trying as a piece of chalk (I have stopped five minutes in Althorp, afterwards Earl Spencer; and, some time to make a purchase for myself or others. It is curious vain, to find a better comparison, strung upon a long afterwards, he obtained a fellowship also. He availed to see with what perfect indifference these old cross- iron skewer, and laid on the coals. My friend is an - legs attend to the wishes of a Christian. I was idling old Constantinopolitan, and had eaten kibaubs before. himself of a residence at the German Spa, with his

round one day with an English traveller, whom I had He entered without hesitation, and the adroit butcher, pupil, in 1767, to acquire the German language, and, - known in Italy, when a Persian robe of singular beauty giving his big trousers a fresh hitch, and tightening on his return, translated into French a Persian life of

hanging on one of the stalls arrested my companion's his girdle, made a new cut for his “narrow-legged” Nadir Shah, brought over in manuscript by the king of and as the old merchant was smoking away and look - look with great contempt on our tight pantaloons, and Denmark, at the request of the under secretary of the ing right at us, we pointed to the dress over his head, distinguish us by this epithet). We got up on the Duke of Grafton. Another tour to the Continent with

and the interpreter asked to see it. The Mussulman platform, crossed our legs under us as well as we could, his pupil and family followed, which occupied his time smoked calmly on, taking r:o more notice of us than and I cannot deny that the savoury missives that oc- until 1770, when, his tutorship ceasing, he entered of the white clouds curling through his beard. He casionally reached my nostrils bred a gradual recon

himself as a law student in the Temple. “He did not, might have sat for Michael Angelo's Moses. Thin, ciliation between my stomach and my eyes. pale, calm, and of a statue-like repose of countenance In some five minutes, a tin platter was set between however, wholly sacrifice literature to his professional and posture, with a large old-fashioned turban, and a us, loaded with piping-hot' kibaubs, sprinkled with pursuits ; but, on the appearance of the life and works curling beard half-mingled with grey, his neck bare, salad, and mixed with bits of bread; our friend the of Zoroaster, by Anquetil du Perron, he vindicated and his fine bust enveloped in the flowing and bright cook, by way of making the amiable, stirring it up well the University of Oxford, which had been attacked coloured drapery of the East-I had never seen a

with his fingers as he brought it along. It was very by that writer, in an able pamphlet in the French more majestic figure. He evidently did not wish to good eating, I soon found out, and, my fingers once have any thing to do with us. At last I took out my greased (for you are indulged with neither knife, fork, language, which he wrote with great elegance. He snuff-box, and, addressing him with “ Effendi !" the nor skewer in Turkey), 1 proved myself as good á also published, in 1772, a small collection of poems, · Turkish title of courtesy, laid my hand on my breast, trencherman as my friend.

chiefly from the poets of Asia, and was the same year and offered him a pinch. Tobacco in this unaccus

The middle and lower classes of Constantinople live elected a fellow of the Royal Society. In 1774 aptomed shape is a luxury here, and the amber mouth between these shops and the cafés. A dish of kibaubs peared his work De Poesi Asiatica, containing compiece emerged from his moustache, and putting his three fingers into my box, he said “pekkhe !" the they get for about half a cent a cup, from morning till mentaries on Asiatic poetry in general, with metrical Turkish ejaculation of approval. He then made room night. We paid for our mess (which was more than specimens in Latin and English. He was soon after for us on his carpet, and with a cloth measure took any, two men could eat at once, unless very hungry) called to the bar, and in 1776, made a commissioner the robe from its nail, and spread it before us. My twelve cents, or sixpence sterling.

of bankrupts. About this time, his correspondence friend bought it unhesitatingly for a dressing-gown,

with his pupil evinced the manly spirit of constituand we spent an hour in looking at shawls, of prices


tional freedom by which he was actuated ; and to his perfectly startling, arms, chalices for incense, spotless amber for pipes, pearls, bracelets of the time of Sul

feelings on the American contest he gave vent in a tan Selim, and an endless variety of “things rich That the cultivation of science and literature may be spirited Latin Ode to Liberty. In 1778 appeared his and rare.” The closing of the bezestein-gates inter- happily united with the most active pursuit of busi- translation of the Orations of Isæus, with a prefatory rupted our agreeable employment, and our old friend gave us the parting salaam very cordially for a Turk. ness, and with the duties of the most laborious pro- discourse, notes and commentary, which, for elegance I have been there frequently since, and never pass fessions, has in few cases been better exemplified than of style, and profound critical and historical research, ' without offering my snuff-box, and taking a whiff or in the life of the eminent individual of whom we are

excited much admiration. two from his pipe, which I cannot refuse, though it is now to speak.

In the mean time, he rapidly advanced in profes. - not out of his mouth, except when offered to a friend, from sunrise till midnight.

William Jones was born in London, September 20, sional reputation, although his opinion of the Ameri



age, Wishing to buy a piece of Brusa silk for a dressing- 1746. He lost his father when only three

can contest stood in the way of his progress to legal gown, my friend conducted me to a secluded khan.. and the care of his education fell on his mother, a lady honours. The tumults of 1780 induced him to write Entering by a very mean door, closed within by a cur- of uncommon endowments. While yet in infancy, he a pamphlet on the Legal Mode of Suppressing Riots ; tain, we stood on fine Indian mats in a large room, was a miracle of industry, and showed how strongly and, in the following winter, he completed a transla. piled to the ceiling with silks enveloped in the soft he was inspired with the love of knowledge. It is re- tion from the Arabic of seven poems, of the highest satin-paper of the East. Here again coffee must be lated of him, that, when he was only three or four repute. He also wrote the much admired ode, comhanded round before a single fold of the old Armenian's wares could see the light; and fortunate it is, since years of age, if he applied to his mother for informa- mencing “What constitutes a State ?" These pur-. one may not courteously refuse it, that Turkish coffee tion upon any subject, her constant answer to him suits did not prevent a professional Essay on the Law is very delicious, and served in acorn cups for size. A was, “ Read, and you will know.” He thus acquired a of Bailments. He distinguished himself, in 1782, last, and the old trader, setting his huge calpack firmly passion for books, which only grew in strength with among the friends to a reform in Parliament, and also on his shaven head, began to reachdown his costly increasing years. At the close of his seventh year, he became a member of the Society for Constitutional

I had never seen such an array. The floor was placed at the school at Harrow, and in 1764 he Information. The same year he drew up a Dialogue was soon like a shivered rainbow, almost paining the entered University College, Oxford. Unlike the ma- between a Farmer and a Country Gentleman, on the eye with the brilliancy and variety of beautiful fabrics. jority of youths at these educational establishments, Principles of Government; for the publication of There were stuffs of gold for a queen's wardrobe ; there were gauze-like fabrics inwoven with flowers of young Jones devoted his whole mind to his studies, which, the dean of St Asaph, afterwards his brothersilver ; and there was no leaf in botany, nor device in his voluntary exertions always exceeding in amount in-law, had a bill of indictment preferred against him antiquity, that was not imitated in their rich border- his prescribed task. Such was his activity at school, for sedition. Upon this event, he sent a letter to ings. I laid my hand on a plain pattern of blue and that one of his masters was wont to say of him, "that Lord Kenyon, then chief-justice of Chester, owning silver, and, half-shutting my eyes to imagine how I if he were left naked and friendless on Salisbury himself the author, and defending his positions. On should look in it, resolved upon the degree of depletion Plain, he would, nevertheless, find the road to fame the accession of the Shelburne administration, through which my purse could bear, and inquired the price. As“green door and brass knocker” says of his charges and riches.” At this time he was frequently in the the influence of Lord Ashburton he obtained, what in the farce, it was “ ridiculously trifling.” It is a habit of devoting whole nights to study, when he had long been the object of his ambition, the appointcheap country the East! A beautiful Circassian slave would generally take coffee or tea to ward off sleep-ment of judge in the Supreme Court of Judicature, for a hundred dollars (if you are a Turk), and an em

a practice, however, which was any thing but com- Bengal, to which he was nominated in March 1783, peror's dressing-gown for three! The Armenian laid his hand on his breast, as if he had made a good sale mendable. He had already, merely to divert his leisure and knighted. of it; the coffee-bearer wanted but a sous, and that was hours, commenced the study of the law; and it is Jones (now Sir William) arrived at Calcutta in charity; and thus, by a mere change of place, that, I mentioned that he would often amuse and surprise his September 1783. Here a new and extensive field of




action opened to him. While filling the ofice of judge | philosophy, laws, religion, science, and manners of and over this a garment hanging to the knee, of thick in the Supreme Court of Bengal, and loaded with pro- nations, was most extensive and profound. As a poet, wool, after the manner of a cassock." fessional duties of the most laborious nature, he con- too, he would probably have risen to great eminence, if When James V. of Scotland prepared, in 1538, for trived to do more than ever in the study of general his ardour to transplant foreign beauties, and his pro- a hunting excursion in the Highlands, he thought it literature and philosophy. He had scarcely arrived fessional and multifarious pursuits, had allowed him necessary to attire himself in the costume of the coun. in the country when he exerted himself to establish a to cultivate his own invention with sufficient intensity. try; and a kind of clothier's account of the dress society in Calcutta on the model of the Royal Society His private character was estimable in all the domestic which he wore is preserved in the books of his trea. of London, of which he officiated as president as long relations, and he was equally liberal and spirited in Thirteen pounds ten shillings are in the first as he lived, enriching its Transactions every year with public life.

place disbursed for two ells and a quarter of “variant the most elaborate and valuable disquisitions in every The memory of Sir William Jones received many cullorit velvet, to be the kingis grace ane schort Heland department of Oriental philology and antiquities. testimonies of respect, both in England and India. coit." This appears to have been lined with green

Almost his only time for study now, was during the The directors of the East India Company voted him taffety. Then there is thirteen shillings for three ells vacation of the courts ; and here is the account, as a monument in St Paul's Cathedral, and a statue in of Heland tertane, to be bois to the kingis grace." found among his papers, of how he was accustomed to Bengal; but the most effectual monument of his fame Fifteen ells of Holland cloth are purchased,“ to be apend his day during the long vacation in 1785. In was raised by his widow, who published a splendid syde (long) Heland sarkis to the kingis grace," and the morning, after writing one letter, he read several edition of his works, in six vols. 4to, 1799, and also, four elnis of rubanis to the handis of thame.” The chapters of the Bible, and then studied Sanscrit gram- at her own expense, placed a fine marble statue of him, hose here alluded to would be trews, or Highland mar and Hindoo law; the afternoon was given to the executed by Flaxman, in the antechamber of Univer- trousers. Velvet, taffety," Holland claith," and ribgeography of India, and the evening to Roman his- sity College, Oxford.

ands, with the making of “ the sarkis,” and “twa tory; when the day was closed by a few games at

unce of silk to sew thame," cost in all twenty-three chess, and the reading of a portion of Ariosto.

pounds, one shilling, and sixpence. It is worthy of Already, however, his health was beginning to break


remark that, when George IV. came to visit Scotland, down under the climate, and his eyes had become so The peculiar garb of the Scottish Highlanders has he also thought it necessary to assume the garb of the

mountains. weak, that he had been obliged to discontinue writing been familiarised to the eyes of most persons throughby candlelight. But nothing could prevent him from out both the British empire and its dependencies, as notices of the saffroned shirts and various-coloured or

Throughout the sixteenth century, we find many pursuing the studies he loved, while any strength re-well as some portions of continental Europe, in consemained to him. Even while confined by illness to his

tartan mantles of the Highlanders, as also of their couch, he taught himself botany; and it was during a

quence of its being worn in a modified shape by several broadswords, daggers, bows, and arrows. One John tour he was advised to take for the recovery of his Highland regiments, which have had occasion to stir Elder, a Highland priest, who, in 1543, sent an achealth, that he wrote his learned “ Treatise on the a good deal about in the world. As is generally known, mentions that they wore shoes or buskins formed in

count of his countrymen to King Henry VIII., also Gods of Greece, Italy, and India," as if he had actually its most remarkable feature is the kilt (or petticoat, as artificially of raw'hide with the hair outwards, which so disciplined his mind, that it adopted labour like this Englishmen often call it), which, scarcely reaching obtained for them the names of Red-shanks and almost for a relaxation.

One writer of this age speaks His health after a time was partially restored ; and the knee, leaves a portion of the limbs entirely bare. Roughfooted Scots. we find him again devoting himself both to his profes- Short stockings, well gartered below the knee, a short of their love of “ marled clothes, specially that have sional duties and his private studies, with more zeal skirted coat, a mantle usually swathing the shoulders, adds,“ purple and blue.” A minute description, given

long stripes of sundry colours : they love chiefly," he and assiduity than ever. When business required his and a small brimless bonnet, complete the dress in its by Bishop Lesley, in his History of Scotland, pubattendance daily in Calcutta, he resided at a country main parts, while a broadsword, dagger (or dirk), and lished in 1578, has been thus rendered in English: house on the banks of the Ganges, about five miles

“ In battle and hostile encounter their missile weafrom the city. “To this spot,” says his amiable and pair of pistols, are considered as appropriate arms. intelligent biographer, Lord' Teignmouth," he re- Such is the outfit of a fancy Highlander of modern pons were a lance or arrows. They used also a twoturned every evening after sunset, and in the morn- times, when he chooses, upon particular occasions, to long, and short for the horse : both had it broad, and

edged sword, which with the foot soldiers was pretty ing rose so early as to reach his apartments in town, revive in his own person the appearance of his fathers; with an edge so exceeding sharp, that at one blow it by walking, at the first appearance of dawn. The in- and such was the aspect suddenly assumed at the king's would easily cut a man in two. For defence, they tervening period of each morning, until the opening of court, was regularly allotted and applied to distinct visit to Scotland in 1822, by hundreds of people accus- used a coat of mail woven of iron rings, which they

wore over a leather jerkin, stout and of bandsome studies." At this time his hour of rising used to be tomed from infancy to all the soft appliances and

appearance, which we call an acton. Their whole between three and four.

decorums of city life. The Highland dress is, in reality, armour was light, that they might the more easily slip During the vacation of the court he was equally oc- extinct as the regular habit of any portion of the British from their enemies' hands, if they chanced to fall into cupied, Writing from Crishna, his vacation residence, people. It was rigorously suppressed by act of Par- such a strait. in 1787, he says, “We are in love with this pastoral liament after the civil war of 1745, and, though once

Their clothing was made for use (being chiefly suited

to war) and not for ornament. All, both nobles and vacation, yet I have no vacant hours. It rarely hap: more tolerated in 1784, was never resumed by any common people, wore mantles of one sort (except that pens that favourite studies are closely connected with considerable portion of the people. It would have ere

the nobles preferred those of several colours). These the strict discharge of our duty, as mine happily are : now, perhaps, perished even as an occasional ornamen- were long and flowing, but capable of being neatly even in this cottage I am assisting the court by study, tal costume, if the Highland regiments had not, in the gathered up at pleasure into folds. I am inclined to ing Arabic and Sanscrit, and have now rendered it an impossibility for the Mahomedan or Hindoo lawyers to

last war, worn it with some eclat, and if Sir Walter believe that they were the same as those to which the Scott had not contrived, at a still later period, to invest these for their only covering, they would Sleep com

ancients gave the name of brachae. Wrapped up in impose upon us with erroneous opinions.” it was these constant exertions, in truth, that gave its chief it with the charm which he could so well give to any fortably. They had also shaggy rugs, such as the enjoyment to his life. In connection with this pur- memorial of the romantic past. It now may be said Irish use at the present day, some fitted for a journey, suit, he employed his active mind in planning the to owe its existence chiefly to the national ardour of a others to be placed on a bed. The rest of their gare Mahomedan laws, with a view to the better admi- few societies, who resolutely aim at preserving at least ments consisted of a short woollen jacket, with the nistration of justice among the natives. This work soine recollection of circumstances, language, and has their darts, and a covering for the thighs of the sim

sleeves open below for the convenience of throwing he did not live to finish, but its subsequent accomplish. biliments, which have happily sunk before the great plest kind, more for decency than for show or a defence ment was entirely owing to his recommendation and social improvements of the last age.

against cold. They made also of linen very large primary labours. His object in this instance was to

The earliest existing notice of the Highland dress shirts, with numerous folds and wide sleeves, which aecure a due attention to the rights of the natives ; and he showed himself equally jealous of those of the appears to be given in a somewhat obscure passage of Rowed abroad loosely to their knees. These the rich

coloured with saffron, and others smeared with some British inhabitants, by opposing an attempt to super

the Norwegian history of Magnus Barefoot—a king of grease to preserve them longer clean among the toils sede the trial by jury.

that country, who, in 1093, reduced the Hebrides. and exercises of a camp, which they held it of the highIn 1789, he gave to the world the translation of an This history, written shortly after the death of the est consequence to practise continually. In the manu. Indian drama, entitled Sacontala, or the Fatal Ring. hero, states that, on his return from the expedition to

facture of these, ornament and a certain attention to His translation of the Ordinances of Menu, the famous the Hebrides,“ he and many of his followers adopted the different parts of their shirts very neatly with silk

taste were not altogether neglected, and they joined interesting to the student of ancient manners and op!- the costume in use in the western lands ; they went thread, chiefly of a green or red colour. nions. This eminent and admirable man, however, about barelegged, having short tunics, and also upper Their women's attire was very becoming. Over a at last fell a sacrifice to an undue zeal in the discharge garments; and so men called him Barelegged or Bare- gown reaching to the ancles, and generally embroiof his duty and his pursuits in literature. In April foot.” The next notice of a distinct and intelligible dered, they wore large mantles of the kind already 1794, he was seized at Calcutta with an inflammation character is given four centuries later, namely, by John described, and woven of different colours. Their chief of the liver, which terminated his life on the twenty

ornaments were the bracelets and necklaces with which seventh of the same month, in the forty-eighth year of Major, the historian, writing in 1512. According to they decorated their arms and necks.”

this writer, the Highland gentlemen of his own day John Taylor, “ the King's Majesties Water Poet," It was by a persevering observance to a few simple wore no covering from the middle of the thigh to the made an excursion to Scotland in the year 1618, of maxims that Sir William Jones was principally en- foot, clothing themselves with a mantle instead of an

which he published an amusing narrative under the abled to accomplish what he did. One of these was

title of “ The Pennylesse Pilgrimage.” He describes upper garment, and a shirt died with saffron. They the dress of the Highlanders in the following account never to neglect an opportunity of improvement : another was, that whatever had been attained by others always carry a bow and arrows, a very broad sword be gives of his visit to Braemar, for the purpose of pagwas attainable by him, and that, therefore, the real or

with a small halbert, a large dagger sharpened on one ing his respects to the Earl of Mar and Sir William supposed difficulties of any pursuit formed no reason side only, but very sharp, under the belt. In time of Moray of Abercairney.-(Taylor's Works, London, why he should not engage in it, and with perfect war, they cover their whole body with a shirt of mail

1633, folio) confidence of success. • li was also,” says his biogra- of iron rings, and fight in that. The common people,"

Thus, with extreme travell, ascending and depher, Lord Teignmouth,

scending, mounting and alighting, I came at night to from which he never voluntarily deviated, not to be he adds,“ rush into battle, having their body clothed the place where I would be, in the Brae of Mar, deterred, by any difficulties which were surmountable, in a linen garment manifoldly sewed and painted, or which is a large county, all composed of such mounfrom prosecuting to a successful termination what he daubed with pitch, with a covering of deer-skin.” taines, that Shooters Hill, Gads Hill, Highgate Hill, had once deliberately undertaken. But what appears From these and some contemporary notices, it seems

Hampstead Bill, Birdlip Hill, or Malvernes Hills, are to me,” adds his lordship, more particularly to

but mole-hills in comparison, or like a liver, or a giato be ascertained that the principal Highland garment zard under a capon's wing, in respect to the altitude have enabled him to employ his talents so much to his own and the public advantage, was the regular allot

was a shirt, dyed, painted, or bedaubed, and that the of their tops, or perpendicularitie of their bottomes. ment of his time to particular occupations, and a scru- next in importance was a mantle; the one being appa

There I saw mount Benawne with a furrd'd mist upon pulous adherence to the distribution which he had rently the original of the kilt, and the other of the understand, that the oldest man alive never saw but

his spowy head instead of a nightcap; for you must Axed : hence all his studies were pursued without in- plaid. It is remarkable that the lower Irish of the the snow was on the top of divers of those hills (both terruption or confusion."

same period went similarly attired. A French author in summer as well as in winter). There did I find Few men have died more regretted, or whose loss to the world of letters was more deeply felt, than Sir of the middle of the sixteenth century, in a description William Jones, who, as a linguist, has scarcely ever of Scotland, says of the Highlanders, “ they wear, like • La Navigation du Roy d'Escosse Jaques Cinquiesme da dan,

autour de son royaume, published by Nicolay d'Arleville, at Pan been surpassed. His acquaintance with the history, I the Irish, a large and full shirt, coloured with saffron, Iris, 1383

his age.

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the truely noble and Right Honourable Lords John | men, is made of fine wool, the thred as fine as can be der and alarm than they were to the denizens of WestErskine, Earle of Marr, James Stuart, Earle of made of that kind; it consists of divers colours, and moreland and Lancashire; and a Scottish Lowlander Murray, Sir William Murray, Knight, of Abercarny, there is a great deal of ingenuity required in sorting the of the present day feels the kilt to be as foreign to his and hundred of others, knights, esquires, and their colours, so as to be agreeable to the nicest fancy. For associations, and eke his hams, as any Southron among followers; all and every man in generall, in one has this reason the women are at great pains, first to give them all. With this inforınation so widely diffused, bit, as if Licurgus had been there, and made lawes of an exact pattern of the plad upon a piece of wood, it is to be hoped that the two ingenious classes alluded equality. For once in the yeere, which is the whole having the number of every thred of the stripe on it. to will henceforth be less apt to commit the solecism moneth of August, and sometimes part of September, The length of it is commonly seven double ells; the one of indicating every thing Scotch by a dress at no time many of the nobility and gentry of the kingdome (for end hangs by the middle over the left arm; the other universal in the country, and for many years nearly their pleasure) doe come into these Highland countries going round the body, hangs by the end over the left altogether disused. * to hunt, where they doe conforme themselves to the arm also : the right hand above it is to be at liberty to habite of the Highland men, who, for the moste part, do any thing upon occasion. Every isle differs from • We are indebted for the facility with which we have obtained speak nothing but Irish, and in former time were each other in their fancy of making plads, as to the the materials of this article, to a late fasciculus or number of the those people which were called the Red-shanks. Their stripes in breadth and colours. This humour is as Transactions of the Iona Club. This club was established in 1833, habite is shooes with but one sole a-piece ; stockings different through the mainland of the Highlands, in for the purpose of ascertaining the antiquities, historical and lite(which they call short hose) made of a warme stuff of so far that they who have seen those places are able, rary, of the Highlands. So much fancy and imposition have been divers colours, which they call tartane. Asfor breeches, at the first view of a man's plad, to guess the place of practised in this department of inquiry, that the commencement many of them, nor their forefathers, never wore any, his residence. When they travel on foot, the plad is of an association designing to conduct its operations in the spirit but a jerkin, of the same stuffe that their hose is of, tied on the breast with a bodkin of bone or wood (just of accuracy, and qualified to do so with zeal and industry, is entheir garters being bands or wreathes of hay or straw, as the spina wore by the Germans, according to the titled to our most respectful consideration. with a plaed about their shoulders, which is a mantle description of C. Tacitus). The plad is tied round of divers colours, much finer and lighter stuffe than the middle with a leather belt; it is pleated from the

CROSSING A River IN SOUTH AMERICA. The their hose, with blue flat caps on their heads, a hand- belt to the knee very nicely. This dress for footmen kerchiefe knit with two knots about their necke ; and is found much easier and lighter than breeches or

mode of crossing a river which is far from inconthus are they attyred. Now, their weapons are long trowis.”

siderable, is of a very peculiar kind, whenever the bory and forked arrowes, swords and targets, harque- In the early part of the last century, when the height of the flood renders the ordinary method of bus ses, muskets, durks, and Loquhabor-axes. With Highlanders made more than one political visit of fording impracticable. On both banks of the river some consequence to the low country, their dress ap- through the bounding torrent, which in some places

are men, whose occupation it is to conduct travellers ing. As for their attire, any man of what degree so- proached more nearly to what it now.is. According breaks violently over concealed rocks. These men are ever that comes amongst them, must not disdaine to weare it; for if they doe, then they will disdaine to in 1726, they wore" a bonnet made of thrum, withi-called Vaqueanos ; they are peasants, take pride and hunt, or willingly to bring in their dogges ; but if men out a brinn, a short coat, a waistcoat, longer by five or

pleasure in their dangerous occupation, and are in gebe kind unto them, and be in their habit, then are six inches, short stockings, and brogues without heels. neral remarkable for their great bodily strength, and they conquered with kindnesse, and the sport will be Few besides gentlemen," says this writer, “ wear the for their large and well-trained horses. The preparaplentifull. This was the reason that I found so many trowze, that is, the breeches and stockings all of one

tions are soon made: as soon as the party plunge into noblemen and gentlemen in those shapes. But to pro- piece, and drawn on together ; over this habit they travellers on both sides, and fasten him between


the stream, the guides press themselves close to the ceed to the hunting.

My good Lord of Marr having put me into that breadths wide, and the whole garb is made of che in such a way that, even if he were to lose his balance, shape, I rode with him from his house, where I saw quered tartan or plaiding; this, with the sword and he cannot easily fall from the saddle. These inen gothe ruines of an old castle, called the castle of Kin- pistol, is called a full

dress, and to a well-proportioned remain constantly pressed together

. Wherever the

vern the horses with such unerring skill, that they droghit. It was built by King Malcolm Canmore (for man, with any tolerable air, it makes an agreeable a hunting house) who raigned in Scotland when Èd- figure ; but this you have seen in London, and it is depth is so great that the horses must swim, the guides ward the Confessor, Harold, and Norman William, chiefly their mode of dressing when they are in the seize the reins of the middle horse, and bid the traraigned in England ; I speak of it, because it was the Lowlands, or when they make a neighbouring visit,

veller shut bis eyes, lest his head grow dizzy. The last house that I saw in those parts; for I was the or go any where on horseback ; but those among them

water rushes by with astounding rapidity and deafenspace of twelve dayes after, before I saw either house, who travel on foot, and have not attendants to carry all three complain of the bath, since even the horse

ing noise, and, in our case, was cold enough to make corne-field, or habitation for any creature, but deere, them over the waters, vary it into the quelt, which is wild horses, wolves, and such like creatures, which a manner I am about to describe.

that swims best plunges so deep into the stream as to made me doubt that I should never have seene a house The common habit of the ordinary Highlanders is freed from the tight grasp of the two guides, that one

wet the rider to the hips. It is not until after being againe.”

far from being acceptable to the eye; with them a In the beginning of the year 1678, a body of High- small part of the plaid, which is not so large as the order to save the traveller, if, in spite of their pre

perceives that they hold the lasso always ready, in landers, " the Highland 'Host," as it was called, former, is set in folds and girt round the waist to make cautions, he should be snatched away by the waves

. amounting to about ten thousand men, were brought of it a short petticoat that reaches half way down the On the coast of Peru, between Lambayeque and Trus. from their native inountains and quartered upon the thigh, and the rest is brought over the shoulder, and illo, are many broad mouths of rivers, or rather arms western counties, for the purpose of suppressing the then fastened before below the neck, often with a fork, of the sea, which can be crossed in this way alone, field meetings and conventicles of the Presbyterians, and sometimes with a bodkin or sharpened piece of since, though generally too shallow to admit of boats, William Cleland, lieutenant-colonel to the Earl of stick, so that they make pretty near the appearance of they have many deep places through which it is necesAngus's regiment, who was killed whilst gallantly de- the people in London, when they bring their gowns fending his post at Dunkeld against a party of High- over their heads to shelter them from the rain. In office of the Chilian Vaqueano, makes the traveller

sary to swim.

There the Chimbador, who takes the landers, soon after the Revolution, wrote a satirical this way of wearing the plaid, they have nothing else poem upon the expedition of the Highland Host, from to cover them, and are often barefoot, but some I is said that those men (the Chimbadors), who are

mount behind him, while he manages the horse. It which the following extracts are taken (Collection of have seen shod with a kind of pumps made out of a Poems, &c. 12mo. 1697, p. 12):raw cow hide with the hair turned outward, which

almost always men of colour, and who ride into the But to discrive them right surpasses being ill made, the wearer's foot looked something like

water in a state of nakedness, always carry with them

a long knife for the purpose of stabbing the passenger, The art of nine Parnassus Lasses.

a rough-footed hen or pigeon. The stocking rises no
higher than the thick of the calf, and from the middle the agony of despair, threaten to involve both in a

should the latter fall off, and, grasping his guide in Their head, their neck, their legs and thighs

of the thigh to the middle of the leg is a naked space, Are influenced by the skies, which being exposed to all weathers, becomes tanned

common destruction.--Poeppig's Travels in Chili, fc. and freckled.

First VIEW OF JERUSALEM.-At eight hours from Without a clout to interrupt them They need not strip them when they whip them;

The plaid is the undress of the ladies at Inverness,

Ramleh, ascending from a valley among the mounNor loose their doublet, when they're hang'd and to a genteel woman who adjusts it with a good air,

tains, we caught the first sight of Jerusalem, half a If they be miss'd, its sure they're wrangd.

is a becoming veil. But as I am pretty sure you league distant. The first exclamation which bursts never saw one of them in England, I shall employ a

forth, is that which prophecy has said shall be in the But those who were their chief commanders, few words to describe it to you. It is made of silk or

mouth of “all that pass," " Is this the city that men As such who bore the pirnie standarts,

fine worsted, chequered with various lively colours, call the perfection of beauty, the joy of the whole Who led the van, and drove the rear,

two breadths wide, and three yards in length; it is earth ?”. It is impossible that any delineation can be Were right well mounted of their gear;

brought over the head, and may hide or discover the more just, or any image more vivid, than is contained With brogues, trues, and pirnie plaides,

face according to the wearer's' fancy or occasion : it in these few words, “How doth the city sit solitary !" With good blew bonnets on their heads,

reaches to the waist behind; one corner falls as low The sight carried across a tract of grey, desolate, and Which on the one side had a flipe

as the ancle on one side ; and the other part in folds barren rock, rests upon a bare dead wall, above which hangs down from the opposite arm.

little is seen except the tops of a few Turkish mosques. Adorn'd with a tobacco pipe,

We here find that a custom had commenced of At this time not a living creature was moving without With durk, and snap work, and snuff mill, making a part of the plaid into a kilt for covering the

the city, and, with the exception of the leaden green A bagg which they with onions fill, And, as their strick observers say,

middle of the body down to nearly the knees, the re- produced by a few ragged olives, scarcely a sign of A tupe horn fill'd with usquebay ;

maining part being carried loosely as a mantle for the vegetation could be traced ; a death-like silence set. shoulders. About the year 1720, when some High

tled upon the rocky waste; and the city, placed upon A slasht out coat beneath her plaides,

land labourers were employed in iron-works in Glen- an eminence, as if an object for observation, presented A targe of timber, nails, and hides ; With a long two-handed sword,

garry's country, they found inconvenience in being one of the most gloomy and melancholy spectacles that As good's the country can affoord ;

unable to lay aside the mantle part of the plaid, and the fancy could paint. - Monroe's Rambles in Syria. Had they not need of bulk and bones,

their English superintendant suggested that the dress LADIES' TA SHOES.--Thin shoes, as an article of Who fight with all these arms at once ?

should be divided. The custom spread, till in time female dress, I am sufficient of a Goth to wish to see It's marvellous how in such weather,

the kilt was generally worn as a separate piece of disused ; and I would replace them with shoes having Ov'r hill and hop they came together;

dress, under the name of fillebeg, or little coat, as it is a moderate thickness of sole, with a thin layer of cork How in such stormes they came so farr ;

now found among the Highland regiments, and in the or felt placed within the shoe and over the sole. Cork

fancy dresses of societies. The reason is, they're smear'd with tar,

is a very bad conductor of heat, and is therefore to Which doth defend them heel and neck,

Before closing this historical sketch of Highland be preferred : if it is not to be had, or is not liked, Just as it doth their sheep protect;

costume, it may be proper to mention distinctly, for felt may be substituted for it. I think thin shoes But least ye doubt that this is true,

the information of our English readers, that not only ought not to be used, unless for the purpose of danoThey're just the colour of tar'd woo'.

is the dress now nearly extinct among the mountains, ing, and then they ought only to be worn while danc

but it does not appear to have ever been, at any time ing. The invalid or dyspeptic ought assuredly never It would appear from Martin's Description of the within the ken of history, used in the Lowlands. to wear thin shoes. And as to the common practice Western Isles, published in 1716, that the saffroned English artists and actors, unacquainted with Scotland, of changing thin shoes for warm boots, it is a practice shirt, called leni-croich (from leni, a shirt, and croich, seem to imagine that tartan and kilts are essentially which I know to be replete with danger, and theresaffron), and which he says took twenty-four ells of characteristic of the whole country, whereas they were fore to be rash and almost culpable. There is another cloth to make it, being the upper robe, and girdled never used any where else than in a rude and thinly custom, or habit, or usage, in the dress of my fair round the middle, was laid aside by the islanders early peopled part of the kingdom, which hardly acknowo countrywomen, which must be noticed here ; it is that in the seventeenth century; trews having come in its ledged the same laws till almost within the recollec- of covering the head with a cap in the morning, and place. This writer speaks of the Highland gentlemen tion of people still living. To the Scottish people, in leaving it uncovered in the afternoon or evening. It of his time having assumed the usual garb of the south 1745, the Highlanders, with their peculiar dress and is indefensible, useless, absurd, and dangerous.-Roof Seotland. “The plad,” says he, “wore only by the l arms, seem to have been objects of scarcely less won- bertson's Popular Treatise on Food and Regimen,

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