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minate in the sublimest triumphs of genius. Modest amused himself with hunting, and gave the rest of his called the Seasons, the words of which are taken from and patient, he was indebted in a great measure to hours of relaxation to the society of his orienaro Liv. Thomson. This work was also performed for the first mere industry for his ultimate success. While sup- ing in the utmost retirement, he himself was perhaps time in the Sunartzenberg palace, and received with porting himself as well as he could by teaching, he the only musical man in Europe who was ignorant of the warmest applause. It did not, iowever, make so studied the theory of his art, in its more complicated the celebrity of Joseph Haydn. The first homage he rapid or strong an impression as that which was made and abstract forms, from the works of Matheson, received consisted of a commission from a Parisian by the Creation. Its subject is not so sublime, por are Heinichen, and others : for the practice he resorted to amateur to compose a piece of vocal music, accom- its beauties so obvious and striking. the works of Emanuel Bach, a musician to whom he panied with some select passages of Lulli and Rameau This work terminated Haydn's musical career. By ever afterwards acknowledged the greatest obligations. to serve as models. He returned for answer, with sly the labours of his long life, he had acquired a moderate

The first public employment he acquired was that simplicity, that he was Haydn, and not Lulli or Ra- competency; and after his last return from England, of organist to the friars of the Misericordia, but the meau; and that if music after the manner of those he purchased a smali house and garden in one of the salary was so small, that he was obliged to perform in great composers was wanted, it should be asked from suburbs of Vienna, where he resided for the remainother places to obtain mere necessaries. At the age them or their pupils ; but that, as to himself, he un-ing years of his life. Soon after he had taken posses. of eighteen he composed for a German baron a quar- fortunately could write music only after the manner sion of his little home, he received a communication tetto which succeeded, and from that time he was the of Haydn.

from the National Institute of France, informing him author of a number of trios and sonatas, which were In 1790, Mr Salomon, who had undertaken to give that he had been nominated an associate of that body; often published by the scholars to whom he gave them, concerts in London, made proposals to Haydn to as- an honour by which he was deeply affected. He now without consulting him, or giving him a share in the sist in conducting these concerts, and to compose pieces began to sink rapidly under the pressure of age and profit. His reputation' by degrees made its way, and for them, offering him L.50 for each concert. Haydn intirmities. He seldom quitted his house and garden ; in 1700, at the age of twenty-eight, he was just raised accepted the offer, and arrived in England at the age and his enfeebled mind began to be baunted with the above indigence, by being appointed maestro di capella of fifty-nine. He remained in London about twelve double fear of poverty and disease. The visits of his in second to Prince Esterhazy. He now fulfilled an months, during which time he composed some of the friends would rouse him, and, in conversing with engagement which he had made in his days of penury, finest of his works, particularly the magnificent or them, he occasionally showed his former cheerfulness to marry the daughter of the musician who had chestral compositions so well known as the “ Twelve and vivacity. When he was told that the French In. befriended him. His music, on account of its origi- Symphonies for Salomon's Concerts,” and the beauti- stitute, in 1805, supposing him to be dead, had per. nality and difficulty, for a time was not generally ful English canzonets, the poetry of which was written formed a requiem for him, he said pleasantly, - If relished in Germany, and underwent criticism. Some by Mrs Hunter.

these kind gentlemen had given me notice of my went so far as even to write pamphlets against his Haydn used to relate several whimsical anecdotes of death, I would have gone myself to beat the time for works, complaining of them as wild, flighty, and his stay in London. A captain of the navy came to them.” But these gleams were brief and transient, trifling, and as tending to introduce new musical him one morning, and asked him to compose a march and he sank into his usual state of torpor and depresdoctrines, which till then had been totally unknown for some troops he had on board, offering him thirty sion. in that country. The only notice that Haydn deigned guineas for his trouble, but requiring it to be done While he was in this state, his friends in Vienna to take of the scurrility and abuse which was thus immediately, as the vessel was to sail next day for resolved to have a performance of the Creation. It heaped upon him, was to publish lessons written in Calcutta. As soon as the captain was gone, Haydn took place in the palace of Prince Lobkowitz, with an imitation of the several styles of his adversaries. In sat down to the piano-forte, and the march was ready orchestra of one hundred and sixty performers, and these their peculiarities were so closely copied, and in a few minutes. Feeling some scruples at gaining before an audience of more than fifteen hundred of their extraneous passages so inimitably burlesqued, his money so very easily, Haydn wrote two other the nobility and gentry of the Austrian capital. that they all felt keenly the poignancy of his musical marches, intending first to give the captain his choice, Haydn, feeble as he was, expressed his desire to appear wit, and were silent.

and then to make him a present of all the three, as a once more in the presence of that public for whom he At the death of Werner, his superior in place, return for his liberality. Next morning the captain had laboured so long, and from whom he had received Haydn succeeded to the office of chief director of mu- returned, and asked for his march. “Here it is," so many marks of favour and esteem. He was carried sic to Prince Esterhazy, and he spent thirty years in said the composer. The captain asked to hear it on into the room in an easy chair, attended by the Prin. the obscure Hungarian village belonging to that fa- the piano-forte ; and having done so, laid down the cess Esterhazy, and other ladies, who went to the mily, passing only two or three months at Vienna thirty guineas, pocketed the march, and walked away. door to meet him, and was placed in the middle of the when the prince came to court.

Haydn tried to stop him, but in vain the march was seats occupied by the most illustrious personages in The national music of the Germans is rough, bold, very good. “ But I have written two others,” cried Vienna, amid the flourishes of the orchestra, and the and grand; and although they do not display the soft- Haydn,“ which are better; hear them, and take your plaudits of the audience. The performance began; ness of the Italians, it is generally acknowledged that choice.” “I like the first very well, and that is and the feelings of the assembly, inspired by the suin instrumental music, and particularly in that for enough,” answered the captain, pursuing his way blime music, were raised to enthusiasm by the aspect wind instruments, they have excelled all other na- down stairs. Haydn followed, crying out, “ But I of the venerable composer, who now appeared among tions. The introduction of a more refined manner was make you a present of them.” “I won't have them !" them to take farewell of them for ever. An eminent reserved for Haydn, who, in originality, pathos, and roared the seaman, with a nautical asseveration, and physician, who sat near him, having remarked that beautiful air, surpassed all rivalry. Besides numerous bolted out at the street door. Haydn, determined not his legs were not sufficiently protected from the cold, pieces for instruments, le composed many operas for to be outdone, hastened to the Exchange, and, disco- the finest and most costly shawls were instantly pulled the Esterhazy theatre, and which were also performed vering the name of the ship and her commander, sent from the shoulders of their fair wearers who sur. in the theatres of Vienna and Berlin. He also ex. the marches on board with a pelite note, which the rounded him, and employed in making him warm and celled in church music, being only approached in this captain, surmising its contents, sent back unopened. comfortable. The old man shed tears at this mark of department by his brother Michael. An oratorio Haydn tore the marches into a thousand pieces, and affection. At the end of the first act, feeling himself which he composed in 1775, under the title of Il Ri. never forgot this liberal English humorist as long as exhausted with fatigue and emotion, he requested to forno di Tobia, for the benefit of the widows of musi- he lived.

be taken home. Before reaching the door, be desired cians, is as favourite a piece in Germany as Handel's While he resided in London, Haydn enjoyed two the persons who were bearing him in his chair to stop; Messiah is in England." His instrumental Passione, high gratifications ; that of hearing the music of Han- and having first taken farewell of the audience by in parts, is among the most exquisite of his serious del, with which, like most of his countrymen at that bowing his head, he turned to the orchestra, and, vitá productions. It consists entirely of slow movements time, he was very slightly acquainted, and that of his eyes raised to heaven, and full of tears, uttered a on the subject of the last seven sentences of the Sa- being present at the concerts of ancient music, which parting blessing on the old companions of his labours. viour, as recorded by the evangelists. These strains were then splendidly patronised, and carried on Haydn did not long survive this touching scene. are so truly impassioned, and full of heart-felt grief with great talent. He witnessed the annual celebra- The tranquillity of his last days was disturbed by the and dignified sorrow, that, although the movements tion in St Paul's cathedral, which is attended by the alarms of war. In the struggle between Austria and are all slow, the subjects, the keys, and effects, are so children belonging to the charity schools in the metro- France in 1809, the Emperor Napoleon carried his new and so different, that a real lover of music will polis; and was affected even to tears by the psalms army to the very gates of Vienna. Durirg this dread. feel no lassitude, nor wish for lighter strains to stimu, sung in unison by four thonsand infantine voices. ful campaign Haydn was greatly agitated. He was late attention. In Haydn's allegros, there is a general One of these tures he jotted down in his memoran- constantly inquiring for news, and used to sit at his cheerfulness and character of good humour, which ex- dum-book; and he used afterwards to say, that this piano-forte, singing with his feeble and trembling hilarates every hearer. His adagios, again, are often simple and natural air gave him the greatest pleasure voice, “ God preserve the Emperor !" On the night so sublime in ideas and in harmony, that, though he had ever received from music.

of the 10th of May, the French reached Schoenbrunn; plaved by inarticulate instruments, they have an irre. Haydn returned to England in 1794, having been and next morning, from a position within a few yards sistible effect upon the softer feelings.' His power of engaged by Gallini, the manager of the Opera House, of Haydn's house, they fired fifteen hundred cannone expression was, indeed, universal, and alike exem- to compose an opera for that theatre, on the subject of shot and shells upon the city, which the old man's plified in symphonies, sonatas, concertos, quartets, Orpheus and Eurydice. But there was some dificulty imagination represented to him as given up to fire and Operas, oratorios, and instrumental pieces of every about opening the theatre, and Haydn left England sword. Four hombs fell close to his dwelling, and class. Burney, in introducing an account of his music, without having finished his opera. During this visit, their explosion filled his little household with terror. speaks of him as “the admirable and matchless Haydn, he had the honour of the diploma of a doctor of music He roused himself, and, getting up from his chair, refrom whose productions I have received more pleasure conferred on him by the university of Oxford. buked his servants with dignity for their want of firlate in my life, when tired of most other music, than After his return from England, he undertook his But the effort was too much for him ; he was I ever received in the most ignorant and rapturous great work, the Creation. While in London, he had seized with a convulsive shivering, and carried to bed. period of my youth, when every thing was new, and been inspired with the most profound admiration for His strength continued to diminish; yet, on the 20th the disposition to be pleased undiminished by critics the music of Handel, and especially the Messiah ; and of May, he caused himself to be placed at his piani. or satiety.” As a performer, Haydn is said to have it is to this feeling that the world is certainly indebted forte, where he again sang the national hymn, three been extremely neat, elegant, and impressive. for the Creation. He began this work in 1795, when times over, with all his remaining energy. It was

Although the fame of Haydn excited no small jea- he was sixty-three years of age, and finished it in the the song of the swan. While he still sat at the piano. lousy among his contemporaries, there were two, and beginning of 1798, 'baving been constantly employed forte, he fell into a state of stupor, and at last espired

these the greatest of them all, namely, Gluck and upon it for more than two years. When urged by his on the morning of the 31st of May, aged seventy-eight · Mozart, who, with the generosity seldom found want- friends to bring it to a conclusion, he used to say years and two months. He was privately interred in

ing in successful talent, warmly declared the friendly calmly, “I spend a long time upon it, because I intend the suburb of Gumpendorff, in which he resided, and admiring feelings with which they regarded him. it to last a long time." In the Lent of the above year, Vienna being in the possession of the French, and the In return he did justice to their nierits, and at the it was performed for the first time, in the Schwartzen- Requiem of Mozart was performed for him in the death of the latter, was extremely affected, declaring berg palace, at the expense of the Dilettanti Society of Scotch church of the city. His heir was a blacksmith the loss irreparable.

Vienna, before the flower of the literary and musical or farrier, to whom he left 38,000 florins, deducting In the service of Prince Esterhazy, Haydn might society of that city; the composer himself conducting 12,000, which he bequeathed to his two faithful ser be considered as in circumstances highly favouralule the orchestra. It was received with an enthusiasm vants. to the full developement of his powers, being at the which soon spread throughout all Europe. It was Such was the life of this great, and, it may be added, head of a great orchestra, and wholly free from the while the first Consul of France was on his way to good man. He was a stranger to every evil and Eatroubles and cares of the world. During that long witness its first perforinance in Paris, that the me- lignant passion, and, indeed, was not much under the period, nis life was regular, and constantly employed. morable attempt was made to destroy him by means intluence of passion of any sort. But his disposition He rose early in the morning, dressed himself very of an “infernal machine." It was performed about was cheerful and gentle, and his heart was brimful of neatly, and placed bimself at a little table by the side the same time in London ; and from that period to kindly atfections. He was friendly and benevolent, of his piano-forte, where he remained with the inter- the present, it has formed a part of every great per open and candid in the expression of his sentiments, ruption only of his meals. In the evening he attended formance of sacred music,

always ready to acknowledge and aid the claims of renearsals, or the opera, rhich was performed four Two years after the appearance of the Creation, talent in his own art, and, in all his actions, distis. - times a-week in the prince's palace. Occasionally he Haydn produced another work, of a similar form, I guished by the most spotless integrity. Such is te




account of him given by all those who knew him best; will prevent minute portions of Aaky threads from in- veins was spoken of ; but it is remarkable how few and they add, as the most remarkable feature of his termingling; should even one such portion be injected, instances of this took place, and those which did occur character, that strong and deeply rooted sense of reli- recovery can scarcely be expected. I need not speak were generally slight, and never appeared to be the gion, which is the only solid foundation of moral ex- of the danger of injecting air. Reid's syringe was the cause of death. cellence. Haydn's piety was not a mere feeling, instrument employed, with connecting tubes ; every The usual and very gratifying effects of this remedy capabile. as is often the case with worldly men, of being precaution was taken to have the valves of the syringe have been already detailed at sufficient length, to show excited for the moment by circumstances, and dying in good order, and the tubes air-tight.

the complete alteration produced on the character of away when the external influence is removed : it was The operation should be performed by two persons; the disease. But I have now to mention that rigors, an active principle, which guided the whole tenor of one to open the vein, introduce the tube, and keep it severe rigors, almost invariably followed the saline his life and conduct. His sacred music was exalted in position ; the other to take charge of the fluid to injection. They generally commenced a few minutes by the existence, in his mind, of those devout senti- be injected, and the apparatus. It is necessary to have after the completion of the operation, sometimes durments which it is the object of sacred music to ex- an assistant at hand to do any thing that may be re-ing its performance. If there were nothing more to press. *

quired, so that the attention of the operators may be offer, the occurrence of this phenomenon affords proof, entirely devoted to the parts they have to act. The the most decisive, of a pathological change in the sys

position of the operators is a matter of some conse- tem, as no one has ever seen a patient labouring un. SINGULAR MODE OF TREATMENT FOR

quence, as the operation will occupy fully half an der cholera shiver, or present any thing like a decided CHOLERA.

hour; the person whose duty it is to open the vein rigor. It will probably be remembered by many of our should be comfortably seated on the side of the bed Early in our operations, several patients, who had readers, that among the various modes of treatment corresponding to the arm on which he is to operate ; been twice or thrice injected, asked me what had bethich were suggested for the cure of cholera, while the other should be seated across a form, or narrow come of all the liquid they had received into their that disease raged in Great Britain in 1832, one was

table, with the vessel placed between his legs. His veins. This was a natural question, and had intensely

first duty is to pump the Auid through the tubes for occupied my thoughts ; but however mysterious the remarkable for its singularity, and the success which a few minutes, in order to get rid of any air that may subject appeared to us at the time, it was at last un. under certain circumstances attended it, namely, the be attached to any part of the syringe, or sides of the ravelled liy watching the operations of nature ; for in injection oj saline solutions into the veins. With the tubes-the extremity of the tube being kept under the course of twenty or thirty minutes after the injecview of making this mode of practice as widely known the surface of the liquid. When the vein has been tion, one or two very copious discharges of a watery

opened, and the nosle introduced, the operator is to fluid took place from the stomach, without nausea, as possible, so as to be still more fully tested and im- keep it'in its place with the finger and thumb of the and sometimes there was a large watery stool. Soon proved upon, we offer the following account of it, left hand, and take hold of the extremity of the tube after this, unfavourable symptoms again frequently given by Dr Mackintosh in the new edition of his with the right; he is to place his index-finger to soop took place; all the appearances of cholera returned, work on the Practice of Medicine. It is necessary to

the mouth of the tube, it being still under the surface, the patients occasionally sank into a collapsed condipremise that the doctor acted as physician to the Drum- while the other operator gently pushes the piston tion, and unless the operation was repeated, death fol.

down—this is to satisfy him that it is full; he then lowed. One woman, who recovered, was injected six mond Street Hospital, at Edinburgh, where the treat

directs the point towards the nosle, which, if not filled times; between the first and second operation, three ment was for some time followed along with the usual with blood, ought to be filled with the injection before hours intervened ; between the second and third, six means for the recovery of patients.

the tube is finally connected with it. All this, to in- hours; between the third and fourth, four hours ; be"That there is a deficiency of serum (thin watery sure success, must be quickly and dexterously done. tween the fourth and fifth, four days ; and between fluid) in the blood in cholera patients, was soon sus.

Upon a signal given by the first operator, the other is the fifth and sixth operation, twelve days. In all, fifty pected ; and the point having been well established by to commence pumping, being careful to hold the pounds and a half were thrown into the system. chemical analysis, the attention of practitioners was syringe perpendicularly, and never take his eye from From memory, I may state that about one-half of directed to discover the cause of the deficiency, and the vessel, or direct his attention to any other matter.

those who recovered after this operation were bled, or means were employed to restore the loss.

The whole of the fluid, consisting of ten pounds, may had leeches applied. One, for instance, was bled three The bold idea of restoring the loss at once, by in- be with safety introduced in thirty minutes ; in which times, and had sixty leeches applied ; and on looking jecting a large quantity of saline solution into the ve- time we may reasonably suppose the blood will have back at the cases, I believe that several were lost from nous system, occurred to the original mind of the late performed the circulation several times, and the in- want of bleeding, as febrile symptoms almost always Dr Latta of Leith, who, by his unwearied and unrejection been mixed in a very gradual manner with the followed the injection, and many of those who died mitting exertions on this occasion, contracted bad vital fluid. All danger of overloading the system were destroyed by inflammatory action in different health, and died soon afterwards of consumption. He suddenly, and rùpturing vessels, is in this manner organs. was ably and zealously supported in his investigations avoided. It was wonderful to witness the effects In the Drummond Sireet Hospital, there were one by Dr Lewins, who encouraged and assisted him, speedily produced by the injection. These I shall now hundred and fifty-six patients injected, twenty-five of when others threw every obstacle in the way of his ex

whom recovered. An important question has often periments, and too often gave erroneous reports of his It is remarkable low speedily the injection affects been put to me in reference to these cases–Did you practice.

the pulse, making it perceptible after it had ceased to diminish the proportion of deaths by this practice ?" When first informed of what Dr Latta had done, be felt at the wrist. By the time four ounces were in- It may be necessary to remind my readers of the un. my mind became terrified at the contemplation of all troduced, the pulse could generally be distinctly counted; deniable fact, that of the really collapsed or blue cases, the evil consequences which might result from such and when about three pounds were introduced, it be in which the pulse was either so weak as scarcely to extraordinary means. The danger of air finding its came a tolerably good one, although it might be still be felt, or was imperceptible at the wrist, one case way into the vascular system, the rupture of blood- feeble, and perhaps rapid. At last, when the pulse only out of twelve recovered; I think this calculation vessels, dropsy, and the fatal effects of inflammation of became of natural strength, the injection was sus- too high, and that the number of recoveries is not veins, made me, as I have no doubt it did others, re- pended for a little. The quantity injected depended more than one in twenty. The number of recoveries gard the cure as worse than the disease. I was principally upon the state of the pulse, and we were by injection has been already stated—it gives the proanxiously urged to try the practice ; but I resisted un- always glad when the object was effected with the portion of recoveries to deaths as I in 6 6-25ths. Not til Drs Latta and Lewins afforded me an opportunity smallest quantity of Auid. At the same time, as we one of the patients operated on had a chance of recoof examining the body of a woman who had been in sometimes found the pulse flag again, requiring an im- very by any other means. Should I ever have charge jected. After a very minute and careful examination, mediate repetition of the injection, we became careful

of cholera patients again, I shall, profiting by the exI could discern no rupture of blood-vessels-no effus not to discontinue the operation too soon.

perience I now possess, use the saline solution at an sion of liquid into the cavities or the cellular tissue. The effect on the cramps was quite remarkable ; earlier period of the stage of collapse, nay, at its comIn fact, I could see no appearance that was not usually they generally ceased as soon as the pulse became mencement, in order to lessen the thickness of the seen in other victims of cholera, when the ordinary good, and seldom troubled the patient again. Many blood before organic mischief is done." treatment had been pursued.

cases that appeared to us hopeless, from age, and the I was too old to be led away by any very extraordi- ravages of previous disease, were injected solely with NAVIGATION BY TREADMILLS.—You may perhaps nary expectations of the results of this practice ; and a view to mitigate the sufferings of the patients, pro- laugh at the idea, and so may some of your readers ; in order that we might err on the safe side, it was de- duced by cramps.

but on further consideration I doubt not my propositermined, after deliberate consultation with my kind

The effect on the animal heat is also almost instan- tion will not be deemed quite so preposterous as at friend and ablecolleagne Mr Meikle, that no one should taneous; the body, which could not previously be heated, first sight it may appear—it is, that transports should be operated upon in this manner till every other means now becomes warm, and instead of a cold damp exu- be fitted with paddles and a treadmill. A treadmill ! had been tried in vain, till the collapse was extreme, dation on the surface, there is a gentle and genial | I think I hear you exclaim. Yes, a treadmill for the and the patient appeared to be in the very jaws of moisture.

use of the troops. “ Cyril Thornton” alludes to a death. While this will be admitted to be the prudent The respiration, however weak previously, soon be treadmill in a long-continued calm between the tropics course we were bound to pursue, it will be allowed it came stronger. It sometimes happened, when about as being desirable on account of the diversity in the was not calculated to give the practice the best chance four pounds of the injection were introduced, that the exercise it would afford; but he makes no allusion to of success. On the contrary, in looking over the respiration became rather laborious, which generally paddles, without which the treadmill would be up-hill cases, my only surprise now is, that one of the indivi- gave way after more fluid was thrown into the system. work without any prospect of reaching the summit. duals recovered by any means that human ingenuity The voice, which had been whispering, now became It might indeed be had recourse to for recreation or could suggest. quite natural.

punishinent, but these are secondary considerations. The substances injected were in the following pro- In proportion as the pulse and the temperature were In a protracted calm, with well-adapted paddles, and portions : Muriate of soda, half an ounce; bi-carbo- restored, so did the countenance improve. The eye, the vis inertiæ of a large body of men desirous of nate of soda, four scruples ; water, ten pounds. We from being sunk, became prominent; the shrinking escaping from so unpleasant a predicament, their vocommenced this treatment on the 12th May 1832 ; the of the features, and the dark colour of the face and of luntary exertions would achieve advantages of infisolution was made in the proportions above stated till the body, generally disappeared. The expression, in nitely greater consequence. Besides the utility of 21st August, after which the quantity of each of the fact, became animated, and the mind lively.

paddles in calms, they might be beneficially employed salts was doutled. The temperature was from 106 to

The restlessness and uneasy feelings vanished. The in passing straits, with adverse currents and light 120 degrees. The solution was carefully strained twice despondency, vertigo, tinnitus aurium, præcordial op- winds. More might be said on the utility of the prothrough leather. The salts must not be carelessly pression, gave way to pleasurable feelings ; and I have posed measure, but every person of experience in the thrown into very hot water, and subsequently cooled, not unfrequently seen patients sit up in bed immedi- service must recollect situations, where paddles suffias we found that water at a high temperature gradu- ately after the operation, in perfect possession of them- ciently worked for a limited period would have mateally decomposed the salts, and the solution remained selves, and speak with joy on the sudden transition rially curtailed the duration of the voyage.--Letter in turbid. The good effects of the injection were rapid from agony and death to happiness and life.

the United Service Journal. in proportion to the heat of the solution, but patients Thirst, however urgent it might have been previous A SAYING OF Pascal.-Pascal, the eminent French could not bear a higher temperature than that above to the operation, soon ceased after its commencement. mathematician and religionist, has a thought which it mentioned. The precautions necessary in making and The secretion of urine, in general, soon returned would not be amiss to examine by those who are living using the injection are of vital importance. If solid after the injection ; but in this we were more fre- for other aims than those which ought to be the real salino matter be thrown into the circulation, death in quently disappointed than in any of the other favour- end of existence: “All our endeavours after greatness all probability must inevitably ensue. If the solution able symptoms.

proceed from nothing but a desire of being surrounded be strained through linen, or a towel, no precaution The period of death was undoubtedly postponed, by a multitude of persons and affairs that may hinder

sometimes for hours, more frequently for days, and us from looking into ourselves, which is a view we * This article is compiled from Aiken's General Biographical sometimes even for weeks, and in some cases a perfect cannot bear.” Probably few are conscious that this is Dictionary, Burney's History of Music, and Mr Hogarth's late excellent publication, “ Musical History, Biography, and Critirecovery took place.

the reason why they so busily wa te their lives in un. cism," from which the whole of the latter moiety has been ex

In noticing the bad effects which might naturally worthy pursuits, though none can be insensible of hav. tracted.

be expected from this operation, inflammation of the ling the effect produced.



nuns will seldom admit so much) common causes of plucked the tender infant, the heir of Lochbuy, from

the hands of the nurse, and bounding to the rocks, in DURING a temporary sojourn in the south of Ireland, taking the veil. The beautiful part of life, the mu

tual and social affections, are destroyed by this selfish a moment stood on an almost inaccessible cliff project. euriosity, the traveller's usual companion, induced us to visit the Ursuline convent, in Waterford, not so

seclusion_and what is life without them? A blank, ing over the water. The screams of the agonised momuch with a wish to see the interior, as to observe the a shadow, a "world without a sun !". Pitiable, in- ther and chief at the awful jeopardy in which their only

child was placed, may be easily conceived. Maclean happiness which the fair inmates are said to enjoy in deed, is that being who has not one link left to creatheir voluntary seclusion, and to ascertain the truth of tion; then, is it not equally pitiable, that a withdrawal implored the man to give him back his son, and extheir being perfectly contented and resigned to their from the world of those who might have been amiable pressed his deep contrition for the degradation he had self-imposed restriction from the world. We wished wives and valuable mothers, according to the will of in a moment of excitement inflicted on his clansınan. also to see how time bore out the fulfilment of vows of the great Creator-is it not absurd that such beings The other replied, that the only conditions on which

are exempt, by their own folly, from sharing the boun- he would consent to the restitution were, that Maclean early devotion--vows often prematurely made, hastily tiful blessings the Almighty has dispersed throughout himself should bare his back to the cord, and be pube taken, and ever after regretted. the world for our good ?-Liverpool Albion.

licly scourged as he had been! In despair the chief One of our party was a young lady who had been

consented, saying he would submit to any thing if his educated in the convent, as far as education could be

child were but restored. To the grief and astonishment given to one born deaf and dumb; consequently, the


of the clan, Maclean bore this insult, and when it was languages and music were lost to her. The only accom

completed begged that the clansman inight return from plishment which compensated for these was drawing,

[By Professor Wilson.]

his perilous situation with the young chief. The man an art in which she excelled. With an intelligent Art thou a thing of mortal birth,

regarded him with a smile of demoniac revenge, and countenance, an animated expression, and, by the help Whose happy home is on the earth ?

lifting high the child in the air, plunged with him into of the alphabet on her fingers, she explained that the Does human blood with life embue

the abyss below. The sea closed over them, and neiLady Abbess was the sister of a celebrated Irish bar- Those heavenly veins of heavenly blue,

ther, it is said, ever emerged from the tempestuous rister, eminent for his eloquence. We were shown That stray along thy forehead fair,

whirlpools and basaltic caverns that yawned around into a plainly furnished reception room by one of the Lost 'mid a gleam of golden hair?

them, and still threaten the inexperienced navigator on Sisters of Charity-a class of persons who do much Oh! can that light and airy breath

the shores of Mull.-Inverness Courier. good in visiting the sick and poor. She announced us, Steal from a being doom'd to death ;

SUPINENESS OF JAMAICA MEN.-On a late excurand immediately afterwards the Lady Abbess entered. Those features to the grave be sent

sion with Mr Jerdan to the summit of one of the I shall never forget how much I was struck with the In sleep thus mutely eloquent? appearance of this lady. I have seen all classes, grades, Or art thou what thy form would seem,

mountains of Liguanea, called Peter's Rock, in some

places where detached portions of the side of the and costumes, but never before saw more elegance, The phantom of a blessed dream ?

mountain had slipped away, we were surprised at the ease, and beauty, in a more unbecoming garb. Her

A human shape I feel thou art,

amazing quantity of copper ore that was visible, not long robe was of coarse black stuff, girded round the

I feel it, at my beating heart,

in veins, but in petrous masses about three or four waist by a leathern belt, from which depended the

Those tremors, both of soul and sense,

pounds weight. I am astonished, amongst all the rosary. A white linen bandage encircled her fair Awoke by infant innocence !

mining companies that have been established for other forehead, over which hung a long black veil—no trace

Though dear the forms by fancy wove,

countries, that speculating people'at home have never of hair was visible, and no vestige of outward adorn

We love them with a transient love;

made a trial of the lead and copper mines here. The ment; still, the gentle yet dignified bearing of the

Thoughts froin the living world intrude

unsuccessful experiment that was made by ignorant lovely nun gave to this solemn and simple garb

Ev'n on her deepest solitude :

people, and on too small a scale to be productive of grace beyond the reach of art," a charm that was pe

But, lovely child! thy magic stole

any good, is no argument against a further trial. It culiarly interesting. Her features were pale and

At once into my inmost soul,

must not be supposed, because the people of Jamaica placid ; she appeared about five-and-thirty, and had

With feelings as thy beauty fair,

take no advantage of the natural resources of the been inmured there seventeen years, without a bope

And left no other vision there.

country, that they are not worth attending to. The or wish, as she asserted, if we could believe her, for

people of Jamaica make no novel experiments: they emancipation, as, when once the veil is taken, the doors To me thy parents are unknown; are closed upon the fair for ever, for they are buried

Glad would they be their child to own!

find the sugar planted, and where it is they continue

to cultivate it: they find the hoe the ancient implewithin the convent walls.

And well they must have loved before,

ment of the husbandman, and they have no desire to As English Protestants, we were shown every cour

If since thy birth they lov'd not more ; tesy, ard there seemed a wish to remove the gloomy

How happy must thy parents be,

change it for the plough. They want to build a

house_they send to England for the bricks, rather idea we had formed of cloistered cells, dreary dormito

Who daily live in sight of thee !
Whose hearts no higher pleasure seek

than cut stone from the quarries which every where ries, and melancholy incarceration. I looked on the

Than see thee smile, and hear thee speak

abound. They object to the introduction of steamLady Abbess with pity and regret as she moved with

engines for the sugar-mills, that the scarcity of firethe grace of a gentlewoman before us, through the

What joy must in their souls have stirr'd

wood is too great; and yet, if the first geologist of chapel, school, drawing and music rooms—the first

When thy first broken words were heard ! decorated with foreign relics, paintings, and sculpture

Words that, inspired by Heaven, express'd

Europe were to visit Jamaica, and state that the in..

dication of coal was evident in the formations of the on scriptural subjects, the second covered with engrav

The transports dancing in thy breast ! ings and lithographs of the first masters, and the latter

As for thy smile !-thy lip, cheek, brow,

neighbouring mountains (and that there are such infurnished with two piano-fortes, a harp, and a guitar.

Even when I gaze, are kindling now.

dications I have little doubt), no effort would be made

to obtain it. In fact, no adequate effort has been She thien led us past a row of shrines of the sisterhood, Oh! that my spirit's eye could sec

made to develope the one-twentieth part of the avail. all beautifully decorated with fresh and fair flowers of Whence burst those gleams of ecstacy!

able resources of this naturally rich and fertile countheir own cultivation,

That light of dreaming soul appears

try.-Madden's Twelve Months in the West Indies. On the crucifix of one was simply the small blue To play from thoughts above thy years.

RHEUMATISM. Persons who are subject to local atflower - forget me not. The lady of this shrine was Thou smil'st as if thy soul were soaring

tacks of rheumatism, should guard theinselves against kneeling beside the organ as we passed through the

To Heaven, and Heaven's God adoring!

the transitions of atinosphere which are so common in chapel, meditating so deeply in prayer as not to ob

And who can tell what visions high

this climate. This may be done by regulating their serve our party. Over every door was printed a text May bless an infant's sleeping eye ?

clothing so as to prevent sudden exposure to cold air. from scripture, to impress upon the minds of all edu- What brighter throne can brightness find

It is equally necessary to protect the head, especially cated in the convent the advantage of remembering

To reign on than an infant's mind,

if the person be much engaged where air has a free that “God sees us," “ God is with us," and that

Ere sin destroy, ere error dim,

current, as it is to such circumstances that we can “Ged is good unto us." According to some of Mrs

The glory of the Seraphim ?

often trace a rheumatic attack. The constant and unRadcliffe's romantic descriptions, I was disappointed Oh! vision fair ! that I could be

remitting wear of flannel next the skin, under all to find the dormitory a long comfortable room, like Again as young, as pure as thee !

weathers and all seasons, will do more in preventing that of a ladies' seminary, with little beds arranged Vain wish! the rainbow's radiant form

these affections than any other precautions. The unon each side, covered with dark counterpanes : the May view, but cannot brave the storm;

interrupted flow of the sensible and insensible perspirLady Abbess has a room to herself. She made some Years can bedim the gorgeous dyes

ations, is one of the most important means of health cheerful remarks on the conforts they possessed, not- That paint the bird of paradise,

that we are acquainted with ; its obstruction may conwithstanding my scepticism and credulity, on the ap. And years, so fate had order'd, roll

sequently be regarded as one of the principal causes pearance of so much prison discipline. We had Clouds o'er the summer of the soul ;

of our acute and chronic maladies; it therefore beone proof that the fair sisterhood do not always fast Yet sometimes sudden sights of grace,

hoves all those who are subject to colds, to be very as well as pray, for a most savoury vapour of goodly Such as the gladness of thy face,

careful to prevent such an occurrence. - Oracle of viauds escaped from the lower regions of the establish- Oh! sinless babe! by God are given,

Health, inent; but, probably, it was the day of confessional, To charm the wanderer back to Heaven.

SAGACITY OF Dogs. I am indebted to Lord Storell and the ladies expected their pastors to dinner. After perambulating a well-selected library and the --Abridged from Wilson's Poetical Works, 2 vols. 8vo. for the following anecdote :-Mr Edward Cook, after

having lived some time with his brother at Tugsten museum, which is enriched by the liberality of visitors

in Northumberland, went to America, and took with with some natural or foreign curiosity, in zoology, Wild REVENGE. — The Celtic legends, like the him a pointer dog, which he lost soon afterwards while geology, and conchology, we arrived at the hall door, Celtic language, though deficient in terms of art and shooting in the woods near Baltimore. Some time and, turning round with a sweet yet sad espression, refinement, are peculiarly rich in the expression of the after, Mr and Mrs Cook, who continued to reside at our interesting guide said, “Now, I will take you to passions. Joy, grief, fear, love, hatred, and revenge, Tugsten, were alarmed at hearing a dog in the night. see our last honie." I felt a chill creep over me when glow through many an impassioned strain which stilí They admitted it into the house, and found that it was she led us to an acre of ground, surrounded with yew, lingers by its original wild locality. On the shores of the same their brother had taken with him to Amecypress, and willow trees, drooping over several black Mull a crag is pointed out, overhanging the sea, con- rica. The dog lived with them until his master recrosses of wood, simply denoting the last resting-place cerning which there is the following tradition, which turned home, when they mutually recognised each of some fair sisters. The calmness and resignation we have often thought would form no bad subject for other. Mr Cook was never able to trace by what reswith which she looked and reasoned upon this melan- the painter, or even the poet :—Some centuries since, sel the dog had left America, or in what part of Engcholy spot, afforded a lesson of meditation and reflec- the chief of the district, Maclean of Lochbuy, had a land it had been landed. This anecdote confirus tion to us all.

grand hunting excursion. To grace the festivity, his others which I have already mentioned relative to dogs The principal penance the nuns have to perform is lady attended, with her only child, an infant then in finding their way back to this country from considerto educate three hundred poor children daily. Now, the nurse's arms. The deer, driven by the hounds, able distances.- Jesse's Gleanings. delightful as it may be “to rear the tender thought and hemmed in by surrounding rocks, flew to a narrow of one or two, yet, when it amounts to teaching three pass, the only outlet they could find. Here the chief LONDON: Published, with Permission of the Proprietors, by ORR hundred “young ideas how to shoot” daily, I think had placed one of his men to guard the deer from pass

& SMITH, Paternoster Row; and sold by G. BRASER, Holy.

well Street, Strand; BANCKS & Co., Manchester: WRIGHTSON the task must be any thing but “delightful,” and ing; but the animals rushed with such impetuosity, & WEBB, Birmingham: WILLMER & SANITH, Liverpool; W. that the ladies would 'require an additional bandage that the poor forester could not withstand them. In the

E. SOMENSC ALK, Leeds; C. N. WRIGHT, Nottingham; M.

BINGHAM, Bristol; S. SIMMS, Bath; C. GAIN, Exeter; J. Preround the head to bear the monotonous murmur and rage of the moment, Maclean threatened the man with pon, Hull; A. WHITTAKER, Shetheld; H. BELLERBY, York: repetition of tasks—the drone, the hum, the noise, instant death, but this punishment was commuted J. TAYLOR, Brighton: GEORGE YOUNG, Dublin; and all other and the perpetual motion of so many children. Yet to a whipping or scourging in the face of his clan,

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Rooksellers and Newsmen in Great Britain and Ireland, Canada,

Nova Scotia, and United States of America. are they doing much good in educating and clothing which in these feudal times was considered a de- o Complete sets of the work from its commencement, or num

grading punishment fit only for the lowest of me- hers to conplete sets, may at all times be obtained from the Pub Early disappointment in the affections, deaths, de- nials and the worst of crimes. The clansman burned

Stereotyped by A. Kirkwood, Edinburgh. privations, and family desertions, are (though the I with anger and fierce revenge. He rushed forward, Printed by Bradbury and Evans (Late T. Davison), Whitefriato

the poor.

lishers or their Agents.




No. 208.


Price Three HALFPENCE.

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THE PHILOSOPHY OF AMUSEMENT. That the harmonious and moderate exercise of all the ward our whole being in the paths of virtue ; and this SOME are either by nature or by circumstances of so parts of the system is indispensable to health, has al- is a right use of those gifts. The application of what severe a spirit, that to them amusement in all its shapes ready been impressed upon our readers : it is proved may be called the faculties for amusement, naturally appears as a departure from the strict path of rectitude. by the very craving which we experience, after a long bears a reference to the general mental condition of Others are so perplexed between their innate and ir- task, for something which, by engaging faculties of any particular people. The citizens of ancient Rome repressible love of amusement, and their virtuous ab- an opposite kind, may allow those which are wearied were devotedly fond of sports in which human life horrence of the abuses to which many means of enter to sink into rest. It is not more natural, indeed, for was wantonly sacrificed ; and the Spaniards of the tainment are liable, that they can neither assent to the a tailor to enjoy repose in a standing posture, than it present day indulge in spectacles which for certain in: more ascetic view of the question, nor resolutely defend is for a lawyer, after closing his briefs, to find relief volve great cruelty to animals, and often terminate in the other. There seems to be a want of principles to his wearied reflecting powers in a tune upon the the destruction of combatants usually considered of a upon this point—something which may enable us to Aute or violin. For the same reason, we find that we more rational character. It is obvious that the one act in reference to amusement with a clear conscience, usually enjoy fiction of all kinds in proportion to the people were, as the others are, in a moral condition and to which we may refer, both when we are tempted remoteness of the scenery, persons, and circumstances, of a very low description. In the days of Queen to actual amusement, and when the subject is dis- from those with which we are familiar. As we have Elizabeth, persons of the best condition witnessed cussed theoretically.

elsewhere had occasion to remark,* “the stories which plays turning upon incidents and involving language In endeavouring to ascertain the philosophy, as we Sir Walter Scott has narrated of Highland robbers which would now shock the most plebeian mind. In may call it, of amusement, one fact strikes us at and the heroes of the civil war, derive their charm, those of Charles II., with more of an air of fashion the first with great force-nainely, that the power of in a great measure, from their being read in the quiet and smartness, the plays represented before the most producing amusement, and the power of enjoying it, and security of a civilised age. A young lady, happy illustrious companies were full of what the former are parts of our nature, and that, as with all other within the walls of a boarding-school, delights to fol- class were exempt from— deliberate profligacy. No parts of our nature, there are things in the external low a fictitious heroine through every kind of danger one can doubt that the one class of plays was a natural world which seem to have been expressly created and distress. The highly educated gentleman solaces emanation of the national mind at a time when it was with an adaptation to them. Men possess, in greater himself with tales exhibiting the various passions of rude, but not positively vicious, and that the other or less degrees, the power of bodying forth the forms the savage breast ; and the wealthy citizen, who never class was appropriate to a time when the national mind of things unknown in poetry, and the power of en- feels the want of any comfort, and is scrupulous to was positively vicious, but not rude. joying that poetry when it has been created. They give no alms for which he is not rated, glows over Since the last-mentioned age, owing to particular possess, in greater or less degrees, a power of repre- pictures of unmerited poverty and agonising hardship. circumstances, the stage has not kept pace with the senting, in clay, stone, or by compositions of oil, earth, Even the poor, it would appear, have no sympathy national morality; and it is now so much below it; and canvass, real or imaginary objects, and also the with a literature referring only to the poor : they that a large portion of the more enlightened and moral power of enjoying the sight of those objects when so wish, when they read, to be introduced to scenes which of our population altogether reject theatrical amuserepresented. They possess, in a greater or less degree, they will never see in reality, and luxuries they are ments. But here, perhaps, the result is in a great a power of feigning scenery, characters, and situations, not likely ever to enjoy." All these phenomena of or

measure the cause ; for, by leaving the stage to thosó resembling those of the actual world, and of enjoying dinary life may be traced to the calls which are made who are only fitted to abuse it, and to those who are those fictions or feignings, whether they be expressed by the sympathies and intellectual powers left over by content to draw from it impure amusement, the good in descriptive language, or set before the eye in a business, for such a share of exercise as may help to may be said to doom it to a continuance in that de tangible form : hence the novel, the epic, the drama. keep them in harmony with the rest.

gradation to which a vicious age formerly consigned Again, man is endowed with a faculty for so acting

In amusements, as in every thing else, we must dis- | it. The true way to render all our national and pubupon his own thoracic organs, or upon certain produc- tinguish between the use and the abuse. That some lic entertainments innocent, is for the virtuous to enter. tions of inanimate nature, as to produce a melodious young men, for the sake of music, neglect their graver upon the consideration of them as natural and abcombination of sounds, pleasing both to him who pro- duties, or that young ladies will sometimes think more stractly beneficial institutions, which it is possible to duces them, and to others. By virtue of another part earnestly about a dance than about their moral and conduct in a manner satisfactory to morality, if the of our nature, it is ordained that, when we hear gay intellectual improvement, forms no more a valid argu- proper means be taken, while it is impossible, by any measures played in well-marked time, we instinctively ment against music and dancing, than would the sur reprobation, to extirpate them. This result has been desire to make certain corresponding movements of our feit of Tom or Harry be a fair plea for the abolition

now in a great degree gained for the prose fiction or muscular frame,—these movements, termed dancing, of meat and drink. The fault does not lie with music novel, and that simply by the exertions of virtuous being admirably calculated to promote the circulation or dancing in the abstract, but with something quite writers to exceed the vicious in attractiveness. Not all of the blood and nervous influence all over the body, external, temporary, and accidental. In like manner, the moralisings of all the worthy people of England could and thereby to strengthen the limbs, the heart, the the drollery of the mime, and the living and majestic have so effectually put down the trash of the last cenlungs, and the brain—in short, to invigorate the health, pictures of the tragedian, if it be at all possible that tury as did the works of Miss Edgeworth, Miss Austin, and render the mind alert, cheerful, and happy.

they can be enjoyed free from circumstances of a con- and Sir Walter Scott. It remains for individuals Now, if it be acknowledged that the Creator has, by taminating character, are not abstractly reprehensible

. equally qualified to improve the stage by the same methe general arrangements of the world, manifested a

The faculties which produce entertainments of this thod ; a work which, if we are not greatly mistaken, disposition to confer happiness upon his creatures, kind, and the faculties which take pleasure in them, will not remain unperfected for many more years. which, as far as we are aware, is never denied-we are, like all the rest, given to us for wise and kind

As many well-meaning persons who cannot deny cannot for a moment doubt that the powers thus so

purposes ; when exercised in conformity with our the truth of these propositions, may still think that conspicuous in our mental system, and operating so moral obligations, they are a direct source of happi- there is some danger of their affording a sanction and directly for enjoyment, were meant to be employed for ness, and our duty is, not altogether to suppress or a stimulus to a tendency naturally and at all times too that end. Amusement thus becomes simply a part of repudiate them, but to guard against their abuse.

great, we will conclude by saying a few words in anti. the great Beneficent Design, every part of which, how

With some care and discrimination, the line between cipation of what we cannot help thinking an unsound ever it may appear to us to differ from another in the use and the abuse may be easily distinguished. objection. We would say in all humility, that not only utility or dignity, is as certainly entitled to our respect, In their active character, the powers for producing is truth in itself a sacred thing, which never can be as its author is to his acknowledged character of great, amusement may be generally described as a mere dangerous if every thing else be upon a right footing, good, and just.

species of natural language or expression, which may but there is, in this case, a greater and more immediate Another important principle of our nature argues be made subservient to the gratification of our grosser danger from concealment, than can fairly be expected, powerfully in favour of amusement. The professional instincts, or of the moral and intellectual faculties, upon the most illiberal consideration, from the more duties by which men in general earn their subsistence indifferently, according as they are applied. We may candid course. By telling young people

, as many pa. and maintain their place in society, are in all cases of represent on canvass, in statuary, or in literary fiction, rents do, that amusements are altogether vicious, an such a nature as only to call into exertion a portion of objects only calculated to demoralise ; and this is a

act of deception is committed—an act in itself vile and their mental and bodily system. Something is re- disgraceful abuse. But we may also body forth scenes reprehensible

, and which the children are more apt to quired, at once to soothe and compensate us for the calculated to excite, and by exciting to strengthen, the detect and value rightly than may be supposed. On drudgery of our current labours, and to bring into most refined and praiseworthy feelings, and carry for discovering from accidental experience, that the pleaexercise those portions of our muscular frame and in

* History of English Literature (Chambers's Educational sures so sweepingly condemned are not only to their tellect which professional duty has left unoccupied. I Course), 237.

own sensations innocent, but have been indulged in for

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a lifetime by certain of their fellow-creatures without no fire in this case to absorb heat from, and there is no of electricity, these component colours are gradually perceptible harm, they in the first place lose all respect means of explaining the change, but by supposing heat impressed on them, and every-day experience shows us

to have existed in the rod, and that, the parts of the similar effects from the action of light on glass, polished for the word of their parents, and in the next launch iron being beaten into a closer union, the latent heat metals, &c. Heat also tinges metals in the same maninto the forbidden indulgences with a recklessness pro- has been squeezed out, as water out of a sponge. ner, and workmen, in heating them, by regulating the portioned to their indignation at the deception. Sin- Hitherto we have supposed the rods to be simply degree of intensity, can give them any of the colours of cerity, even with the very young, will invariably be brought to what is called a black heat in both cases; the spectrum, so distinct as to be quite discernible. found the best policy. If told, as we are now telling, but let the one rod be continued in its position in the The mainsprings of watches, for example, are generally that amusement is one of the necessaries of life, but fire, and the other be continued under the strokes of of a purple hue, which is owing to the steel being re

the hammer, and a further alteration takes place. The moved from the heat when the violet ray was predoought to be moderately indulged in, and that various rod in the fire becomes undistinguishable from the minant. When the heat is intense, the metal subspecific amusements are in theinselves innocent, but burning fuel around it, and that on the anvil is in a si- jected to it presents no one individual colour, but practically are apt to mislead their votaries, and are milar fiery or burning state. A better view, however, is said to be at a white heat-white being always the not at present conducted in such a way that good men

of the excitement of latent heat to the state of fire, is result of a mixture of all the seven prismatic tints.

given by the rubbing of two dry sticks together. The Though the old opinions, which maintained heat and can freely indulge in them, it appears to us that all the latent heat is roused by the friction, and ignition soon light to be merely properties of matter, are now entirely necessary caution would be imposed, while there would takes place. What doubt can there be, then, that exploded, still, considered as bodies, their particles are be no danger of the children discovering their parents heat, in combination as we mentioned with the grosser so inconceivably minute, that it has been doubted to be actuated, in their exhortations, by a deceiving parts of the earth's surface, and excited to a high state whether they are possessed of gravity. Electricity

of activity, takes the form of fire-in short, that fire stands in this respect in the same dubious position. spirit. *

is simply heat in a highly active state, with that acti- Balances which can detect the millionth part of a

vity directed in a certain way by the nature of the grain have been used in experimenting, without satis: POPULAR INFORMATION ON SCIENCE. body it is excited in ?. Thus active heat, latent beat, factory results ; some philosophers maintaining, and ELECTRICITY, AS CONNECTED WITH LIGHT, HEAT,

and fire, may be considered modifications of one and others denying, that it possesses gravity. It is imposthe same body.

sible to conceive them bodies, without allowing them GALVANISM, AND MAGNETISM.

We shall proceed now to make some remarks on the possession of gravity; and we must rest satisfied The labours of science, in times not far removed from light, as connected with heat applied to it. Light with attributing the difficulty of proving it to that the present, were assiduously directed to the discovery is commonly said to travel from the sun in about wonderful minuteness which enables them to penetrate of new bodies or elementary substances in nature, and, eight minutes, but, viewing it as an elementary body all matter, and so to perform the innumerable and allfortunately for modern inquirers, this tendency of pervading all space, it appears more rational to be important tasks allotted to them in the universe.

It is their predecessors was the means of eliciting many im- difficult to root out precenceived notions of things, or by a force which regulates the motions of all the lieve that it is only put in motion by the sun.

The solar system is preserved in order and harmony portant truths. As knowledge has advanced, how- rather words, so far as to admit the idea of light lying heavenly bodies, and keeps them in their orbits. This ever, the simplicity of nature's laws, and her wonder- dormant in darkness ; but yet, is it not a fact as curi- force, which was proved by Newton to be the same as ful economy of means, have become gradually more ous as strange, that heat resides in bodies to all ap- gravitation, is called affinity by chemists, but, when apparent, and the current of scientific investigation pearance devoid of it, and may even be excited in them used in a more extended sense, is generally termed athas been turned in a great measure into an opposite by friction to the pitch of ignition? Thus during traction. When a body falls from a height, it is at

night, we may suppose the particles of light to be tracted to the earth's centre, and man walks upright direction. Instead of seeking to add to the number of stagnant, because the sun, their great origin, has with from the same cause. But the power of attraction is the elementary bodies, on which the phenomena of the drawn the exciting power, and also is not present to not confined to the planetary bodies; others possess it universe depend, the student of nature now examines supply the deficiencies which arise from absorption also, and none in a higher degree than electricity in with deep attention those already supposed to exist, into the planetary surface.

its various forms. This is understood to arise from with a view to separate the imaginary from the true.

The simplest proof that light is merely fire, but in a the incessant struggle of the electric power to estaThis object may be attained either by proving bodies, greatly diluted or rarified state, lies in the fact, that, blish itself in equal quantities in all bodies, as one


possesses it in a high degree attracts another hitherto considered simple, to be compound, or by degree of intensity that metals are melted and stones with less, and saturates it also. But as soon as this showing their identity with some other bodies of the vitrified under its power, and this independently of the is accomplished, the two bodies instantly repel each same class. No elementary substance has been the action of air, for the same effects take place when the other, and on this repulsive power depend most of the subject of so many speculations of this nature as the experiment is made in a vacuum. Heat, it has been phenomena of light, heat, and electricity.

mentioned, lies dormant in substances till called forth All space being filled with what may be called latend electric fluid ; and we propose in this paper to point by heat ; and the case is similar with light. Phos- light, the sun, when he mounts above the horizon, out the resemblance between many of its phenomena phorus, hermetically inclosed in a phial-glass, is held emits some of his rays, which put in motion the con and those of light, heat, galvanism, and magnetism. in the sun to imbibe light; yet, when examined in a tiguous dormant particles, and, by alternate attraction That the two latter are merely modified forms of elec- dark room, there is no effusion of light from it, unless and repulsion, in eight minutes the whole are affected, tricity, is indeed now generally admitted ; but common Inminous, and will continue so, until all the rays ab- tion of the action of light, or that which supposes every

held near a heated body, when it becomes immediately and "all is light.” Whether we adopt this explanabelief still maintains the separate existence of light sorbed from the sun are expended. The phosphorus ray which reaches the earth to emanate immediately and heat. It may be mentioned, that, in this article, may be re-endowed with solar light, and deprived of from the sun, the rapidity of communication is equally as in a former one, where the connection of the ner- it, by repeating the process. This obedience to one astonishing. We are naturally inclined to ask, has vous energy with electricity was demonstrated, it is law is a proof of great siinilarity between light and it any parallel in nature ?-and, if it has, may we our intention simply to place the theory, presented to heat, and it also shows that substances may, like the not well doubt whether they are not one and the our readers, in the most favourable point of view, time evolved in the shape of fame. Thus, in the Wheatstone of King's College, on a large scale, exhi

phosphorus, absorb rays of solar light, to be at a future same? Some experiments lately made by Professor without attempting to refute all the objections that process of charring wood, its ignition is kept up in an bit the remarkable velocity with which the electric might be advanced against it.

apparatus which admits only so much air as is neces- fluid passes along a proper conducting medium. Half The sun, according to this theory, is the great centre sary for the life of the flame, without permitting it to a mile of copper wire was arranged in parallel por. from which emanates the element destined to assume

blaze violently. The charcoal which is the result of tions of one hundred and twenty feet, and one short 80 many forms, and known by so many appellations. the process, is highly inflammable ; a circumstance break was made in the centre of the wire, for the purAt its original evolution, and while in the neighbour- which can scarcely be attributed to any principle in pose of observing the difference in time between the hood of the sun, it held the form of tire of the deepest the matter of the wood itself, but is probably owing to Hash which communicated the electricity to the whole intensity, but, before reaching our planet, it has be- the absorption of light during the life of the vegetable. wire, and the flash in passing or leaping the break. To come so diluted by expansion over the immensity of If we consider light as diluted fire, the concentration note this properly, he placed the two ends of the wire space, that we receive it in the condition of light, after of it in the process of charring, where the blaze is near the break, and on the charge being given from the its junction with the finest particles of terrestrial mat- suppressed, and air as much as possible excluded, affords machine, the eye could perceive no difference in time ter in the atmosphere. On its entering into combina- a ready explanation of the inflammable power of the between the charging flash and the spark at the break. tion with the grosser parts of the earth's surface, it is charcoal. May we not be allowed to conjecture that By the employment of a revolving mirror, however, of modified by their influence and by their power of re- the brilliancy of the diamond depends on some such great nicety, a slight difference was ascertained. The ceiving it in certain proportions, and becomes electri- power of absorbing and retaining condensed rays of sparks, when reflected on the mirror, presented this city and caloric, in their various sensible and dorinant, | light, since all the power of chemistry has been unable appearance =, the upper and lower lines repreor, as they are sometimes termed, 'active and latent

to discover in that gem, the ornament of the diadem, senting the charge to and from the wire, the middle forms. Light also has its dormant condition, and any other component than worthless charcoal ? Be line representing the spark leaping the break. If the requires the agency of a Jumirous body to put it into this as it may, the probability that latent light is sparks had been simultaneous, the ends of the lines or action, in the same way that heat lies inactive in wood evolved from substances in a state of flame, affords a the mirror would have been parallel. From the numand other combustibles till excited by heat applied to strong presumption of the identity of light, heat, and ber of times the mirror revolved in a second, a calcu. it. Perhaps, however, it may be better to remove all tire. "It would occupy too much ti..e to trace further lation was made that the 1,152,000th part of a second ambiguity with respect to terms, by enumerating the the connection between these elements, ard indeed it was the tine occupied in the passage of the electric various states in which heat or caloric is found, and will be rendered in some measure unnecessary by the fluid, which would give a velocity of 288,000 miles in the appellations under which these states are known. explanations which must naturally be given, when the a second. Our calculations of the sun's distance, and The first condition we shall mention is that of active similarity of the whole to electricity will be shown. of the rapidity of motion in light, are both somewhat heat. When one end of a rod of iron is put into a Some such explanation as has been given, however, imperfect, and 200,000 miles in a second have been fire, either by the excitement of something in the rod was necessary, because the terms light, heat, and fire, usually stated, in round numbers, as near the truth. itself, previously unperceived, or by imbibing some- may be used in a way that would otherwise have ap- The experiment of Professor Wheatstone is very beau. thing from the fire, it undergoes very soon an altera- peared an unwarranted intermingling of things dis- tiful, but it is difficult to conceive absolute correctness tion sensible to the touch. What it has received, or tinct.

in a matter of such nicety. It is therefore not improhas been excited in the rod, pervades and expands its A ray of light, when perceived through a clear me- bable that successive trials may bring the comparative substance, and is given off to any body brought into dium, is white or colourless. When the electric spark velocities, as they are called, of these two bodies, to s contact with it. The rod is then heated, or contains is enviitted from a perfect conductor, it is nearly a pure closer point. It should be taken into account, alsa, active heat, which good reasons induce us to believe white; but if the conductor is imperfect, the spark that the medium through which the solar rays are depends very little on any thing added to the rod, but

assumes in general a reddish colour. Does not the sun transmitted, varies very much, and must to some exupon a change in what it contained before; a change of in a foggy day present the same red tinge, from the tent affect the passage. That the method of motion the heat to an active from a latent state. For if a rod, imperfection of the medium through which his rays are of the electrical power is the same as that we have atin all respects similar to that used before, is laid upon transınitted ? This white ray of light consists, we tributed to light, is borne out by experiment and oban anvil and beaten with a hammer, the same change know, of seven combined tints; and these, when servation. In the experiment mentioned above, it is takes place with this as with the former rod. There is the ray is decompo ed by a prism, are observed inva- not to be supposed that all the electric fluid which

riably to hold a certain position with respect to each passed along the copper wire was derived from a single * It is perhaps unnecessary to mention that the bore paper other, from their different degrees of refrangibility. spark of the machine. Like the sun's power on the forms a link in a chain of art cles presented in the fourth volume of the surnal, under the respective titles of " Use and Have," The electric spark, when examined by the same method, latent light of the atmosphere, the spark was only the “ Self kulery,' and " Labour." For someljats towards the pre is found to contain these tints, presenting the same exciting stimulus which set in motion the dormant sent composition, the writer was indebted to one of the lectures on inoma plilosophy, wakelivered to the Edi burgh pelosopcast appearance, uumber, and arrangenient. When some electric particles on the wire. If twenty persons join Aasireiution.

substances are sulijected for a long period to a current | hands and receive an electric shock, the electricity in

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