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No. 207.



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SERVICEABLE YOUNG MEN. gentleman that was acquainted with a certain eminent self. No_but they would invite him to their next THERE is a time for every thing, and for many things poet, in order that the last-mentioned individual might tea-drinking, where they had collected all the little there is a time of life. That there is a period of exist- scribble something in it; a third to be enriched by a misses, and the very old misses, and all the other bores ence at which men show a greater readiness to oblige few excerpts of his own from newspaper poets' corners, of their acquaintance ; on which occasion it was exthan at others, was a maxim of my friend and cousin in a neat fancy hand, which he could write at the rate pected that he was to hand cake and furnish good huWill Balderstone: he used to call it the kettle-handing of ten lines a-day; and so forth with the rest. The ma- mour for the whole company, and, at a particular time of life. In most cases, between eighteen and nagement of albums constituted no small part of the hour, before any one could be thinking of supper, give twenty-two is the great era of serviceableness. The business of life to poor Sam. He rarely attended a party by his own example the signal for general departure. youth is then just beginning to mingle with a world without engaging with at least one young lady to take Sometimes, even while thus condescending, his miswhich, but yesterday, he had to behold from the awful charge of her album for a few days. He possessed a pen- tress friend would take the liberty to play off raillery distance of the nursery. He is oppressed with respect cil sketch of Lord Byron, with a bare neck, which he upon him, and that of rather a severe kind. She for middle-aged married people, who have been sitting could get copied by his clever friend the artist—a green- | would chide him prettily for letting Mrs Quick return at good men's feasts since before he was born. He horn like himself—and, the fame of this portrait having her own cup, tell him she would have the cake handed hardly knows by what gentle, obsequious, and agree- been trumpeted by one to another of the fair sex, it next time by one of the children, and scold him for able arts to conciliate the elder partners of the great had become an object of no small importance among being such dull company to Miss Somber. The poor social firm of which he aims at becoming a member. them to obtain a copy of it. I am sure that the time fellow would take all in earnest, and in endeavours His attention to ball-room costume is most exact; his spent in pencilling the many exemplars thus given to exert himself still more vigorously, become a subbow, fresh from the dancing-school, most unexception away, might have twice overpurchased the skill of ject of occult derision to the whole of the forlorn comable; nothing can be more praiseworthy than the the best engraver of the day, so as to have sup- pany whom he was doing his best to gratify. general modesty of his demeanour. He looks with plied not only young lady friends, but the public at To the widow ladies Sam was more than usually wonder at the chartered freedom which some of his large, with as much of it as could have been wanted. valuable. In their quiet and unassuming parties, he seniors assume in company, and would give worlds to Sam was also a precious hand for undertaking to get shone out as a person of some real consequence, and, be able to walk, as they do, across a brilliant circle, parcels of odd stray prints, wherewith to compile blue-when no other gentleman was present, would even be for the purpose of interchanging a few chatty sentences paper books for drawing-room tables. He marked asked to sit at the bottom of the table. Being so mere with the lady of the house. It is not perhaps till his not where the wood-pigeons breed, but where the a stripling, he was most convenient as a protection tenth party, that he can take it upon him to venture a prints of the annuals were to be had separately; and abroad or in places of entertainment. No lone woman remark above his breath. Long before that time, many was the good half-crown he gave away, in order could be so old or so poorly off, but Sam would, at her however, if a remark be addressed to him, how eager that he might contribute to the scrap-books of thank- slightest invitation, leave his current business to shift is he to give it a favourable reception and answer ! less misses. He would scour half the town to obtain for itself, and gallant her to any place she might Not the most undesired and unappreciated guest in the particular kinds of pasteboard for ladies' work, or im- please to visit, even to a play which he had already room can speak to him, but he is instantly all smiles pressions of seals for the adornment of card-cases, or seen thrice--yea, the Zoological Gardens for the twenat his feet.

drawings to be copied upon fire-screens. If he hap- tieth time. The trouble and inconvenience which he Ladies, married and unmarried, know well how to pened to call when they had got home a lot of new

thus encountered, in order to confer little kindnesses take advantage of this humility of spirit on the part of music upon sight, they thought nothing of asking him upon people whom all others deserted, were beyond our novice. There is hardly any lady who has not to copy one piece after another for a whole evening, so calculation. very frequent occasion for services which only can be that next day they were able to return the whole with- In the conducting of country cousins through the properly committed to the more lordly sex, and little out disbursing money for a single piece. * Nothing, town, Sam was not less willingly serviceable. And attentions which they only can render. Young ladies indeed, was a task or sacrifice too great to be expected not only did he take all his own country cousias under have not always regular lovers to fly at their bidding from Sam—he was so good a creature. But it could his charge, but there was no one so slightly acquainted upon errands of nicety; married ladies often find that not be remarked that, with all his obliging habits, he with him, to whose country cousins he would not, at their husband is either so much engrossed with his was particularly favoured by the young ladies. The request, show equal kindness. The people at St Paul's, own pursuits, or so little disposed to place himself at good nature of the poor fellow seemed to act as any Westminster Abbey, and the Colosseum, knew him their service, that they are not much better off than thing but a recommendation ; it detracted from his like a brother; and he could tell a few things about the the spinsters; while widows, obviously, can attend no dignity, and placed them tvo much at their ease in re

monuments which the regular exhibitors did not seem public place without a gentleman friend. Such ser. spect of any interests or objects which he could be

to be acquainted with. If any one wanted a frank, vices were commanded by the dames of old from a supposed to entertain on his own part. He was an ex- Sam would spend more of his time in running about regular officer termed the lady's usher; a fact which cellent person, a most serviceable young man, and so to get it, than it was intrinsically worth. There was shows the comparative barbarism of our ancestors, for, forth ; but at the very time he was toiling for them, no place to which admission was to be obtained by or. in an age of real gallantry, there would have been so some surly and less youthful and agreeable man, who der, for which he would not endeavour to get orders much occasional service from friends, that a regular only came now and then, and put himself to no trouble of admission, even where there was no intention of officer could not have been required. In the present whatever, was, for qualities altogether different, ac- asking him to be of the party. He was in fact the more amiable times, no lady who enters at all into cepted.

humble slave of all, knowing no preference for his own society need ever want one, two, or more voluntary Upon the whole, Sam was disinterested. He showed business over that of other people. He was confessedly ushers, ready to jump to the moon, perform the north- this by the indiscriminateness of his good offices. A the most obliging young man alive. west passage, or any other thing erroneously supposed plain girl was as sure of his services as a beauty, and

As years advanced upon Sam, he began to discover impossible, if she only desires it. She has but to mark there were some ancient spinsters, whom no one else that there were more serious duties in life than that out a few young youths, who, by their eager looks, could endure, but whom Sam would be as glad to con- of running cap in hand after every thoughtless lady betray their innate dispositions, and by dint of so small duct home upon a two miles' midnight walk, as if they who chose to take advantage of his good nature. Ina fee as mere notice, she may leash the whole into an were still in the heyday of their youthful attractions.creasing sense enabled him to perceive that, in devoting apron string.

It was not that the good youth demanded or expected himself in an undue degree to theinterests and pleasures There is hardly any young man but what becomes, gratitude, but because his zeal fairly deserved it, that of others, he was acting so foolishly as to forfeit the at a particular stage of his entrance into life, the slave I complain of the little consideration his services met

esteem of the very individuals whom he served. He of some lady or ladies, single, married, or widowed, with among those whom he obliged. The married found that no amount of good nature, no extent of beakin or not akin. Only the very studious and the very ladies used him not a whit better than the demoiselles. neficence, not even a constant adulation of others, will ill-natured escape: if they have at all the average faci- They would harness him to the most unconscionable compensate the absence of those common, unadmired lity of character, they are as well as foredoomed to the tasks, and reward him with only a little badinage. qualities

, which mankind have agreed to be necessary yoke. The most serviceable young man I ever knew He has been known to write them out twenty or for keeping one's own part in the world. And, hard was one named Sam Keene, who has since sunk into thirty cards, for the invitation of a large dinner party, as the lesson at first appeared, he gradually acknowa firm and substantial merchant of the city of London. and not receive the honour of an invitation for him- ledged that general sentiment was right in thus visitSam had seldoin fewer than six albums on his hands

ing with contempt a disposition which, though erring at once; one to be adorned with a drawing by a clever

* It is impossible to pass over this practice with only a jocular on virtue's side, was likely to lead to as mischievous artist of his acquaintance ; another to be put into the ment, and ought on all occasions, when known, to be condemned results as if it had inclined to vice. Sam Keenc hands of a gentleman whom he knew, who knew a without mercy,

therefore grew as stayed and prudent as the most of people ; did not manifest more than the average readi- a common servant or scavenger : a long course of certain, however, that the aggregate wages of profes. ness to conduct home old ladies, and, so far from be- training is requisite to instruct a man in the business sionals and artists never amount to so large a sum. ing willing to show about the country cousins of other of jewelling and engraving; and were he not indem- The law, for instance, has great prizes, but the blanks people, got into a habit of shifting off his own upon a nified for the cost of the training by higher wages, he predominate. It is at the bar, 'as in the church brother of fifteen, who was just beginning to take up would, instead of learning so difficult an art, addict few fortunate aspirants amass wealth ; but if the rethe character which he had dropped. The last time himself to such employments as hardly require any venue of the entire body of legalists were shared I saw him, he talked for at least ten minutes against instruction. It is the same with other pursuits and equally among them, they would not probably yield albums, and refused to go to a sale of ladies' work, professions ; the cost of acquirement must be repaid a greater average income than the revenues of the from dread of the odious pasteboard and wafer recol- by future practice therein, otherwise the parties would clergy, or of many classes of operatives. Neverthelections, which it was sure, he said, to excite. * be out of pocket, like a person setting up a new ma- less, the profession is crowded with candidates, and for

chine, the saving and gain of which do not repay the this reason, that mere money forms only one element EQUALITY OF REMUNERATION

outlay in its erection. The pecuniary recompense of in their remuneration, the remainder being made up

physicians, lawyers, sculptors, and painters, is not so by the chances of judicial honours, political power, FOR LABOUR.

exorbitant as is sometimes imagined : a fortune is al. and the reputation of superior talent. CONSIDERABLE misconception often prevails with re

most spent in acquiring the knowledge necessary to Similar observations will apply to that “unpros. spect to the remuneration of labour; the supposition their occupations, which ought in fairness to be made perous race of men,' as Adam Smith terms them, being, that there is nothing like equality or justice in up to them by the liberality of their emoluments. called men of letters,' who are in the same predi. the advantages derived in the various employments of

The profits of capital in certain employments are carnent as lawyers, physicians, and other practisers civil life. In order to clear away the erroneous im- liable to similar misapprehension as wages in the of the liberal arts

. A few authors realise large sums pressions which may exist on this subject of social higher branches of industry. The profits of chemists, from their productions, but the aggregate earnings economy, we beg to lay before our readers the following druggists, and apothecaries, are mostly considered ex. of the entire class are inconsiderable. The injustice, views of Mr Wade, from his History of the Middle and travagant. Their gains, however, are frequently only however, of this is more apparent than real. Letters Working Classes.

a just remuneration for skill and labour. They are are not cultivated as a trade, nor even profession; “ The different rates of wages, as well as of profits in almost invariably the medical advisers of the poor, and they are never deliberately entered upon as a source employments, are more apparent than real : for it will not unfrequently of the rich. Their rewards, there- of profit; no one ever thinks of apprenticing a child mostly be found where industry is free and not subject fore, ought to be proportioned to their services, and to such a pursuit, or training him up with a view of to artificial regulation, that if a high remuneration is these arise generally from the prices at which they making him an author : for in literature natural fitderived from any trade or profession, it results from sell their commodities : but the prime cost of all the ness is every thing, and choice nothing. Literary men the greater ability it requires, or from the greater risk commodities retailed by a well-employed chemist, or mostly become such, not with a view to gain, or even or other countervailing incident which accompanies apothecary, in the course of a year, may not exceed fame, but to gratify their own thirst for knowledge, its exercise. This necessarily results from the desire tifty pounds. Though he were to sell them, therefore, and this in truth constitutes their best and greatest of all men to obtain the best and easiest reward for at four hundred or a thousand per cent. profit, this may reward. Indeed, there is not so much injustice in these their exertions. Were there any occupation where frequently be no more than reasonable wages of his things as in the cupidity which would grasp both fame the gains were disproportionate, and not balanced by industry, charged in the only way he can charge them, and profit when it is hardly in nature they should go any disadvantage, persons would crowd into that chan- upon the prices of his preparations. The greater part together. Sir Christopher Wren received only

L. 300 nel of employment, so as by their competition to reduce of his apparent profit is real wages disguised in the a-year for superintending the building of St Paul's, it to the common level of emolument. garb of profit.

which was probably a less annual emolument than that The circumstances which cause the recompense of

Grocers, and other shopkeepers, are necessary in of his head mason or carpenter, but all the fame of employments to rise above or fall below the common

the smaller towns and villages for the convenience of erecting that noble pile descended to the architect, level are stated by Adam Smith to be the five follow the inhabitants ; but to enable them to live by their while those who merely put together the stone and ing :-). The agreeableness and disagreeableness of business, and compensate them for their diminutive mortar have been forgotten. the employments themselves. 2. The easiness or

returns, they are compelled to realise a larger profit I conclude, therefore, that the circumstances whicle cheapness

, or the difficulty and expense, of learning on the commodities they sell than dealers in places of influence the wages of science and literature do not them. 3. The constancy or inconstancy of the em- greater population. It is thus that most articles of materially differ from other employments. Miisappreployments. 4. The small or great trust which must general consumption are cheaper in London than in hension on the subject has chiefly arisen from noe duix be reposed in those who follow them. 5. The proba- the country. The quickness of the return, and the considering the mixed coin in which they are remubility or improbability of succeeding in them.

greater amount of capital employed by a metropolitan nerated. Like the pursuits of professional men and 1. The agreeableness of an employment may arise tradesman, enables him to support himself at a rate of artists, to which they are nearest allied, in addition from the lightness of the labour, its healthiness, clean- profit that would absolutely starve a provincial shop- to pecuniary emolument, they are rewarded by inci. liness, or the estimation in which it is held; and its keeper. The great apparent profit charged on their dental, and in the opinion of some, perhaps, shadowy disagreeableness from circumstances of an opposite goods by keepers of chandler-shops, and those in what advantages. It is only the booksellers, not authors, character. Wages being equal, persons would obvi. is called a general line of business, is more properly who seek profit alone. Besides mere gain, a distinously be determined in the choice of an occupation by the wages of labour necessary to compensate them for guished writer on political economy, or even politics, its other advantages. The labour of a ploughman is trouble and loss of time in weighing and measuring may justly aspire to the honours and rewards of pube inore severe than that of a shepherd, and is uniformly out their articles in the small quantities required by lic life ; an author, eminent as a moral or natural better rewarded. A compositor employed on a daily their customers.

philosopher, is not only celebrated among the learned newspaper, often working in the night, is better paid than one employed in book-printing. Miners, gilders, of employment. Many trades can only be carried on

3. Wages vary with the constancy or inconstancy of his own country, but throughout Europe and Ame

rica ; or if eminent as a poet or novelist, not only a type-founders, smiths, distillers, and all who carry on

in particular states of the weather and seasons of the shower of gold awaits him, but the smiles of the faunhealthy and dangerous trades, obtain higher wages year; and if the workmen cannot turn to other em- shionable, the rich, and luxurious. than those who are equal in skill, but engaged in more desirable employments. The trades of a butcher, brick- Watchmakers, weavers, shoemakers, and tailors, may ployments, their wages must be proportionately high. The rewards in the army and navy are of the same

varied character as those in literature and professions, maker, coalheaver, and sugar-boiler, are disagreeable, usually reckon on constant employment; but masons, being partly pecuniary, and partly honorary and conand accordingly compensated with higher wages. The bricklayers, paviers, gardeners, and in general all those tingent. It is, however, the officers who chiefly reap employment of public executioner is detestable, and who work in the open air, are liable to perpetual in the latter advantages, while the common soldier or in consequence better paid than any other, in propor- terruptions. As every one, however, ought to live sailor receives little compensation beyond his pay and tion to the work done. Agreeableness and the popular by his trade, their wages ought not only to suffice for prize-money. These are so inadequate a return for estimation of many pursuits constitute a considerable their maintenance while they are employed, but also the toils and dangers he undergoes, that political ecopart of their remuneration. Thus hunting and fish- during the time they are necessarily idle. * This nomists have found some difficulty in bringing his ocing are to many a pastime, and, therefore, make very principle," Mr M'Culloch observes, shows the fal. cupation under the influence of the five circumstances taries and public librarians are seldom considerable ; earnings of porters, hackney-coachmen, watermen, ployments. To reconcile the anomaly, Mr M'Culloch

lacy of the notions commonly entertained of the great that tend to equalise the advantages of different emthey are chietly paid in the respectability and pleasant- and generally of all workmen employed only for short observes, that except when actually engaged in war. ness of their occupation. Smuggling and poaching periods, and on casual occasions. Such persons fre- like operations, a soldier is comparatively idle ; while have singular fascinations to some minds, and the op- quently make as much in an hour as a regularly em. his free, dissipated, and generally adventurous life, portunities they afford for the indulgence of an adven- ployed work man makes in a day; but their greater the splendour of his uniform, the imposing spectacle of turous spirit form their chief recompense : for those hire during the time they are employed is found to be military parades and evolutions, and the martial music who pursue those illicit callings are proverbially poor. only a bare compensation for the labour they perform, by which they are accompanied, exert a most seductive The cheerfulness and healthiness of the employments, and the time lost in waiting for the next job : instead influence over the young and inconsiderate. The rather than the lightness of the labour, or the little of making money, such persons are almost universally dangers and privations of campaigns are undervalued, skill they require, seem to be the principal cause of poorer than those engaged in more constant occupations." while the chances of advancement are proportionally the redundant numbers, and consequent low wages, of common farin-servants, and generally of all work. posed in workmen. This is a very natural ground tions.' 4. Wages vary with the greater or less trust re- exaggerated in their sanguine and heated imagina

The temptations to enlist in the army are men employed in ordinary field-labour. The emolu

of distinction. Greater the trust, and greater the more enticing to young men than those to enter tke inents of ministers of religion, professors of the sciences, probity and ability required. An'overseer, superin- navy: The accompaniments of a sailor's life are less navy, are not proportioned to the expense of their tendant, or steward, is always better remunerated thana dazzling to the imagination ; no regular uniform ne education ; and they are chiefly rewarded by the po- and jewellers are superior to those of many other laborious, while it is a sort of living entombment from

mere journeyman or servant. The wages of goldsmiths soul-stirring drum; his employment dirty, and often Disagreeableness and discredit affect the profits of workmen not only of equal but superior ingenuity, the world. In consequence, his wages exceed the pay capital in the same manner as the wages of labour.

on account of the precious materials with which they of a soldier, and the navy, at the breaking out of a

are intrusted. The keeper of a small inn, alehouse, or spirit-shop, to the physician, our fortune, and sometimes our life is recruited.

• We trust our health,' says Smith, war, is manned with greater difficulty than the army who can hardly be said to be master of his own house, and reputation, to the lawyer and attorney. Such A moral reason, overlooked by economical writers, exercises neither a very agreeable nor creditable busi-confidence could not safely be reposed in people of a may be assigned for the inadequate pay of common ness; but there is scarce any common trade in which a small stock yields so great a profit.

very mean or low condition. Their reward, there soldiers. The army is mostly filled from the same 2. Arts and trades that are difficult to learn, and a

fore, must be such as may give them that rank in so- causes which fill the jails and houses of correction : knowledge of which can only be attained by serving time and the great expense which must be laid out in enlist therein; having lost their character, or con

ciety which so important a trust requires. The long it is not choice, but necessity, which compels many to long apprenticeships, or the payment of high premiums, their education, when combined with those circum- tracted habits of idleness and improvidence, which are usually well remunerated. sation paid to the labourer, or artizan, for the exertion stances, necessarily enhance still further the price of exclude them from the better paid walks of civie in

dustry, they are constrained to devote themselves to of his physical powers, or of his skill or ingenuity.

5. Wages vary with the chance of success in differ- the hardships and perils of military life. A similar They necessarily, therefore, vary with the severity of the labour or the ability required. A jeweller or en

ent employments. A young man of ordinary ability explanation will apply to scavengers, navigators, graver, for example, must be paid higher wages than may hope to succeed as a tailor or shoemaker, but as breakers of stones on the highway, and most of the

a lawyer or artist success is much more dubious. But lowest class of labourers, whose wages, unaccoinpanied * The gem of this article was derive from one of the clever

in professions where many fail for one who succeeds, with other advantages, are disproportionate to the risk and amusu monopolylogues of Mr James Russell, which the wri. the fortunate one ought not only to gain such wages and unpleasantness of the labour. Muscular strength, ter but the plosure of hearing in Edinburgh, Deepinber 1835. as will indemnify him for the expenses incurred in his and not characters exempt from moral turpitude, is Ile tributs thai that respectable coinediad will excuse his thus ap. propratinga diup of his oral gold, and beating it one su nuen education, but also for all that has been expended in required. Hence the low rate of wages, because, in

the education of his unsuccessful competitors. It is I addition to those forced into such employments, either

printei leaf.




by defect of education or neglect of parents, they are unwillingness to leave the place of their birth, or to hearing that the price of it was twelve guineas, posialso depressed by the competition of the outcasts of all do any thing out of the jog-trot of their profession, tively forbade her to wish for so expensive a piece of other branches of social industry.

affects them; and we therefore occasionally see the firery; though he owned that it was very handsome Enough, however, has been said to establish the population of whole towns sinking yearly deeper and and very becoming. “To be sure," said' Julia smilmain point of inquiry ; namely, the general equality deeper into poverty, while the inhabitants of other ing, but casting a longing look at the pelisse, "twelve of advantages in the employments of civil lite. If towns at no great distance are actively employed, and guineas might be better bestowed ;” and they left the wages are unequal, if they rise above or fall below the in a state of the utmost prosperity. This fatal ad-shop. common level of remuneration, it will mostly be found herence to places, and to ruined professions, must, The next day Mr Beresford went to town on busithat they are influenced by the agreeableness or dis- however, form the subject of a subsequent article. ness, and, in a short time after, he wrote to his daughagreeableness of the occupation-its difficulty of ac

ter to say that he had met Sir Frederic Mortimer in quirement the uncertainty of success the distinction or discredit accompanying the pursuit, or some other


London, and that he would soon be down at his seat,

to attend some pony races which Mr Hanmer, who of the five circumstances which have been shown to

had a mind to show off his dowdy daughter to the influence the price of labour. In order, however, that

[Abridged from Mrs Opic's Simple Tales.]

young baronet, intended to have on a piece of land liethe equality of advantages may take place, even when MR BERESFORD was a merchant engaged in a very longing to him, and that he had heard all the ladies freedom of industry exists, three things are requisite; extensive business, and possessed of considerable pro- in the neighbourhood were to be there. first, the employments must have been long established; perty, a great part of which was vested in a large estate

“ I have received an invitation for you and myself," secondly, they must be in their ordinary or natural in the country, on which he chiefly resided. Beresford continued Mr Beresford ; " and therefore, as I am restate ; and, thirdly, they must be the sole or principal was what is commonly denominated purse-proud ; and solved the Miss Traceys, and the other girls, shall not employment of those who follow them.

so eager to be honoured on account of his wealth, that be better or more expensively dressed than my dadighWages are generally higher in new than in old he shunned rather than courted the society of men of ter, I inclose you the sum of thirteen pounds, with trades. The profits derived from the establishment rank, as he was fond of power and precedence, and which you will have it in your power to purchase the of a new manufacture, the opening of a new channel did not like to associate with those who had an indis- velvet pelisse which we so much admired.” Julia's of commerce, or from the introduction of some new putable claim to that deference of which he himself young heart beat with pleasure at this permission; for invention, are seldom proportioned to those of old was desirous. But he earnestly wished that his only she was to adorn herself to appear before the only man trades. If the novelty succeeds, they are, for a time child and heiress should marry a man of rank; and whom she ever wished to please : and the next morn. at least, very high ; but when the trade or practice being informed that a young baronet of large estates ing she determined to set off to make the desired purbecomes thoroughly established, competition reduces in his neighbourhood, and who was also heir to a

chase. them to the level of other pursuits. Secondly, wages barony, was just returned from his travels, and in- That evening, being alone, she set out to take her are temporarily influenced by the Auctuations of fa- tended to settle at his paternal seat, he was resolved usual walk; and having, lost in no unpleasant reverie, shion, the seasons of the year, and a state of peace or that Julia should have every possible opportunity of strayed very near to a village about three miles fram

The introduction of a new pattern, or article showing off to the best advantage before so desirable home, she recollected to have heard an affecting account of dress, will stimulate demand in that line of busi

a neighbour ; and determined that his daughter, his of the distress of a very virtuous and industrious family ness; the demand for rural labour is greater during house, and his table, should not want any charm in that village, owing to the poor man's being drawn harvest, and wages rise with it; the intervention of which money could procure.

for the militia, and not rich enough to procure a subhostilities would cause a sudden rise in the wages of Beresford had gained his fortune by degrees, and, stitute. She therefore resolved to go on, and inquire seamen ; and the same circumstance would exercise having been educated by frugal and retired parents, how the matter had terminated. Julia proceeded to an influence on the wages of those classes from which his habits were almost parsimonious ; and when lie the village, and reached it just as the very objects of the army and navy are chiefly recruited, as well as on launched out into unwonted expenses on becoming her solicitude were come to the height of their disthe prosperity of various branches of manufactures. wealthy, it was only in a partial manner.

Julia Lastly, the equality of advantages may be afiected in Beresford, his daughier, accustomed from her birth to The father of the family, not being able to raise employments which do not constitute the sole occupa- aflluence, if not to luxury, and having in every thing more than half the money wanted, was obliged to tion of persons engaged therein. Clerks, and many what is called the spirit of a gentlewoman, was often serve; and Julia, on seeing a crowd assembled, ap. out-of-door workmen, not fully occupied by the duties distressed and mortified at the want of consistency in proached to ask what was going forward, and found of their situations, are often found willing to keep ac- her father's mode of living ; but she was particularly she was arrived to witness a very affecting scene; for counts, and perform little jobs at a lower rate of re- distressed to find, that, though he was always telling the poor man was taking his last farewell of his wife muneration than they would if such formed their sole her what a fortune he would give her when she mar- and family, who, on his departure to join the regiment, dependence. The various domestic manufactures car- ried, and at his death, he allowed her but a triling would be forced to go to the workhouse, where, as they ried on prior to the general introduction of machinery sum comparatively, for pocket-money, and required were in delicate health, it was most probable they had these advantages, that they could be carried on from her, with teasing minuteness, an account of the would soon fall victims to bad food and bad air. at all times and in all sorts of weather, and were a manner in which her allowance was spent ; reprobat- The poor man was universally beloved in his village; constant resource for filling up every leisure moment. ing very severely her propensity to spend her money and the neighbours, seeing that a young lady inquired A husbandman, who could plough by day and spin on plausible beggars and pretended invalids.

concerning his misfortunes with an air of interest, were and card wool with his family at night, might have But on this point he talked in vain : used by a be- all eager to give her every possible information on the continued up to this day to contend in cheapness of nevolent and pious mother, whose loss she tenderly subject of his distress. “And only think, miss," said production with the regular manufacturer, had not deplored, to impart comfort to the poor, the sick, and one of them, "for the want of nine pound only, as the latter been aided by the prodigies of power created the afflicted, Julia endeavoured to make her residence honest and hard-working a lad as ever lived, and as by the union of capital and mechanical inventions. in the country a blessing to the neighbourhood ; but good a husband and father, must be forced to leave bis

In addition to these causes tending to disturb the too often kind words, soothing visits, and generous family, and be a militiaman—and they, poor things, equilibrium of advantages in employments, others promises, were all that she had to bestow; and many go to the workhouse !" arise, partly from the institutions of society, and partly a time did she purchase the means of relieving a dis- “ Nine pounds !” said Julia ; " would that be suffifrom the institutions and regulations subsisting among tressed fellow-creature by a personal sacrifice. Though cient to keep him at home ?” the workmen themselves. The obstructions to the the sums were trifling which Julia had to bestow, she “ Yes, miss; for that young fellow yonder would freedom of industry of the former description have had so many cheap charities in her power, such as gladly go for him for eighteen pounds.' been mostly removed by the wisdom of modern legis- sending broth to the neighbouring cottages, and mak- On hearing this, how many thoughts rapidly suclation, and it will be unnecessary to dwell on them ing linen of various sorts for poor women and children, ceeded each other in Julia's mind! If she paid the longer than to show their tendency and character.” that she was deservedly popular in the neighbour: nine pounds, the man would be restored to his family, [The author here points to the obstructions caused by hood; and though her father was reckoned as proud and they preserved perhaps from an untimely death in apprenticeships, by the operation of the poor-laws as he was rich, the daughter was pronounced to be a

a work house! But then she had no money but what (now modified), and by corporate immunities, and pattern of good nature, and as affable as he was the her father had sent to purchase the pelisse, nor was then proceeds :) " I shall next speak of the obstruc- contrary,

she to see him till she met him on the race-ground !tion to the freedom of industry, from trade-societies But wherever Beresford could have an opportunity and he would be so disappointed if she was not well and regulations subsisting among workmen them. of displaying his wealth to advantage, he regarded not dressed ! True, she might take the pelisse on trust; - selves, and which are unconnected with the laws and expense; and to outvie the neighbouring gentlemen but then she was sure her father would be highly ininstitutions of the country.

in endeavours to attract the rich young baronet, whom censed at her extravagance, if she spent twelve guineas, Combinations among workmen, intended solely to all the young ladies would, he supposed, be aiming to and gave away nine pounds at the same time: therekeep up the rate of wages, are of precisely the same captivate, he purchased magnificent furniture and fore she knew she must either give up doing a generous nature as combinations among masters to keep up the carriages, and promised Julia a great addition to her action, or give up the pelisse; that is, give up the rate of profits. They are both confederacies against wardrobe, whenever Sir Frederic Mortimer should gratification of her father's pride and her own vanity. the public, liable to the same ohjections as monopolies, take up his abode at his seat.

“No, I dare not, I cannot do it,” thought Julia ; in which the interest of individuals is sought to be Julia beard with a beating heart that the baronet my own vanity I would willingly mortify, but not supported at the expense of the interests of the com- was expected. She had been several times in his com- my father's. No the poor man must go." During munity. One is an interference with the freedom of pany at a watering-place, immediately on his return this mental struggle, the bystanders had eagerly industry, the other, with the free employment of ca- from abroad, and had wished to appear as charming watched her countenance; and thinking that she was pital. Competition is in both cases restrained ; in in his eyes as he appeared in hers; but she had been disposed to pay the sum required, they communicated one, the supply of labour, and in the other the sup- disappointed. Modest and retiring in her manner, their hopes to the poor people themselves; and as ply of capital, is kept less than it would be in a state

and not showy in her person, though her features were Julia turned her eyes towards them, the wretched of freedom. The nature and objects of trade unions regularly beautiful, Sir Frederic Mortimer, who had couple lvoked at her with such an imploring look! I shall explain more particularly hereafter.. My pre-only seen her in large companies, and with very strik. But she was resolved. “I am sorry, I am very sorry,' sent purpose has been to establish the equality of ad- ing and attractive women, had regarded her 'merely said she," that I can do nothing for you. However, vantages in the several employments, pursuits, and

as an amiable girl, and had rarely thought of her take this.” So saying, she gave them all the loose professions of civil life ; and, secondly, to show that again,

money she had in her pocket, amounting to a few this equilibrium of remuneration is never permanently Julia Beresford was formed to steal upon the shillings, and then with an aching heart walked rapidly disturbed, except either by the artificial institutions affections by slow degrees ; to interest on acquaint- away; but as she did so, the sobs of the poor woman, of society, or by rules and regulations subsisting among ance, not to strike at first sight. But the man who as she leaned on her husband's shoulder, and the cries · the industrious themselves."

had opportunities of listening to the sweet tones of her of the little boy, when his father, struggling with his To this intelligible view of the equality of remune- voice, and of gazing on her varied countenance when grief, bade him a last farewell, reached her, and peneration for labour, it need only be added, that excessive emotion crimsoned her pale cheek, and lighted up the trated to her heart. depression in the rate of wages may be frequently expression of her eyes, could never behold her without Poor creatures !" she inwardly exclaimed ; “and traced to two influencing causes. 'I'he first is the a degree of interest which beauty alone often fails to nine pounds would change these tears into gladness, subsidence of some main branch of industry, either excite. Like most women, too, Julia derived great and yet I withhold it! And is it for this that heaven from its falling from an unnatural to a natural level, advantages from dress: of this she was sensible, has blessed me with opulence ?-for this, to be reor by its being superseded by some cheaper kind of though very often did she appear shabbily attired, strained, by the fear of being reproved for sper.ding labour; the second is, the injudicious perseverance in from having expended on others sums destined to or- a paltry sum, from doing an action acceptable in the such a depressed branch of industry long after it is nament herself. One day, Julia, accompanied by her eyes of my Creator!, No !-! will pay the money; proved to be for ever ruined. It is no doubt difficult father, went to the shop of a milliner, in a large town I will enjoy the delight of serving asilict:d worth, and for men who have been instructed in, and habituated near which they lived ; and as winter was coming on, spare myself frem, perhaps, eternal self-reproach!" with, a particular line of industry, to turn their hands and ber pelisse, a dark and now faded purple, was She then, without waiting for further consideration, to a different employment; but it will be allowed, that nearly worn out, she was very desirous of purchasing a turned back, paid the money into the poor mari's hand, too many are indisposed to make the attempt. Anl black velvet one, which was on sale; but her father land, giving the remaining four pounds to the woman,


who, though clean, was miserably clad, desired her to fore, having expected such an exhibition would take him and his family, her having relieved them, and lay part of it out in clothes for herself and children. place, displayed a very fine form, set off by the most then running away to avoid their thanks, and to preI will not attempt to describe the surprise aud gra- becoming gown possible.

yent her being followed, as it seemned, and being titude of the relieved sufferers, nor the overwhelming “ Charming !-admirable !-what a figure !- what known. That, resolved not to rest till they had learnt feelings which Julia experienced, who, withdrawing grace !" was murmured throughout the room. Mr the name of their benefactress, they had described her herself with the rapidity of lightning from their Beresford's proud heart throbbed almost to agony; person and her dress. “ But, bless your honour," in. thanks, and wishing to remain unknown, ran hastily while Julia, though ever ready to acknowledge the terrupted the woman, “when we said what she had along her road home, not daring to stop, lest her joy excellence of another, still felt the whole scene so vex. done for us, we had not to ask any more, for every at having done a generous deed should be checked by atious to her, principally from the mortification of one said it could be none but Miss Julia Beresford !** other considerations. But at length exhausted, and her father, that her only resource was again thinking Here Julia hid her face on her father's shoulder, and panting for breath, she was obliged to relax in her on the family rescued by her from misery.

the company said not a word. The young ladies apspeed, and then the image of her angry and disap- Reels were next called for, and Julia then stood up peared conscience-struck; for it seemed that no one in pointed parent appeared to her in all its terrors. to dance; but she had not danced five minutes, when, the neighbourhood (and they were of it) could do a

" What can I do?" she exclaimed. “ Shall I or- exhausted by the various emotions which she had un- kind action but Miss Julia Beresford. der the pelisse, though I can't pay for it, or go without dergone during the last eight-and-forty hours, her head “My good man, go on,” cried Beresford gently. it ? Nol ought not to incur so great an expense became so giddy, that she could not proceed, and was “Well, sir, yesterday 1 heard that if I went to lire , withont my father's leave, though I know him to be obliged to sit down. “ I believe the deuce is in the at a market-town four miles off, I could get more work able to afford it; and to run in debt he would consider girl," muttered Mr Beresford ; and, to increase her to do than I have in my own village, and employinent as even a greater fault than the other. Well, then, distress, Julia overheard him.

for my little boy too ; so we resolved to go and try onr I must submit to mortify his pride ; and though I re- In a short time the dancing was discontinued, and luck there. But we could not be easy to go away joice in what I have done, the joy is amply counter- a concert begun. Miss Ilanmer played a sonato, and without coming to thank and bless that good young balanced by the idea of giving pain to my father." Miss Tracey sang a bravura song with great execu- lady. So, hearing at her house that she was come

Poor Julia! her own wounded vanity came in for tion. Julia was then called upon to play; but she hither, we made bold to follow her ; your servants told its share in causing her uneasiness ; and the rest of timidly answered that she never played lessons. us where to find her :-ah! thanks to her, I can afford that day, and the next, Julia spent in reflections and “But you sing," said Miss Hanmer. “Sometimes ; to hire a cart for my poor sick wife and family !" fears which did not tend to improve her looks, and but I beg to be excused singing now.” Though you “ This is quite a scene," cried Miss Tracey. make a becoming dress unnecessary.

are not well enough, Miss Beresford, to sing a song,' “ But one in which we should all have been proud The next morning was the morning of the races. said Mr Hanmer, “which requires much exertion, to have been actors, I trust," answered the baronet. The sun shone bright, and every thing looked cheer- surely you can sing a ballad without music, which is, “What say you, gentlemen ånd ladies ?" continued ful but Julia. She had scarcely spirits to dress herself. I am told, your forte.” “So I have heard,” cried Sir he, coming forward : “ though we cannot equal Miss It was very cold; therefore she was forced to wear her Frederic. “ Do, Miss Beresford, oblige us." “Do,” Beresford's kindness, since she sought out poverty, faded purple pelisse, and now it looked shabbier than said the Miss Traceys ; " and we have a claim on and it comes to us—what say you?-shall we make a usual, and still shabbier from the contrast of a very you." “I own it,” replied Julia, in a voice scarcely purse for these good people, that they may not think smart new black velvet bonnet. At length Julia had andible ; "but you, who are such proficients in music, there is only one kind being in the neighbourhood ?” finished her toilet, saying to herself, "My father must know, that, to sing a simple ballad, requires more “Agreed!” cried every one; and, as Sir Frederick talked of Mr Hanmer's dowdy daughter. I am sure self-possession and steadiness of tone than any other held the hat, the subscription from the ladies vas a Mr Hanmer may return the compliment ;” and then, kind of singing; as all the inerit depends on the clear. | liberal one ; but Mr Beresford gave five guineas : then with a heavy heart, she got into the carriage, and ness of utterance, and the power of sustaining the Mr Hanmer desired the overjoyed family to go to his drove to the house of rendezvous.


“ True_but do try.” “ Indeed I cannot,” house to get some refreshment, and the company reMr Beresford was there before her; and while lie con- said Julia, and shrugging up their shoulders, the ladies seated themselves. But Mr Beresford having quitted templated with fearful admiration the elegant cloaks desisted from further importunities.

his seat, in order to wipe his eyes unseen at the door, and fine showy figures and faces of the Miss Traceys, It was Sir Frederic's intention to marry, and, if the baronet had taken the vacant place by Julia. between whose father and himself there had long been possible, a young woman born in the same county as Now, ladies and gentlemen,” cried Beresford, a rivalship of wealth, he was consoled for their ele- himself; for he wished her to have the same local pre- blowing his nose, “you shall see a new sight-a pagance by reflecting how much more expensive and ele: judices as he had, and to have the same early attach- rent asking pardon of his child. Julia, my dear, I gant Julia's dress would be, and how well she would ments; consequently he inquired of his steward, before know I behaved very ill; I know I was very cross to look, Aushed, as be expected to see her, with the he came to reside at his seat, into the character of the you-very savage; I know I was. You are a good blush of emotion on entering a full room, and the con- ladies in the neighbourhood; but the steward could girl; and always were, and ever will be, the pride of sciousness of more than usual attraction in her ap- or would talk of no one but Julia Beresford, and of my life; so let's kiss and be friends." And Julia, pearance. Julia at length appeared, but pale, dejected, her he gave so exalted a character, that Sir Frederic, throwing herself into her father's armıs, declared she and in her old purple pelisse.

who only remembered her as a pleasing modest girl, should now be herself again. What a mortification ! His daughter, the great was very sorry that he had not paid her more atten- “ What! more scenes !” cried Mr Hanmer; "what! heiress, the worst dressed and most dowdy-looking tion. Soon after, in the gallery of an eminent painter, are you sentimental too, Beresford? Who should have girl in the company! Insupportable ! Scarcely could he saw her picture; and though he thought it Aattered, thought it ?". he welcome her, though he had not seen her for some he gazed on it with pleasure, and fancied that Julia, “Why, I'll tell a story now," replied he. " That days; and he seized the very first opportunity of ask when animated, might be quite as handsome as that girl rexed and mortified me~that she did. I wished ing her if she had received the notes. “Yes, I thank Since that time he had frequently thought of her to be smart, to do honour to you and your daughyou, sir,” replied Julia, " Then why did you not buy her, and thought of her as a woman formed to make ter to-day; so I sent her twelve guineas to bny a very what I bade you ? It could not be gone; for if you him happy; and indeed he had gone to look at her handsome velvet pelisse which she took a fancy to, did not buy it, nobody else could, I am sure." picture the day before he came down to the country, but which I thought too dear. But instead of ihat,

“I-I-I thought I could do without it, and and had it strongly in his remembrance when he saw here she comes in this old fright, ard a fine dowdy

“There now, there is perverseness ! When I Julia herself, pale, spiritless, and ill-dressed, in Mr figure she looks -and when I reproached her, she wished you not to have it, then you wanted it; and Hanmer's drawing-room. Perhaps it would be too said she had given the money away; and so I supnow-I protest if I don't believe you did it on pur- much to say that he felt as much chagrined as Mr pose it was that very money which she gave to these pose to mortify me; and there's those proud minxes, Beresford ; but certain it is, that he was sensibly dis poor people. Heh! was it not so, Julia ?". whose father is not worth half what I am, are dressed appointed, and could not help yielding to ine superior “ It was," replied Julia ; "and I dared not then be out as fine as princesses. I vow, girl, you look so attraction of the lovely and elegant Miss Tracey. so extravagant as to get the pelisse tco.” shabby and ugly, I can't bear to look at you.”

The collation had every delicacy to tempt the pa- “So, Hanmer," continued Beresford, “you may There was a mixture of tenderness and resentment late, and every decoration to gratify the taste ; and sneer at me for being sentimental, if you please ; but in this speech, which quite overcame Julia, and she all, except thé pensive Julia, seemed to enjoy it ; I am now prouder of my girl in her shabby cloak here, burst into tears. “There—now she is going to make when, as she was leaning from the door to speak to a than if she were dressed out in silks and satins." herself worse, by spoiling her eyes. But come, tell me lady at the head of the table, a little boy, about ten “And so you ought to be,” cried Sir Frederie. what you did with the money ; I insist upon know- years old, peeped into the pavilion, as if anxiously “And Miss Beresford has converted this garment,' ing. “I-I-gave it away,” sobbed out Julia. looking for some one.

listing up the end of tho pelisse, “into a robe of bo“Gave it away! monstrous ! I protest I will not speak The child was so clean, and so neat in his dress, nour.” So saying, he gallantly pressed it to his lips. to you again for a month.”

so saying, he left her
, that a gentleman near him patted his curly head: is the health of the woman who was capable of sacri-

. “ and carefully avoided to look at or speak to her again. and asked him what he wanted.

The races began, and were interesting to all but what lady? Here is one, and a pretty one too,” ticing the gratification of her personal vanity to the Julia, who, conscious of being beheld by her father showing the lady next him; “will not she do ” claims of benevolence." with looks of mortification and resentment, and by “Oh, no! she is not my lady,” replied the boy. The ladies put up their pretty lips, but drank the the man of her choice with indifference, had no satis- At this moment Julia turned round, and the little toast, and Beresford went to the door to wipe his eyes faction to enable her to support the unpleasantness of boy, clapping his hands, exclaimed, “Oh! that's she! again ; while Julia could not help owning to herself, her situation, except the consciousness that her sorrow that's she !" Then, running out, he cried, “ Mother! that if she had had her moments of mortification, they had been the cause of happiness to others, and that mother! Father!' father! here she is !-we have were richly paid. the family whom she had relieved were probably at that found her at last !” and before Julia, who suspected The collation was now resumed, and Julia partook moment naming her with praises and blessings. what was to follow, could leave her place, and get out of it with pleasure; her heart was at ease, her cheek

The races at length finished, and with them she of the pavilion, the poor man and woman whom she recovered its bloom, and her eyes their lustre. Again Aattered herself would finish her mortifications ; but had relieved, and their now well-clothed happy-look- the Miss Traceys sang, and with increased brilliancy in vain. The company was expected to stay to par. ing family, appeared before the door of it.

of execution, It was wonderful! they sang like take of a cold collation, which was to be preceded by “What does all this mean ?” cried Mr Hanmer. professors,” every one said ; and then again was Julia music and dancing, and Julia was obliged to accept “ Good people, whom do you want ?"

requested to sing. the unwelcome invitation. As the ladies were most “We come, sir,” cried the man, “in search of that “ I can sing now," replied she ; "and I never refuse of them very young, they were supposed not to have young lady," pointing to Julia ; "as we could not go when I can do so.' Now I have found my father's fayet forgotten the art of dancing minuets—an art now from the neighbourhood without coming to thank and vour, I shall find my voice too ;" and then, without of so little use ; and Mr Hanmer begged Sir Frederic bless her ; for she saved me from going for a soldior, any more preamble, she sang a plaintive and simple would lead out his daughter to show off in a minuet. and my wife and children from a workhouse, sir, and ballad, in a manner the most touching and unadorned. The baronet obeyed, and then offered to take out made me and mine as comfortable as you now see us." When she had ended, every one, except Sir FreJulia for the same purpose; but she, blushing, refused “ Dear father ! let me pass, pray do," cried Julia, deric, loudly commended her, and he was silent ; but to comply.

trembling with emotion, and oppressed with ingenuous Julia saw that his eyes glistened, and she heard him “Well, what's that for ?" cried Beresford angrily, modesty. Stay where you are, girl,” cried Beres- sigh, and she was very glad that he said nothing. who knew that Julia was remarkable for dancing a ford, in a voice between laughing and crying.

Again the sisters sang, and Julia too, and then the good minuet. “Why can't you dance when you are “Well, but how came you hither ?” cried Mr Han- party broke up; but Mrs Tracey invited the same asked, Miss Beresford ?" Because," replied Julia mer, who began to think this was a premeditated party to meet at her house in the evening, to a ball in a faultering voice, “ I have no gown on, and I can't scheme of Julia's to show off before the company. and supper, and they all agreed to wait on her. As dance a minuet in my—in my pelisse.”

Why, sir-shall I tell the whole story?" asked they returned to the house, Sir Frederic gave his “Rot your pelisse!” exclaimed Beresford, forget- the man. “No, no, pray go away,” cried Julia," and arm to Julia, and Miss Tracey walked before thern. ing all decency and decorum, and turning to the win- I'll come and speak to you."

"That is a very fine, showy, elegant girl," observed dow to hide his angry emotions, while Julia bung her “ By no means," cried the baronet eagerly; "the Sir Frederic. "She is indeed, and very handsome,” head, abashed; and the baronet led out Miss Tracey, story, the story, if you please.”

replied Julia ; " and her singing is really wonderful. who, throwing off the cloak which she had worn be- The man then began, and related Julia's meeting "Just so," replied Sir Frederic; “it is wonderful,







Difference in the extremes.

but not pleasing. Her singing is like herself—she is to Staten Island, four miles below their piace of des- | ing a degree ; but innumerable facts prove that it is, a bravura song--showy and brilliant, but not touching tination. The same difficulty, though in a less degree, on the contrary, altered so greatly by other circum-net interesting.' Julia smiled at the illustration ; j was felt in the Hudson, with the steam-boats plying stances, as to set all calculation, founded merely upon and the baronet continued: “Will you be angry at from New York to Newark and Hoboken in New the degree of latitude, at defiance. These circummy presumption, Miss Beresford, if I venture to add Jersey. The Delaware has been known to be frozen stances are the soil, its dry or damp surface, the prethat you too resemble your singing ? If Miss Tracey so hard between ten in the evening and eight in the sence or absence of forests, its position above or below be a bravura song, you are a ballad—not showy, not morning, as to bear the weight of several persons; and the level of the sea, its exposure to this or that aspect brilliant, but touching, interesting, and

in such sudden conversions of a liquid into a solid, a of the sun, and especially by the nature and quality of “Oh! pray say no more,” cried Julia, blushing, vapour arises from the surface in great abundance, so the currents of air which prevail on such surface. and hastening to join the company-but it was a blush as to excite the idea of a supernatural phenomenon. These circumstances, in their various modifications, of pleasure; and as slie rode home, she amused her. Again, two or three weeks before the summer solstice, produce those consequences on the climate of America self with analysing all the properties of the

ballad, and the heat sets in, and is so overpowering in New York which distinguish it so essentially from that of Europe, she was very well contented with the analysis. and Philadelphia, from mid-day to five in the after- | Asia, or Africa. In no part of the world are such

“ Julia," said her happy father, as they went home noon, that the inhabitants keep their houses, and the extraordinary variations; and there is no reason to at night, you

will have the velvet pelisse and Sir streets are nearly deserted. The thermometer generally dispute the hypothesis which is generally recognised Frederic too, I expect.”

reaches 90 and 15 degrees. During the night it sinks for true, in accounting for this phenomenon, that they Nor was he mistaken. The pelisse was hers the 20 and 25 degrees. The heat is, however, even more in- are in a great measure caused by the difference in the next day, and the baronet some months after. But supportable

than the high state of the thermometer itself nature of the winds, and by their extraordinary fickleJulia to this hour preserves with the utmost care the warrants, from the absolute and perfect calm, and the ness. In Europe, especially in England and France, faded pelisse, which Sir Frederic had pronounced to stifling vapour with which the air is charged along the we complain of the inconstancy of the winds and of be “a robe of honour." whole of this coast.

the variations of the temperature, but they are noIn the middle states, therefore, the extreme variation thing comparable with those of the United States. may be stated at 100 degrees of Fahrenheit.

There the same wind never continues thirty hours CLIMATE OF NORTH AMERICA. In the southern states, such as Virginia, the Caro- successively, nor the same degree on the thermometer Every one who has been in America, though he may linas, and Georgia, the difference in the cold and heat for ten hours ; the currents of air perpetually change, have been neither a physician nor a philosopher, must

is not so excessive. Occasionally, as far south as not merely some points of the compass, but from one have been struck with surprise at the extraordinary Charleston, which is in the parallel of Morocco, the north-west to south and south-east, from south and

Charleston, snow falls, but not very generally. At point in the horizon to the one directly opposite_from and sudden vicissitudes of temperature, and likewise thermometer ranges in the course of the year from 30 south-west to north-east; and these rapid changes in at two very remarkable circumstances touching the degrees to 100 of Fahrenheit. At Savannah, it is the wind are the more obserrable, since they, with the climate of the United States. We refer to its being sometimes at 106 degrees, which is much higher than

same rapidity, produce similar results in the temperacolder in winter and hotter in summer, by several de- it ever goes in Egypt, 88'degrees being there the or

ture, causing such great and sudden changes as are dinary limits of the mercury in the shade. grees, than at the same parallels of latitude in Europe,

productive of infinite injury to general health.

Thus the nearer the tropics are approached, is the as well as in Asia and Africa upon the coast of the extreme difference between the temperatures of summer Mediterranean. This is more remarkable in the extent and winter lessened, until in the West India Islands

BIOGRAPHIC SKETCHES. of country lining the shore of the Atlantic Ocean. it is reduced to 30 and 40 degrees annual variation. Thus taking Salem in the state of Massachusetts, and But here, in consequence of the sea breezes, the there | THE carly history of the celebrated Haydn exemplified

mometer in summer is seldom above 92 degrees of Rome, being places of nearly the same latitude, an Fahrenheit.

all those struggles of merit and genius against circumextraordinary difference is observable.

Not only is the difference of temperature thus great stances, which we have so often held up to admiration, on the whole American coast of the Atlantic, but these in the lives of men whose labours have conferred the

variations are more frequent than in Europe, the most solid benefits upon their kind. He was the son Rome, 41°, 53' 32° F.


54° thermometer passing from one extreme to the other in Salem, 42°, 33' 12° below zero. 103 115° a very short time. `Dr Rush, in his Observations on of a poor wheelwright at Rohrau in Lower Austria,

In the states of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, the Climate of Pennsylvania, remarks that “ The where he was born in the year 1732. Without any and even Massachusetts, all situated between the 42d climate of Pennsylvania is composed of all climates scientific knowledge of music, his father could play and 45th degrees of latitude, corresponding to the under the sun; the humidity of England in spring, simple airs upon an old harp, to his own and his wife's

the heat of Africa in summer, the sky of Egypt in south of France and the north of Spain, the ground is autumn, and the cold of Norway in winter; and, what singing.. The natural talent for music which he thusalmost every winter covered with snow for three or is much worse, sometimes the occurrence of all in one proved himself to possess, was inherited by three sons, four months, so as to render the use of sleighs indis- day. In the course of our winters, especially in Ja- including Joseph, all of whom became distinguished pensable. The thermometer during this season some

nuary and February, it frequently happens that there musicians, though none attained the great eminence

is a variation, in the space of eighteen hours, of 20 and of the subject of this memoir. The inherent gift was times descends to 20 degrees below zero.

30 degrees, from cold to heat, and from heat to cold, first awakened in the mind of Joseph, by the tones of In Canada, in the 46th and 47th degrees of latitude, which have the very worst consequences on health.”, corresponding to the middle of France, the snow season The saine fact occurs in summer, and, as Dr Rush his father's harp, which he used to accompany with commences in November, and continues till the end of observes, the greater the heat at mid-day, the greater his voice at a very early period of childhood. Having April, that is to say, six months, during which time is the fall of the mercury at the break of day, the two

thus attracted the notice of the schoolmaster of Hamthe thermometer is generally at from 13 to 22 degrees one summer it fell 19 degrees in an hour and a half

. I burg, who was related to the family, he was taken by below zero. The mercury has here been known to

What is here remarked with regard to Pennsylvania, him at six years of age, and regularly instructed not congeal, which supposes 53 to 58 degrees below zero. refers also to New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Vir only in music, but in reading, writing, and the Latin Such a case never occurs in Europe, except in the sixş ginia, and the two Carolinas. Even at Charleston grammar. He had begun to play on several instrutieth degree of latitude, as Stockholm and Petersburg. summer, amounting to 40 degrees of Fahrenheit in dral of Vienna coming to visit the dean of Hamburg,

instances of a variation of temperature are known in ments, when, the chapel-master of the court and catheIn the same states, namely, those of New England, the fifteen hours. heat at the summer solstice is so intense for six weeks

Nothing can have a more prejudicial effect than young Haydn was brought to exhibit before him; and or two months, as to elevate the mercury to 86 and 90 these extraordinary changes and vicissitudes upon the the consequence was, that an offer was made to take degrees. Few years pass but it rises to 100 degrees at health; and upon the generality of European consti- him as one of the children of the choir. This he gladly Salem, which is the temperature of the Persian Gulf

, tutions they are found to be attended with bad accepted, and for eight years, amidst privations and and the shores of Arabia. Also at Quebec, and even prevalence of consumption in almost every maritime chastisements, he occupied that humble situation. in Hudson's Bay, in the 59th degree of latitude, the town of the United States ; this disease at New York, Here, however, he made a rapid progress in music, thermometer is at 90 and 95 degrees for twenty or thirty Philadelphia, and Boston, according to the published and began to exercise his talents as a composer, throwdays in summer. This heat is the more overpowering weekly returns at the three places, occasioning more ing off, before he was well acquainted even with the rufrom its being accompanied with a dead calm, or a

than one-third of the deaths. All these facts show, diments of harmony, a great number of symphonies,

indeed, that America possesses one of the most unsuffocating breeze, and from the vast difference in the wholesome climates in the world, as well, also, as one

trios, sonatas, and other pieces, in which the dawn. two extremes of heat and cold, being no less than 135 of the most disagreeable, since, except in autumn, it ings of an extraordinary genius were evident. These degrees of Fahrenheit, the thermometer being in winter is either too hot or too cold for an inhabitant of our boyish compositions wanted, as might be expected, the 40 degrees below zero.

European temperate zone to show his face out of doors. regularity and consistency necessary for perfect sucIn the middle states of the Union, as they may be endurable out of doors, when under the exercise and The intense cold of the winters in the Canadas is only

cess in compound music; yet there appeared in them called, namely, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, excitement of sleighing over the snow, which every bespoke what he might in after times produce, when

a wildness of nature, and a luxuriance of fancy, which and Maryland, the winters are shorter, and the snows where covers the ground. less abundant and durable, seldom remaining longer

It is also a singular circumstance, that the same that wildness and luxuriance were corrected by attenthan fifteen ortwenty days. During the last winter (1834 degrees of heat and cold do not prevail on the same tion and study. to 1835), the snows remained a much longer time, the parallels of latitude in America itself

. Mr Jefferson, formerly President of the United States, published

His voice in boyhood was of such clearness and comcold being more intense than ever recollected for thirty various remarks upon the climate of his native state of pass, that it became fashionable for the great people of years. But although the snow sooner disappears, from Virginia, as well as upon that of the continent of Vienna to go to the cathedral to hear him. At sixteen, its falling in less quantity, the cold for several weeks America generally, and he observes :

when the usual change took place in his voice, he sudis always very severe. For instance, at Philadelphia,

“ It is a remarkable circumstance, that, in going denly became altogether unfit to fulfil this duty. A in the 40th degree of latitude, answering to the meri- from east to west, under the same parallel, our climate boyish

frolic was then made the pretext by his master dian 'of Madrid, Naples, &c. the thermometer descends in the same manner as if it were north. This obser- for turning him penniless and unrecommended into every winter to 18 degrees, and very frequently to 5, vation applies to any

one coming from any part of the the street, where he passed a long and dreary Novembelow zero. Last winter, both at New York and continent situated to the east of the Alleghany moun- ber night upon a stone bench. It is a fortunate thing Philadelphia, the mercury several days successively tains, until he reaches their summit, the highest in the world, that the mercilessness of one man rarely was at 10 and 12 degrees below the freezing point. The ground between the ocean and the Mississippi. Thence, fails to call forth the benevolence of another, if not of cold was then so intense that the Delaware was frozen ing west as far as the Mississippi, the case is altered; many others : Haydn was found in this forlorn conover in twenty-four hours, in spite of a tide rising and the climate becomes hotter than it is to the east upon dition by a very indigent musician, who, taking pity falling six feet. The East River at New York was so the coast in the same latitudes."

on him, afforded him a place at his frugal board, and full of ice that the steam-boats between that city and is much modified by other circumstances than mere

From all these facts, it is perfectly clear that climate

a corner of a garret without a fireplace, furnished Brooklyn on Long Island, which start every quarter degrees of latitude.' Climate, in its restricted sense,

with a bed of sacking, a crippled chair and table, and of an hour, were with the greatest difficulty able to means but the degree of latitude of a country; the

a decayed harpsichord. Thus, in the midst of penury force a passage, and in some cases were carried down | Greek word klima, from which it is derived, signify-1 and suffering, Haydn began a career which was to ter

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