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“ I'll do that,” replied the boy; and he withdrew to strange personage had begun to make certain confused more interesting parts of Egypt. This foreign expe. execute his commission.

and undefined impressions on him. “I think I may dition was exactly the sort of thing which jumped About three months after, Captain Chillingham's have seen a face somewhat resembling yours before, with the erratic humour of the lad, and he accordingly regiment received orders to proceed to Portsmouth, but where or when I really cannot tell, and, even in proceeded with great good will with his master. Most where it was to be embarked for Gibraltar. On the this, I think it very probable that I am mistaken.” unfortunately, or perhaps fortunately, for Campbell, morning of their leaving the castie, James presented “Not at all," answered the Turk; you are quite his master died in the course of his travels, by wbieh himself before his patron, from whom he had expe. right. I'm James Campbell, frae the head o' the event he was suddenly thrown upon his own resources. rienced much kindness, and to whom he was greatly Cowgate, the son of old Tammas Campbell the caddie, In these circumstances be applied for assistance and attached, to take leave of him, which the warm-hearted the litcle barefooted ragged boy that used to run your advice to the Pasha of Kennah, who, struck with his boy did with tears in his eyes. His feelings were still messages when your regiment was quartered in the personal appearance, which was singularly prepos. more excited, when his patron, the captain, made him castle of Edinburgh."

sessing, and with his intelligence, proposed, half a present of a seven-shilling piece, in recompense for “Can it be possible that you are that person ?" jestingly and half in earnest, that he should renain any extraordinary trouble which he might have had “Indeed it is," replied the disguised Scotchman; where he was, and that he would procure him some with his commissions. As this was the tirst gold coin for we need not say that he was really the person he military appointment under the Turkish government. which Jemmy had ever been in possession of his gra. announced himself to be. “ I am, I assure you, cap. Campbell at once closed with the offer ; and his aptitude was immeasurable ; and after thanking and tain, no other than your old acquaintance James pearing in the character in which we have latterly making his best bow to one who had shown him such Campbell

, frae the head o' the Cowgate; and though exhibited him, was the result. When met in the De kindness, he departed to his home at the head of the mony a day sin' syne, I have never forgotten your sert by Mr Chillingham, he had been nearly seven Cowgate, one of the happiest boys in Edinburgh. kindness in gie'ing me the gold seven-shilling piece. years in the Turkish service ; and in that time he

It would not further our story, nor is it in any way It was with that money I got some education at a had raised himself, by his bravery and good conduct, essential to it, to enumerate the various destinations school at the fit o' the Bow, and I have therefore from one of the lowest commands in the army of thaí to which Captain Chillinghain's regiment was reason to be mindful of what you did for me." We power, to the distinguished station he filled at the signed during the following ten years, but it is essen- need not attempt to convey to the reader any idea of period alluded to in our story, and was, as already tial to state, that at the end of this period it was ordered Captain Chillingham's surprise on this extraordinary noticed, lovked upon as one in the high road to fur. to the East Indies. During this long interval, Cap disclosure being made to him, nor need we record the ther preserment. tain Chillingham had never once been in England ; exclamations which that surprise elicited from him. [The editors, while they think it necessary to men. but his constitution was now so much shattered by the All this will be readily conceived by the reader him- tion that there is nothing fictitious in this story but vicissitudes of climate to which he had been so long self, without our interference.

the names, cannot help pointing to it as an exempli. exposed, that he found it necessary, after he had been “ But,” said Captain Chillingham, after a little tication of the advantage which often accrues, unex. in India about two months, to solicit leave to return desultory conversation had in some measure renewed pectedly, from conduct for which there was no other home for the benefit of his health. Having obtained the intimacy of the parties, and after Campbell had motive than general benevolence. The kindness which this indulgence, he embarked at Bombay with a party given a brief account of the various circumstances the officer manifested towards his temporary servang, who were about to proceed to England by the way of which had combined to place him in his present ex. in obedience siinply to the demands of good feeling, the Ked Sea, where tbey were to disembark, and pro.traordinary situation, “excuse me, I would rather was unquestionably the means of saving him, in a ceed overland, through part of Arabia and Egypt, to see you, James”-“ Abdel Hassan, if you please,"in. later period of life, and in a remote part of the world, Alexandria.

terrupted the latter, with a smile on his mustachioed from a very great misfortune; and he thus purchased, The ship in which Captain Chillingham sailed lip.

at little else than a sentimental expeuse, what nothing with his party, which consisted of five persons, ar- “Oh, I beg your pardon! Well, then, Abdel Has- else perhaps could have obtained for him, and what rived safely at Cossier, where they landed, and made san, since it is so, I say I would rather have met he certainly would have wanted, if he had happened preparations for crossing the Desert. At the close of you again as an Edinburgh caddie than as the chief, to be a man of churlish nature, or one who looked the second day after their debarkation, these prepara- which I take you to be, of a band of Arabian rob- upon his inferiors as a set of beings with whom he tions were completed, and the travellers proceeded on bers.”

was expected to entertain no sympathy. It is thus their journey, accompanied by a long line of camels “Ob, but you mistake, Mr Chillingham,” replied made clear that the man of kind nature, while ex. loaded with their luggage, and a week's supply of pro- Campbell, hastily; "these men, though they have posed, it may be allowed, to some hazards through visions for themselves and attendants. During the attacked you, certainly, for the purpose of plundering its operation, is also liable to reap from it great ad two subsequent days, nothing of any consequence oc- you, are not robbers by profession : they are soldiers vantages ; sowing, as it were, with gracious and soothcurred to the travellers in the Desert. They met in. in the pay of the Turkish government, and I am ing words, seeds which may afterwards grow up to bis deed with several straggling Arabs and Turks mounted their commander ; but they could not resist the tempo hand in splendidly compensatory benefits. ] on horseback, and armed w the teeth, but these al. tation of spoiling you, such opportunities rarely com. ways conducted themselves civilly towards them, and ing in their way; and it would have been more than generally went off after two or three words of cour. my life was worth to have attempted to prevent them;

THE BASTILE. tesy. On the third day, however, just as the travel. but I will bave every rascal of them soused for this A NECESSARY adjunct of the arbitrary system which lers were preparing to bivouack for the night, they when we get to Cossier. I shall have the head taken existed in France before the Revolution, was the were thrown into a state of great alarm by suddenly from the shoulders of every tenth man of them at descrying a large body of armed and mounted Arabs, least, and the rest bastinadoed till they cannot stand; state- prison termed the Bastile, which was sita. who rapidly approached them, and when within musket that they may depend upon. In the meantime, Capated at the eastern gate of Paris, and consisted of shot, halted, as if to reconnoitre, and arrange some tain Chillingham," continued Campbell, “ I shall try, several strong towers, surrounded by walls, a fusse, plan of attack. They then formed themselves into a though at the risk of having my throat cut, to save and other defences proper to a large fortress. It was crescent, couched their spears, and in the next instant your property, at any rate, from their clutches, if you originally built in 1370, though much enlarged after. dashed at full gallop into the midst of the caravan,

will be good enough to point it out to me. encircling it at the same time, so as to prevent the your friends, if it can be recovered at all, must bewards; and it is remarkable that Hugh d'Aubriot, escape of any of the party. A number of the troop recovered by other means. What these means are,

mayor of Paris, who was its original architect, was the next dismounted, and commenced plundering the lug. I shall mention before parting. Which are your first person contined in it. In the latter reigns of the gage of the travellers, and in a few minutes the ground camels

, captain ?” added Campbell. Mr Chillingham French monarchy, it was under the superintendence of was covered with opened and ritled packages. Dur. having pointed them out, the former immediately rode ing this operation, he who seemed to be the leader of off towards them, and was shortly after seen speaking it was garrisoned by a company of invalids, with pro

a governor, and an officer called the Lieutenant du Roi; the troop, a remarkably fine looking man of about six vehemently, and with threatening gestures, to those or eight-and-twenty years of age, and splendidly at. wlio were plundering the luggage they carried, point. per officers ; and there were also a physician, a sur. tired in the Turkish military fashion, remained ac a ing from time to time to the captain as he spoke. In geon, an engineer, a clerk, and a certain number of short distance from the spoilers, in whose proceedings a few minutes afterwards be rejoined the latter, and turnkeys and inferior officials. The apartments for he took no part, and, indeed, seemed to take no inte. told him that he had succeeded in his object, and that prisoners were ranged above each other in the towers, rest. There was one obiect, however, which appeared his property was safe. “ As to that of your friends, and were usually about eighteen feet in extent, with to engross an extraordinary share of his attention : Captain Chillingham,” he added, “I hope, on your this was Captain Chillingham. On this gentleman he account, that, with the assistance of the Effendi at one small grated window, being furnished with little continued gazing with an earnestness, and an express Cossier, I shall recover the greater part of it at any besides a bed and a table. In the bottom of each tower, sion of inquiry, that both attracted the notice and He then recommended the whole party, tak nearly on a level with the putrid ditch without, was a greatly surprised him who was the subject of it. Nor ing care, however, not to excite any suspicions of was this surprise by any means lessened, when he saw collusion amongst his own men by any of his com

stone.constructed dungeon, in which were immured, the Turkish or Arabian chieftain, or whatever he was, munications with the travellers, to remain at Thebes without light or fire, such prisoners as had attempted suddenly put spurs to his horse, and advance towards until they heard from him, which he assured them to make their escape, or for whom a particular rigour him at full gallop. On observing this, Captain Chil. would be in less than ten days.

was on any other account thought necessary. lingham's first impression was, chat he was about to Having said this, and once more bidden an affec

Down to the reign of Louis XVI., when a milder be attacked, and he instinctively drew a pistol from tionate adieu to his old patron and friend, Campbell his belt, cocked it, and held it in readiness in his hand placed himself again at the head of his troop, who system commenced, the French monarchs and their to discharge it at his supposed enemy. The Turk on were now in readiness to continue their march, hav. ministers were in the custom of consigning obnoxious approaching nearer observed this indication of hosti- ing secured all the most portable and valuable portion individuals, without compunction or form of law, to lity on the part of the captain, and waved his hand of the travellers' effects, and in a few minutes the the horrors of this prison, whence, in very rare instances, impatiently to deprecate any inimical intentions. Cap. whole party started at full gallop, and were speedily were they ever after set at large. The French were in tain Chillingham understood the sign, and imme. lost in the distance in the Desert. diately dropped the point of his weapon. In the next The travellers pursued their journey. They stopped reality in those days so obedient to the government, instant, the Turkish leader was beside him; and what at Thebes, as they had been recommended to do by that there was seldom occasion to take this means of was his amazement, when the former, looking at him Campbell; and within the time he had mentioned, punishing any thing like a positive state offence. The again attentively for a moment, said in a low whisper, the whole of their property, with the exception of most of the prisoners were officers or employés, who and in as good English as he himself could have spo- soine trifling articles, was restored to them ; but from bad hesitated, on conscientious grounds, to obey the ken, “ Pray, sir, are you not Captain Chillingham of this nsoment, neither Captain Chillingham nor any of the 29th regiment of foot ?"

his party ever saw or heard more of the son of the orders of their superiors ; persons who had incurred, It was some time before the extreme surprise of the Edinburgh caddie, alias Abdel Hasean the Turkish from whatever cause, the personal wrath of the king, latter, at being thus addressed by a Turk in full mili. commander, further than that he was in bigh favour his minister, or his mistress; and humble and innocent tary costume, and in the middle of the deserts of Ara. with the Turkish government, and in a fair way of citizens, who might perhaps have allowed themselves bia, would permit his making any reply. At length, becoming a very great man.

to discuss too freely the measures of the government. however, he stammered out that he certainly was the There only remains to be added to this little nar. person who had just been named.

rative some account of the circumstances which led If any purpose was to be served, or any passion to be “I thought 80,” replied the Turk; and immediately to so extraordinary a change in the condition of the gratified, even a word or a look was reckoned a suffi. added smilingly, “Do you not recollect me, captain principal subject of it. Young Campbell, who was cient cause of imprisonment. The sole forni requisite Look at me again;" and he now raised his turban naturally of an enterprising turn, and whose appetite for the seizure and incarceration of a subject of France, high on his forehead, to give a fuller view of his coun. for travelling had been excited by some of the stories

was the issuing of a lettre de cachet, in which the king tenance.

in the “Collections" he had perused, by way of les. “No, upon my word I do not,” said Chillingbam; sons, at the school at the foot of the Bow, had been addressed the individual aimed at with a few words " that is, perhaps, I think—"and here he became ex- employed as a servant to an English gentleman of expressing his dissatisfaction with his conduct, and a tremely perplexed, for some of the features of this I large fortune, about to set out on a tour through the desire that he should surrender himself in his castle of




the Bastile, there to remain till further orders. These surprise and unbounded joy. On one old man alone Though Mr Telford afterwards abandoned the thrift. terrible letters were always delivered by persons who it produced these effects in a very inferior degree. less trade of versifying, he is said to have retained had the means of enforcing the request, and it is He had been imprisoned for the space of forty-seven through life a strong “frater-feeling” for the corps, somewhat surprising that they were occasionally exe- years; age had diminished his sensibility, and habit cuted in other countries than France. A Leyden had in some measure reconciled him to his situa- which he showed in a particular manner on the death printer was seized in Holland by the command of tion.

When a strange voice announced his liberty, of Burns, in exertions for the benefit of his family. Louis XIV., for printing a satire on his majesty, and and permission to depart, he appeared to be stupi. Having completed his apprenticeship as a stoneconveyed to the prison of St Michel in Normandy, tied, and at a loss what to say or how to act. Re.

mason in his native place, he repaired to Edinburgh, where he spent many years in a narrow cage of wood, covering bimself, however, he slowly, quitted his where he found employment, and continued, with till death put a period to his sufferings. An Arme dungeon, and repaired to the street where he had nian patriarch was seized at Constantinople, during formerly lived: but no vestige of his house remained, unremitting application, to study the principles of the same reign, and died a prisoner in Paris. Nay, other buildings occupying the place where it stood architecture, agreeably to the rules of science. Here so lately as 1752, a lettre de cachet, obtained for pri- His family were all dead, or gone into foreign cli. he remained until the year 1782, when, having made vate purposes, was executed in London on a M. Bertin

No one, even the most aged of those whom

a considerable proficiency, he left the Scottish capital, de Fratceaux, who, being conveyed thence to the he accosted, either knew him, or could be brought to Bastile, remained a prisoner for the rest of bis life. recollect any of the occurrences which he detailed, in and went to London under the patronage of Sir Wil.

Each prisoner, on arriving at the Bastile, was ex. order to assist their memory. A whole generation liam Pulteney (originally Johnstone) and the family amined before the Lieutenant du Roi, and commanded passed away, and he found himself a stranger in the of Pasley, who were natives of the parish of Westerto give up every valuable he possessed, lest he might very city where he was born. An ancient domestic, kirk. employ them to corrupt the keepers, as also his pen. to whom he was accidentally directed, at length re- Telford now found himself in a scene which preknife or any other weapon with which be inight becognised the features of the master whom he had able to kill either himself or others. During this served. From himn be learned that his wife had died sented scope for the efforts of his talents and industry. ceremony, the officers who were present, utterly re. thirty years before, in extreme grief, and that his Fortunately he did not long remain unnoticed or un. gardless of the terror and apprehension appearing in children had disappeared, withont any visible cause. employed. His progress was not rapid, but it was every look and motion of the prisoner, commonly in. The old man groaned under the weight of such accu- steady, and always advancing; and every opportunity dulged themselves in a brutal pleasantry as the dif- mulated misery; and presenting himself before the

of displaying his taste, science, and genius, extended ferent articles were produced. It was then inquired ininister to whom he was indebied for his release, he what room was empty, and on receiving a proper an. bowed himself down, and addressed him in the follow.

his fame, and paved the way to new enterprises and swer, the wretched individual was conducted to his ing words :-“ Restore me again to that prison from acquisitions. The first public employment in which apartment. Here many would remain for months which you have taken me: I cannot survive the loss of he was engaged was that of superintending some works before they obtained the privilege of being shaved, my nearest relations, of my friends, and, in one word, belonging to government in Portsmouth dockyard. which could not be done without a direct order from

of a whole generation. Is it possible in the same moment The duties of this undertaking were discharged with the minister of Paris. Clothes, furniture, and faggots, to be informed of this universal destruction, and not to being supplied by the governor out of an allowance wish for death? This general mortality, which to

so much fidelity and care as to give complete satisfac. made by the king, generally became the subject of the rest of mankind coines slowly and by degrees,

tion to the commissioners, and to ensure the future fraud with that officer, and were often given so scan. has to ine been instantaneous, the operation of a mo- exercise of his talents and services. Hence, in 1787, tily that the prisoners used to suffer grievously from

Whilst secluded from society, I lived with he was appointed surveyor of the public works in the cold. It would appear, however, tbat the inmates of myself only; but here I can neither live with myself, the Bastile suffered more in the mind than in the

rich and extensive county of Salop; and this situa. nor with this new race, to whom my anguish and body. On entering the gloomy fortress, they passed

despair appear only as a dream. There is nothing tion he retained till his death. at once into a state of complete exclusion from the terrible in dying; but it is dreadful indeed to be the

A detail of the steps by which Mr Telford subseworld. If the friends of the prisoner inquired after last.” This speech so much affected the minister, quently placed himself at the head of the profession of him, it was denied, even with vaths and imprecations, that he ordered the ancient domestic above al.

engineering, would most likely only tire our readers. that he was in continement; and the governor has | luded to still to attend his master, as he alone was been known to express his astonishment that they able to converse with him on the subject of his Tost It is allowed on all hands that his elevation was owing should suppose him to be in the Bastile. The only children and friends. The old man would talk of solely to his consummate ability and persevering in. persons who visited the prisoners were the turnkey's nothing else, for he avoided all intercourse with the dustry, unless we are to allow a share in the process and officers of the house. On these occasions, the world, and continued to live in the midst of Paris as to the singular candour and integrity which marked most insidious questions were put to them, and their much a stranger to society as when he was confined every step in his career. His works are so numerous answers, carefully remembered, were afterwards writ. in the dungeons of the Bastile, till death put an end all over the island, that there is hardly a county in ten down. "No one was allowed to approach them, in to his existence. whom they could confide, or from whom they could An account of a still

more interesting prisoner, and England, Wales, or Scotland, in which they may not ask advice. They never again heard of their nearest the destruction of the Bastile, will form the subject of be pointed out. The Menai and Conway bridges, the relations, nor did their nearest relations ever again another article.

Caledonian canal, the St Katharine's docks, the Holy. hear of them. Day after day, year after year, passed

head roads and bridges, the Highland roads and on, and the unhappy prisoner knew not his offence, or the period of his punishment, or the condition of those


bridges, the Chirke and Pontcysulte aqueducts, the in whom he was most interested. Roused, perhaps,

canals in Salop, and great works in that county, are by the hope of liberty, offered to him on the condition How frequently have we had to record that it is to

some of the traits of his genius which occur to us, of his acknowledging guilt and betraying his accom.

the energies of genius in humble life that science is and which will immortalise the name of Thomas plices, be might indulge in a momentary transport: chiefly indebted for its most valuable discoveries and


Nor was the British empire alone benefited by Mr he would sink into an unchangeable melancholy, the extension of its empire ! The names of Brindley, Telford's genius. In the year 1808, he was employed 'which at length overpowered his reason. Many of Watt, and Arkwright, will never be forgotten ; and by the Swedish government to survey the ground, and the prisoners, however, from peculiarity of constitu, with them, and others equally distinguished, will lay out an inland navigation through the central parts would even contrive to find anusement in their soli- and constructor of public works, unequalled in this direct communication by water between the North tion, bore their sufferings better than others, and henceforward rank that of Telford, a civil engineer of that kingdom. The design of this undertaking was

to connect the great fresh-water lakes, and to form a tary cells. The histories of the Bastile are full of at. tempts made to train spiders by supplying them with or probably any other country.

Sea and the Baltic. This gigantic undertaking he food ; and to satisfy the craving of the faculties for Thomas Telford was born in the year 1757, in the fully accomplished, with the assistance of experienced exercise, by ascertaining the dimensions of the room, parish of Westerkirk, in the pastoral vale of Eskdale, British workmen. or counting in different directions the studs upon the a district in the county of Dumfries. His parents cipally spread in Great Britain by his great work,

Mr Telford's fame as a civil engineer has been prindoor. Some have spent whole days in pouring water from one dish into another, or in disposing in lanciful occupied a station in the humble walks of life, which, the Dublin road from London to Holyhead, including arrangements the pieces of which their faggots were however, they filled with becoming respectability. the Menai and Conway bridges. The Menai bridge, composed. In later and more humane times, the ri. The outset in life of their son Thomas corresponded one of the greatest wonders of art in England, is un. gour of the confinement was in some instances abated

to their situation in society, and was strikingly hum. questionably the most imperishable monument of his after a certain space. The prisoners were allowed to walk daily for an hour in one of the courts, though ble and obscure in comparison with its close. He be- capacity for extensive undertakings. This bridge is still within view of a soldier or guard. If any strana gan the world az a working stone-mason in his native

constructed over the small strait of the sea which in.

tervenes betwixt the mainland of North Wales and ger appeared, they were obliged instantly to retire. parish, and for a long time was only remarkable for the island of Anglesen, and carries the road which By applying to the lieutenant of the police, they might the neatness with which he cut the letters upon those proceeds onward to Holyhead. Before its erection, obtain permission to attend mass, which was performed frail sepulchral memorials which “teach the rustic the communication was carried on by means of ferryat least every Sunday in the chapel belonging to the moralist to die.” His occupation, fortunately, af- boats, and was therefore subject to delays, and even apartments, and sat in covered niches, where they forded a greater number of leisure hours thau what dangers. The bridge is at a point near the town of

Bangor, from near which its appearance is strikingly could hear without being seen. Some were allowed are usually allowed by such laborious employments, grand. It is built partly of stone and partly of iron, the conveniency of pens, ink, and paper, and were and these young Telford turned to the utmost advan- on the suspension principle, and consists of seven stone permitted to write to their friends; but all their let. tage in his power. Having previously acquired the arches, exceeding in magnitude every work of the ters passed through the hands of the lieutenant of the elements of learning, he spent all his spare time in kind in the world. They connect the land with the police, by whom they were frequently opened and read,

two main piers, which rise 53 feet above the level of so that few of thein reached the persons for whom poring over such volumes as fell within his reach, the road, over the top of which the chains are susthey were intended. They likewise had the use of with no better light in general than what was afforded pended, each chain being 1714 feet from the fastenings books from a library founded by a prisoner in the by the cottage fire. Under these circumstances, the in the rock. The first three-masted vessel passed unbeginning of the last century, and augmented by the powers of his mind took a direction not uncommon

der the bridge in 1826. Her topmasts were nearly as contributions of his successors. It consisted of about five hundred volumes. Some of the captives were among rustic youths; he became a noted rhymster in high as a frigate ; but they cleared 12 feet and a half

below the centre of the roadway. The suspending permitted to read in the library, while others had the the homely style of Ramsay and Fergusson, and, while power of the chains was calculated at 2016 tons ; the books brought to them by their keepers. After much still a very young man, contributed verses to Ruddi. total weight of each chain, 121 tons. This stupendous and frequent solicitation, a prisoner of scientific taste man's Weekly Magazine, under the unpretending undertaking occasioned Mr Telford more intense obtained the use of mathematical iustruments ; but signature of “ Eskdale Tam.” In one of these com- thought than any other of his works : he told a friend on inspecting the case, he found that the compasses positions, which was addressed to Burns, he sketched (Dr James Cleland) that his state of anxiety for a were exceedingly small, and made of bone. There is one passage in the history of the Bastile, his own character, and hinted his own ultimate fate short time previous to the opening of the bridge was

80 extreme, that he had but little sound sleep, and without which this branch of our article might be

Nor pass the tentie curious lad,

that a much longer continuance of that condition of reckoned incomplete. We shall therefore give it in

Who o'er the ingle hangs his head,

mind must have undermined his health. Not that he as few words as possible :-Louis XVI., at the com.

And begs of neighbours books to read;

had any reason to doubt the strength and stability of mencement of his reign, ordered the registers of the

For hence arise,

every part of the structure, for be had employed all Bastile to be examined, and a number of prisoners to Thy country's sons, who far are spread,

the precautions that he could imagine useful, as sugbe set at liberty. The intelligence was received with

Baith bold and wise.

gested by his own experience and consideration, or by



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the zeal and talents of his very able and faithful as. had for some years been subject, and which at length lost. “At it again, my boys !-steady-steadysistants, yet the bare possibility that some weak point proved fatal. His life, prolonged by temperance and give way!-give way for the honour of the Grampus. might have escaped his and their vigilance in a work cheerfulness, at length drew to a close, and he expired One pull for old Nantucket !-and-there we have so new, kept the whole structure constantly passing in at his house in Abingdon Street, Westminster, Sep. shown a clean pair of heels to the Dutchman !" review before his mind's eye, to examine if he could tember 2, 1834. He died a bachelor. His remains Hagel !-Donder and blirem !said the Hollander. discover a point that did not contribute its share to were deposited in Westminster Abbey, next to those “There is but one boat ahead," said Seth ; “it is the the perfection of the whole. In this, as in all his of the late distinguished geographer, Major Rennel. Englishman! We must beat him too, or we have great works, he employed, as sub-engineers, men ca

gained nothing! Away with her-down upon hin

like men ! One pull for the Grampus, my boys! pable of appreciating and acting on his ideas; but he


another for old Nantuckwas no rigid stickler for his own plans, for he most

The American now readily acquiesced in the suggestions of his assistants in an American tale, recently republished in this shot up alongside of the English boat; but the honour when reasonable, and thus identified them with the

“ Miriam Coffin, or the Whale with fresh vigour.

of the nation, too, was at stake; they bent to their cars

Five athletic Englishmen, each success of the work. In ascertaining the strength of country, entitled

with a bare chest that would have served for the mo. the materials for the Menai bridge, he employed men Fisherman,” we find a variety of details relative to a

del of a Hercules--with arms of brawn and sinewof the highest rank for scientific character and attain- wild class of beings—the fishermen of Nantucket, a

seaport in the state of Massachusetts ; among the rest swayed their oars with a precision and an earnestness The Caledonian canal is another of Mr Telford's is the following animated description of the chase and

that for a minute left the contest doubtful. The Eng. splendid works, in constructing every part of which,

lish commander, seeing how etfectually Seth managed

the stroke-oar with his foot, braced himself in a simi. though prodigious difficulties were to be surmounted, capture of a whale :

The noble animal_for it was a right whale of the lar attitude of exertion, and his boat evidently gained he was successful. But even this great work dues not redound so much to his credit as the roads throughout largest class—held on its course up the bay, scooping upon the Nantucketer.

Seth saw the increase of the same district. That from Inverness to the county its food from time to time, and annihilating its thou speed of his rival with dismay. The whale, too, was of Sutherland, and through Caithness, made not only, sands of small fish at a dive; leaving the boats far in just rising ahead. The bubbles of his blowing, and so far as respects its construction, but its direction, the rear, and darting off in new directions, until those of his efforts at rising, were beginning to ascend.

It who were most on the alert, or rather those who pulled under Mr Telford's orders, is superior, in point of line

was a moment of intense anxiety. The rushing the most constantly, were fain to give up the chase, train or vortex of water told that he was near the and smoothness, to any part of the road of equal con.

and to lie on their oars. Intent upon his prey, the surface. tinuous length between London and Inverness. This

whale appeared unconscious of the dangerous vicinage Both commanders encouraged their men anew by is a remarkable fact, which, from the great difficulties he had to overcome in passing through a rugged,

of the ships, and played among them with a temerity a single word; and then, as if lry mutual consent, all

which evinced a tameness, or perhaps an ignorance of was silent, except the long, measured, and vigorous hilly, and mountainous district, incontrovertibly establishes his great skill in the engineering department,

its danger, that plainly showed he had never been stroke of the oars. “For old England, my lads !" as well as in the construction of great public commu

chased by the whaler, nor hurt by the harpoon. The shouted the one. “Remember old Nantucket, my

animal, gorged with its fishy meal, at last commenced boys !” was the war-cry of the other. Both plied nications.

its retreat from the bay; and the boats manæuvred to their oars with apparently equal skill; but the hot-Eng. The genius of this distinguished engineer, as has

head him off as he retired. Obeying the instinct of lishinan lost his temper as the boat of Seth shot up been stated, was not contined to his profession. Dr

his nature, he now showed his tlooks, and vanished again head and head with him, and he surged his Currie says, in his Life of Burns, “A great number from the sight before the boats could get within strik-foot so heavily upon the after-oar, that it broke off of manuscript poems were found among the papers of ing distance. A calculation being made where he short in the rówlock! The blade of the broken oar Burns, addressed to him by admirers of his genius, would next appear (for beneath the water the whale became entangled with the others on the same side, from different parts of Britain, as well as from Ire- does not deviate from a direct line in his horizontal while the after-ogrsman lost his balance, and fell land and America. Among these was a poetical epistle progress), a general race ensued; and each strove, as backward upon his leader. “ I bid chee good-bye !" from Shrewsbury, of superior merit. It is written in the dialect of Scotland (of which country Mr Tel. Some twenty minutes' steady and vigorous pulling by the Englishman: if life were on the issue, to arrive first upon the spot. said Seth, as he shot ahead. An oath was vociferated

• Way enough-peak your ford is a native), and in the versification generally found the foremost boats a fuil inile behind the whale oars !” said Seth to his men. The oars bristled apeak, employed by our poet himself. Its object is to re

when he rose again to breathe. Several boats were after the fashion of the whale-fishermen. The barcommend to him other subjects of a serious nature, unluckily ahead of Seth (of Nantucket) in the chase, pooner immediately seized and balanced his weapon similar to that of the Cottar's Saturday Night,' and

as their position at starting enabled them to take the the reader will find that the advice is happily enforced lead when the animal began to push for deeper water.

over his head, and planted himself firmly in the bow

of the boat. At that instant the huge body of the by example. It would have given the editor pleasure But Seth's men had been resting on their vars, while whale rose above the surface; and Seth, with a single to have inserted the whole of this poem, which he nearly all the others had exhausted their strength in turn of his steering-oar, brought the bow dead upon hopes will one day see the light; he is happy to have following the whale among the ships ; and the captain the mouster, a few feet aback of the tin. Simulta. obtained, in the meantime, his friend Mr Telford's judged rightly, that, in darting after his tiny prey, neously with the striking of the boat, the well-poised permission to insert the following extracts.”Then he would lead them all a bootless dance. come the permitted extracts, from which the subjoined, termined to wait for the recreat, and then to hang mal.

He had de harpoon was launched deep into the flesh of the ani.

“ Starn all!" shouted Seth. The boat was written at Shrewsbury, is selected :upon the rear of the enemy.

backed off in an instant; and the whale, feeling the “ Pursue, O Burns, thy happy style,

There were others, however, acquainted with the sting of the barb, darted off like the wind! The • Those manner-painting strains,' that while soundings of the bay, whose tactics were scarce in. well-coiled line flew through the groove of the bow. They bear me northward mony a mile,

ferior to Seth's; and the advantage gained over him post with incomparable swiftness, and it presently beRecall the days

by several boats was proof of this, or at least of the gan to smoke, and then to blaze, with the rapidity of When tender joys, with pleasing smile, Blest my young ways.

superior accuracy of their calculations. It was a long the friction. Seth now took the bow with his lance,

time since Sech had given chase to an animal of the exchanging places with the harpooner, and quietly I see my fond companions rise ;

right whale breed : be had grappled of late only with poured water upon the smoking groove, until it was I join the happy village joys;

the spermaceti; and therefore it was not to be won. cooled. The oars were again peaked, and the handles I see our green hills touch the skies, And through the wood

dered at, at this time, and under the circumstances, inserted in brackets fixed on the ceiling of the boat

that some around him should beat him in manquvr- beneath the thwaits, the blades projecting over the I hear the river's rushing noiseIts roaring flood.

ing in the bay. But, in the steady chase, he knew water like wings; and the men, immovable, rested No distant Swiss with warmer glow

that he could count upon the speed and bottom of his from their long but successful pull: and much need E'er beard his native music flow,

boat's crew, and he was now resolved to contest for did they have of the reliet, for a more arduous or betNor could his wishes stronger grow

the victory. “We have a clear field now, my boys ter contested chase they had never experienced. The Than still have mine,

-give way steadily-we gain upon them-give the line in the tub was now well-nigh run out; and the When up this rural mount I go

long pull, the strong pull, and the pull together-keep boat-steerer, with a thick buckskin mitten or nipper, With songs of thine.

her to it_heave ahead, my hearties !” Such were as it is called, for the protection of his hand, seized O happy bard! thy gen'rous flame

the words of Seth, as, with eyes steadily fixed upon a hold of the line, and, in a twinkling, caught a turn Was given to raise thy country's fame;

certain point, and with his steering.oar slightly dipped round the loggerhead, to enable the man at the tub-oar For this thy charming numbers came-

at times, he guided the light whale-boat unerringly to bend on another line. The rapidity of the animal's Thy matchless lays :

towards the place where he expected the whale to re- fight the while was inconceivable. The boat now Then sing, and save her virtuous name

appear. One by one he had dropped his antagonists plonghed deeply and laboriously, leaving banks of water To latest days."

by the way, until three only remained, manfully on each side, as she parted the wave, thatovertopped the Mr Telford was not more remarkable for his great struggling between him and the prize. The whale men's heads, and effectually obscured the sight oi every professional abilities than for his sterling worth in pri. again breathed at the surface, and the distance be object on the surface. The swell of the closing water vate life. His easiness of access, and the playfulness tween the headmost boat and the animal was found caine after them in a heavy and angry rush. The seof his disposition, even to the close of life, endeared to be diminished to half a mile, while the ships in the cond line was now allowed w run slowly from the him to a numerous circle of friends, including all the bay were run “hull down." The pursuers were now loggerhead; and a drag, or plank about eighteen most distinguished men of his time. He was the pa- out upon the broad ocean. Those who had abandoned inches square, with a line proceeding from each corner, tron of merit in others, wherever it was to be found; the chase in despair were slowly returning to their and meeting at a point like a pyramid, was fastened and be was the means of raising many deserving in ships. The rigging of the vessels was manned by to it, and thrown over to deaden the speed of the dividuals from obscurity to situations where their ta. anxious spectators, watching the motions of the tiny whale. Another and another drug were added, until lents were seen and soon appreciated. Up to the last specks out at sea with beating hearts. The whale the animal, feeling the strong backward pull, began to period of his life, he was fond of young men and of again cast his flooks into the air, and sunk from the relax his efforts; and presently he suddenly descended, their company, provided they delighted in learning. view of his pursuers. Now came the tug of war. though not to the full extent of the slackened line. His punctuality was universal, a very rare quality in “ You must beat those foreigners ahead,” said Seth It now became necessary to haul in the slack of the men of genius. In the course of his busy life he taught to his men, “or crack your vars : they are of good line, and to coil it away in the tub carefully ; while the himself Latin, French, and German. He understood American ash, and will bear pulling,” continued he: men pulled with their vars, tu come up with the whale algebra well, but thought that it led too much to ab. “Give way with a will !--pull-pull, my lads; that when he should rise to the surface. straction, and too little to practice. Mathematical in. whale will not sink again without a harpoon in his All things were soon ready a jain for the deadly vestigation he also held rather cheaply, and always, body; and 'cwill never do to tell of at home that we attack. The ripple of the whale, as he ascended, was when practicable, resorted to experiment to determine allowed men of other nations to beat us. Keep your carefully marked ; and when he again saw the light the relative value of any plans on which it was his eyes steadily on your oars; mark the stroke of the of day, a deep wound, close to the barbed harpoon, business to decide. He delighted in emp'oying the after-oar, men—and give way for the credit of the was instantly inflicted by the sharo lance of Seth. It vast in nature to contribute to the accom'n dation of Grampus !” Here Seth braced himself in the stern- was the death blow.

Starn all!' was the cry once man; yet he did not despise minutiæ-a poin, too sel. sheets, seized the steering.oar with his left hand, and more-and the boat was again quickly backed off by dom attended to by projectors.

placed his right foot against the after-oar, just below the oarsmen. The infuriated animal roared in agony, For some years before his death, he gradually re- the hand of the oarsman. “Now pull for your lives !" and lashed the ocean into fvam. The blood gushed tired from professional employment, and he latterly said he, “while I add the strength of my leg to the from his spout-hvies, falling in torrents ou the men in amused his leisure hours by writing a detailed account oar :-once more !-Again, my boys !-once more- the boat, and colouring the sea. The whale, in his of the principal undertakings which he had planned there—we pass the Spaniard!” Diabolo !ex. last agony, is a fearful creature. He rose perpendi. and lived to see executed. This work, illustrated with claimed the mortified native of Spain. The additional cularly in the water, head downwards, and again plates, is, we believe, in a state of forwardness for pub- momentum of Seth's foot, applied to the stroke-oar, writhed and lashed the sea with such force, that the lication. The immediate cause of Mr Telford's death had done the job ; but iwo more boats were to be people in the retreating boats, though ten miles diswas a repetition of severe bilious attacks, to which he passed and quiekly toc-or all the labour would be tant, heard the thunder of the sound distinctly! The


exertion was too violent to last long; it was the signal, tricts, the young are not more than half-grown. The verdure, and warns them that they must soon receive of his dissolution. His liseblood ceased to flow, and nest is formed, or rather the spot where the eggs the buffetings of the winter's tempest! This is but be turned his belly to the sun. The waif of the are to be deposited is scraped out in some ready-made water, which has given up its transparency for its Grampus floated triumphantly above the body of the hollow or furrow, or placed under cover of a tuft of beautiful whiteness and its elegant crystals. The slaughtered Leviathan of the deep-and the peril of grass, and from twelve to twenty eggs are deposited. snow, too—what is that but these same pure drops the bard y crew was over.

This mode of nidification prevails through the whole thrown into crystals by winter's icy hand ?--and does genus. No nest is made, and often no great care not the first summer's sun return them to the same

of concealment is displayed. In cultivated countries limpid drops ? GAME BIRDS.

the young grasses and corns are their favourite breed. The majestic river, and the boundless ocean, what [From Sir William Jardine's Naturalist's Library.) ing places, the former often fatal from the hay-har. are they? Are they not made of drops of water ? AMONG the extensive tribe of Gallinaceous birds are vest having commenced before the brood is hatched. How the river steadily pursues its course from the the Tetraonide, or Grouse, being the principal part of The choice of a place of security for their eggs is not mountain's top, down the declivity, over the cliff, and that class of birds which in sporting language have always the same, for Montague mentions a pair which through the plain, taking with it every thing in its been called game. “Very few of these have been do- successively selected the top of an old pollard oak, and course! How many mighty ships does the ocean float mesticated for the use of man, but their preservation Mr Selby writes of having known several parallel upon its bosom! How many tishes sport in its waters ! in a wild state, and means for an abundant capture, It is a singular trait in the babits of many | How does it form a lodging-place for the Amazon, the have in all ages exercised the ingenuity of the inha- birds, that those often of a wild nature will select Mississippi, the Danube, the Rbine, the Ganges, the bitants of civilised districts, and at this time form a the most frequented parts for their nests. Both part- Lena, and the Hoang Ho! large account in the luxuries of populous cities; while ridges and pheasants are often discovered with the How piercing are these pure limpid drops ! How in countries in a state of purer nature, they are much nest placed within two or three feet of a highway or do they find their way into the depths of the earth, used as a wholesome and general food.

footpath, where there is a daily passage of men and and even the solid rock! How many thousand streams, Among the true Gallinaceous birds, we find the dif- animals. The parents, as if knowing their safety de hidden from our view by mountain masses, are steadily ferent members living very much upon the ground, pended on sitting close, remain quiet amidst all the pursuing their courses, deep from the surface which the power of flight limited, from the great weight of bustle, and often hatch in such places.

forms our standing place for a few short days! In their bodies or unwieldiness of plumage, and very During incubation, the male sedulously attends, and the air, too, how it diffuses itself! Where can a par. commonly an extraordinary developement of the parts will generally be found near, if the female is intruded ticle of air be found which does not contain an atom composing the tail. In the present family, the ground upon by any of her less formidable enemies. When of water ! is still their prevailing habitation, though many of the brood is hatched, both lead about the young and How much would a famishing man give for a few them freqnently perch and roost on trees. Their assist them to their food ; and mild and timid as the of these pure, limpid drops of water? And where do power of Hight is ample, very strong, in some, as the partridge is generally described, instances have been we use it in our daily sustenance ?-or rather, where genus Pterocles; extremely rapid, but in a few forms seen where the love of offspring prevailed, and a vi- do we not use it? Which portion of the food that we almost as little used, as among the Pavonidæ. Some gorous defence was successfully maintained against a have taken during our lives did not contain it? What portion of these useful birds are spread over every re. more powerful assailant. Among the many instances part of our body, which limb, which organ, is not gion of the world, and in almost all localities. The of such defence mentioned by various authors, we moistened with this same faithful servant ? How is section of the grouse to which the muirfowl of Britain shall notice one of the latest which Mr Selby has re- our blood, that free liquid, to circulate through our and the ptarmigan belong, occupy the wild heathy dis- corded in the last edition of his History of British Or- veins without it? tricts of the temperate circle, and extend to the most nithology :-'Their parental instinct, indeed, is not How gladly does the faithful horse, or the patient barren and alpine mountains, or the extremes of polar always confined to mere devices for engaging attention; ox, in his toilsome journey, arrive at the water's cold. The true grouse, again, to which the European but where there exists a probability of success, they brink! And the faithful dog, patiently following his wood-grouse belongs, occupy the forest and bushy will fight obstinately for the preservation of their master's track-how eagerly does he lap the water grounds, and extend almost as far. The partridges young, as appears from many instances already nar from the clear fountain he meets in his way! prefer open countries free from wood, and draw near rated by different writers, and to which the following The feathered tribe, also-bow far and how quick to cultivation ; but within the tropics there are one or may be added, for the truth of which I can vouch. their flight, that they may exchange the northern ice two forms, which, like the grouse, prefer the brush A person engaged in a field, not far from my residence, for the same common comfort rendered liquid and and wood, where, on the branches, they are safer from had his attention arrested by some objects on the limpid by a southern sun! the attacks of the numerous tribes of reptiles which ground, which, upon approaching, he found to be two

Whose heart ought not to overflow with gratitude swarm around them. The gangas, again, or, as they partridges, a male and female, engaged in battle to the abundant Giver of this pure liquid, which his have been named, the sand-grouse, frequent the most with a carrion-crow; so successful and so absorbed

own hand has deposited in the deep, and diffused barren districts in the world, the plains of India, and were they in the issue of the contest, that they ac- through the floating air and the solid earth? Is it the trackless deserts of Africa and Arabia, far from tnally held the crow, till it was seized and taken from the farmer, whose fields, by the gentle dew and the the haunts of men, and almost as far from food and them by the spectator of the scene. Upon search, abundant rain, bring forth fátness ? Is it the mecha. water; but endowed with powers for extensive locomo- the young birds (very lately hatched) were found nic, whose saw, lathe, spindle, and shuttle, are moved tion, they traverse in a day leagues of the waste. concealed amongst the grass. It would appear, there by this faithful servant? Is it the merchant, on his

All breed upon the ground, making scarcely any fore, that the crow, a mortal enemy to all kinds of return from the noise and the perplexities of business nest, and, with a few exceptions, they lay a number of young game, in attempting to carry off one of these, to the table of his family, richly supplied with the eggs. In one or two instances, two broods are hatched had been attacked by the parent birds, and with the varieties and the luxuries of the four quarters of the in the season, but this is rare, and only continues where above singular success.'. Such displays are, however, globe, produced by the abundant rain, and transported the regions are very warm. The cry of most of these comparatively seldom witnessed or indeed exercised,

across the mighty but yielding ocean? Is it the phybirds is harsh, in a few deep and hoarse ; it is ut- for nature has implanted another device in the greater sician, on his administering to his patient some gentle tered only in the breeding season ; in cases of disper- numbers of this family, in which the organs of de- beverage, or a more active healer of the disease which sion, and at morn and even like a roll-call to see that fence are in reality weak, against their many as- threatens ? Is it the clergyman, whose profession it is none are wanting. The plumage is subject to con- sailants, both animal and feathered. Stratagem is to make others feel—and that by feeling himself that siderable variation between the males aud females resorted to, and the parent feigns lameness and even

the slightest favour and the richest blessing are from during the breeding season; and in those which in death to withdraw the aggressor. The noise and the same source, and from the same abundant and habit northern regions or alpine districts, a change of confusion which occurs when a person suddenly and

constant Giver ?-An anonymous American writer. plumage in winter, different from that of spring or unawares comes on a young brood of partridges is summer, takes place.

remarkable. The shrieks of the parents, apparently Among the true grouse, such as the wood-grouse, tumbling and escaping away with broken legs and TO A VERY YOUNG FRIEND, WITH A PRESENT OF blackcock, and beautiful birds of America, the males wings, is well acted, and often succeeds in withdraw.

HIS FIRST PRINTED VISITING CARD. are distinguished by a plumage of deep glossy black, ing the dog and his young attendant beyond the pos

[By T. Haynes Bayly, Esq.] tinted with blue or green, or tbey have broad and sibility of discovering the hiding places of the brood.

Dear Edmund, take the gift I send, conspicuous patches of these colours mingled with When this is attained, their wonted strength is soon

But listen while I speak demurely,

Lest some should think I lead my friend the other sbades. The females are invariably of a recovered, a flight to a considerable distarice is taken,

To copy manhood prematurely. brown or greyish-brown ground tint, barred or 'waved but by the time the aggressor has reached the marked

Boys ever loathe the name of “ Boy," with black. The plumage of the young differs from spot, the bird has again circuitously come up with

And wish old Time to travel faster;

Write " Mister" on their cards with joy, both in being of paler snades, and in the markings her charge, and is ready to act her part if again dis

And frown on all who call them i Master." being more irregular and confused. In the Lagopus covered.

They shave the downy cheek, and sigh or ptarmigan, the males are deep brown or yellow, Partridge-shooting is one of the most esteemed

The whiskers' tardy growth to note; barred with black and a lighter shade ; females always sports of the British fowler; and when pursued in a

They throw the graceful jacket by,

And glory in the long-tailed coat; of a lighter tint, and the paler markings more con. sportsman-like manner, with finely bred dogs, is of

They reckon boyhood and restraint spicuous. In winter the change is to pure white, considerable interest. The county of Norfolk has been

The worst of alls we suffer here, having the quills or tail-feathers only dark. Among long celebrated for the number of its partridges, as

While their imaginations paint

In brilliant colours Man's career. the partridges and quails the difference is not gene. well as for her zealous agriculturist, Mr Coke, one of

Alas! to one so young, 'tis not rally so great, but there is always some distinguish. the first shots in the kingdom.”

For me to paint lite's darker side; ing mark, often black or deep brown. The wattles,

I'll hope that it may be your lot caruncles, and naked spaces, so frequent about the

To kail upon a tranquil tide. heads of the Pavonidæ, we find represented in the


But oh! however great your joy,

You'll often say in years to come, beantiful scarlet skin above the eyes, and which in How common, and yet how beautiful and how pure,

“How happy was I when a Boy,, spring becomes much developed and brightened in is a drop of water ! See it, as it issues from the rock,

How dear my parents and my home !" colour. to supply the spring and the stream below. See how

Then be a boy while yet you may,

With all the bless a boy inherits, With regard to the common partridge, or Perdix its meanderings through the plains, and its torrents

Without a pang to chase away cinerea, a detailed description of this familiarly known over the cliffs, add to the richness and the beauty of

The transport of your joyous spirits. bird is unnecessary. It is distributed extensively over the landscape. Look into a factory standing by a

Be patient of control ; 'tis love,

· Fond love, that makes a parent use it : Europe, and, according to Temminck, extends tó Bar- waterfall, in which every drop is faithful to perform

The silken string that holds a dove bary and Egypt, where it is migratory. It is almost every its part, and hear the groaning and rustling of the

But proves that we are loath to lose it. where abundant in our own island, the more northern wheels, the clattering of shuttles, and the buzz of

Ape manly graces if you will, muiry districts excepted. It follows the steps of man spindles, which, under the direction of their fair at

The dauntless heart, the spotless truth;

But be a boy in meekness still, as he reclaims the wastes, and delights in the cultiva- i tendants, are supplying myriads of fair purchasers

With all the purity of youth. tion which brings to it as to the labourers a plentiful with fabrics from the cotton-plant, the sheep, and the

Then take the cards, and may you find harvest of grain. They are perhaps most abundant silk-worm.

Good use for them where'er you wander in the lower richly cultivated plains of England, but

May they be left for friends so kind,
Is any one so stupid as not to admire the splendour

That time will make them all grow fonder. even the south of Scotland supplies many of the more of the rainbow, or su ignorant as not to know that it

But should aught impious or impure, northern markets with this game. is produced by drops of water, as they break away

Take friendship's name, reject and shun it; Very early in spring—the first mild days even of from the clouds which had confined them, and are

And if you leave

a card, be sure

To scribble “P. P. C."• upon it! February-the partridges have paired, and each couple making a quick visit to our earth, to renew its ver- -Court Magazine, January. may be found near the part selected for their summer dure and increase its animation ? How useful is the abode, long before the actual preparations for incu. gentle dew, in its nightly visits to allay the scorching

To the uninitiated in the mysteries of fashionable life, it may bation have commenced. These are begun at a later heat of a summer's sun! And the autumn's frost,

be necessary to explain, that the letters P. P. C. are inscribed on a period than generally imagined, and even in the be- how beautifully it bedecks the trees, the shrubs, and visiting card when the visitor is about to leave the place, being ginning of September, particularly in the wilder dis- the grass ; though it strips them of their summer's a contraction of Pour prendre conge-to take leave.

Column for Young People.

elevated station or rank. Every one tries to appear that can be said about it. Little more than a hu. The last time I addressed you it was for the purpose superior in some respect to his neighbours. There dred years since, the king's advocate for Scotland ac

are none so low but think there are some still lower.cused a poor old woman in the county of Caithness of of putting you in the way of learning how to form opi: All have their inferiors. Many no doubt laugh at being a witch, and caused her to be tried, condemned, nions on those matters of interest and importance which would most likely come under your observation at your from indulging in it. As far as I can discover, the these more intelligent times were to cause an old wo;

this love of title and rank, yet few practically abstain and burnt at a stake. If any public prosecutor ia collect that I told you that opinion depended very Quakers, or Society of Friends, are the only people man to be put to death on such a pretence, we would much on time and place, and that in making up your the United States of America affect to despise titles; ignorance. But we cannot safely apply these epithets

who have no regard for these things. The citizens of be entitled to call him a monster both of cruelty and mind on many points, you will require to keep in

to one who lived a century ago, unless we learn that view the age in which you live, and the genius of the yet it is curious that they give a title of distinction to nation to which you belong. I am now going to

their chief magistrate, whom they style “ His Excel. | he exceeded the temper of the age; because at that peshow you the reason for attending to these things, I lency,” and to their legislators, whom they designate riod the laws, the defective state of education, and the

“ Honourable :" they also write Mr and Esq. in influence of early prejudices, concurred to produce and I hope my explanations will be the means of sav. ing you from appearing ignorant or ill instructed connection with their names. In this we see a de atrocities at the thought of which we now cannot when you commence taking a share in the convers3.

gree of the same vanity and weakness which affects help shuddering. We must therefore judge of events tion of intelligent persons.

the subjects of ancient monarchies. It would geem as by the light of the times in which they occurred. The history of a country describes the origin and if there were a yearning after these follies amorig man. never by the light of an advanced period in national advancement of society in that country. It shows kind. . Be it so or not, it is an idiosyncrasy which, annals

. from time immemorial, has been seized hold of by I might bring this point before your understanding how society took the form it now bears- how the peo.

Ten years ago, men were ple were once in a state of lawless barbarism-and rulers, for the purpose of stimulating men to deeds in a still more forcible way. how, step by step, little by little, sometimes by war.

beneficial to their country. The prospect of being hanged for sheepstealing; but the law is altered, and like efforts, at other times by pacific measures, they entitled to write Sir before their names, or of being it is now thought wrong to put this class of criminals

to death. Men are, however, still hanged for higli. at length attained a state of civilisation, good order, bers of individuals to do great and good uctions, way robbery; but in ten years hence, the law may be and peace; in which condition the rights of all are respected. After history bas gone thus far, it usually stops.

which they would not do for a mere pecuniary re- changed, and this class of evil-doers may in a similar

ward. As these titles are ordained to descend to manner be saved from the gallows, and punished in It seldom, if ever, says any thing about the genius of

some milder way instead. The system of punishment the people whose progress it has been detailing. Now, their children, they have a double stimulant to ac

tion. unless you know something of the genius of a nation,

Genius not being hereditary, these titles may in this manner go on modifying for a century, the formal details of the historian are of little use. may and certainly do fall into the possession of per.

and at that distance of time it may happen that no cri. I shall tell you what is meant by this word genius, when

sons of no ability or worth ; nevertheless, the sci. minal of any description is liable to be executed. applied to a whole nation. The genius of a nation sig. mulus to acquire titles and rank such as they have, But when the gallows and the scaffold are thus no nifies the tone of mind of the people at large, their continues to operate beneficially, as it is thought, longer in requisition, will the people wbo live at the peculiar way of thinking and acting, their religious be- upon the nation; and they themselves feel, or it is time be justified in calling us cruel? Will it be fair lief, their respect or contempt of the law, their regard presumed they feel, bound to sustain a certain ho- for them to say, “ Ab, they were a shockingly cruel

nourable character consistent with their rank. In set of people who lived about the year 1835; they for gradations of rank, and so forth. Almost every nation in the world differs in these respects. The time, as I have said, a contrary taste may prevail, by hanged their highwaymen and many other criminals; genius of one is favourable to law and good order, which all will scorn to be called by any designation but after half starving the poor wretches, they brought that of another consists in a turn for fighting and liv? I their plain Christian name and surnaine ; but we have them out of small cells from prisons, and in the preing on the plunder of neighbours; one shows a geuius here nothing to do with what may be : our business is sence of great assembled multitudes they hung them with what is.

up with ropes about their necks, as if they had been for habits of industry, while another exbibits a taste for idleness and poverty. All these, and such like The principles of human nature apply in a similar dogs, and as if the spectacle were calculated to delight

and edify the thousands of beings who looked upon their varieties of genius, depend in some measure on the manner in solving the mystery, why there are men situation and climate of a country, on the mixture of enjoying riches which they never wrought for, and different course of management, are able to reclaim to

execution; while we, we who live in the year 1935, by a races composing its inhabitants, but, I believe, prin. may be undeserving of. They enjoy their possessions the paths of rectitude those unfortunate individuals cipally on the nature of the events which have oc by right of inheritance—an arrangement of the highest who have gone astray." It would be very unfair for curred in the course of its history; for it is from these value in a well-regulated society. If there were no

them to say so; because when we hang people, we events that originate the character of the education right of inheritance, all that a person would contend

do it for the best. We act, not from cruelty, but from of the people, and the institutions which regulate them for would be merely that which was calculated to sup. in their various relations of public and private life. port him during life: thus industry would lose its mind when you are about to pass judgment on the

the lights of our time. Let this therefore be kept in Such is national genius, and such you must seek to

chief spur, idleness would ensue, and national de conduct of nations and individuals in past ages of the determine before settling in your own mind upon

terioration would be the consequence. No rational world. Let it also not be forgotten when forming an what is right or wrong in respect of national usages.

mind will maintain that when a father of a family, or opinion of the behaviour of nations in the present day, A thing may be right abstractly—that is, without re- any one who has no family, has acquired property, which are still far behind in regard to civilised usages. ference to the genius and present necessities of a na.

and dies, that it shall belong of right to any or to From what has been said, I hope you are now suftion_but it may be wrong, decidedly improper, when all who

can get

possession, by fraud, force, or any ficiently aware of the propriety of estiinating the gewe apply it to the exigencies or tastes of a particular other means. Right by inheritance is therefore a

nius and peculiar necessities of a people when forming people. What suits one nation will not suit another, proper thing, and must be maintained at all ha.

an opinion respecting the value of their usages and and that is what you should always keep in mind in zards, even although it often enriches fools. It is institutions, as well as of the danger of assenting at the forming of your opinions. It is probable that the a right which need not be grudged, for it is seldom

once to any proposition, merely because it happens to time will come when all nations will both think and that those who never wrought for riches know how be maintained by a large mass of society. You cannot act much alike, and that in the spirit of a ripened

to guide them with prudence, and they soon enough but see the necessity for deliberating coolly on many intelligence; but it may be one or ten thousand years reduce themselves to the level of those having only a

matters of consequence before taking any share in before mankind reach this condition; and in the mean. moderate competence.

public disquisitions; and I can assure you beforehand, time it is our duty to make the best of the circum- It has been contended by some persons that there ihat if you rasbly start your opinions in company stances in which we as well as others are placed. should be a periodical division of land and property, without taking such a precaution, you will only run Let us now illustrate the application of this rule of and that every member of the community shall have the chance of being laughed at for your presuinption, thought by one or two examples.

an equal share. This is a very ridiculous doctrine. / and of undergoing the humiliation of alvering your When you look around upon society in this country, If it were understood that at certain periods all kinds ideas as soon as you grow up to the years of sober you perceive that the people are divided into classes of of property would be divided, no one would exert mauhood. various degrees of rank and condition; some with himself to store up the fruits of his industry; and the titles of distinction, others without any titles whatever; country would become little better than a desert. Be. One day during the siege of Oporto, a major of the some rich, some poor, and many in a middle state besides, supposing a division were ctually to take place, Miguelites and two soldiers advanced very gallantly between great wealth and poverty. You perhaps ima. and that all were to be made equal, it is easy to see

fore the rest, in an attempt to storm the Scotch pust; gine that all this is wrong, and that by natural right all that inequality would immediately ensue, and then but they were shot dead, and their bodies, and some ought to be upon a level. But reflect a little: consider there would be a necessity for a new division; such an ar.

others, lay so near the lines, that they soon became the difference of talent among the people individually, rangement would amount to this, that the idle were to be very offensive. Some of the Scotch went to their and turn over in your mind what is the genius of the supported by the industrious, which involves a principle colonel (Shaw), and asked leave to bury them; but he nation. You learn by the perusal of history, that, as so monstrous that it could never be carried into effect. i was at first unwilling to grant it, as the Miguelites soon as mankind began to consort together, they be. In all questions of this kind, you must take care not were so inveterate in their opposition as to tire on gan to separate into ranks and conditions : he who to be borne away by the fantastic theories of men, i unarmed burying-parties, and they might be shot. was the bravest was made leader or king ; be who was who, though perhaps well-meaning in the main, al. “Weel, sir," said the men, "let iis at ony rate try the most clever or the most prudent became the most | low their judgment to be warped by the delusions of to bury the brave little bodie of a major, and the twa wealthy; he who indulged in idleness, or was without a warm imagination. Keep in view the constitution of lads that lie nearest us; they showed themselves to be ability, became the poorest. From this kind of be- human nature and the principles which guide it, :no- gude sodgers." lle granted the request, and they acginning all ranks and conditions sprung; and subse. dified as these may happen to be by education and complished their object.— Alexander's Sketches of Por. quent events have modified society into what you now the influence of national genius.

tugal. see it. You say that this explanation would do very In order to be able to reason correctly on the events When every shopkeeper had a sign hanging out well if we now found that those who enjoy distinctions of history, and form your opinions of the actions of before his door, a dealer in snuff and tobacco, on Fish in rank were the cleverest of the people: if we found kings, warriors, statesmen, and other personages of Street Hill, carried on a large trade, especially in to. that the rich had always wrought for and were there past times, you must endeavour to instruct yourself bacco; for his shop was greatly frequented by sailors fore most deserving of riches. I am glad you have with respect to the state of morals, or the genius of from the ships in the river. In the course of time, a brought the question to this point. It brings me to society, at the period to which you are called upon to person of the name of Farr opened a shop nearly opthe matter of our national genius, and also to that of refer." By an inexcusable inattention to this circum. posite, and hung out his sign, inscribed, " The best rank and wealth going by inheritance.

stance, exceedingly few common readers, indeed very tobacco by Farr." This attracted the attention of the Abstractly, honorary titles are contemptible: they few of our best writers, judge correctly of the moving sailors, who left the old shop to buy " the best tobacco are fantastic trappings, which a wise man would not events of history. When a person living in the pre- by far.” The old shopkeeper, observing that his op

But it is the genius of the British people to sent enlightened age peruses the accounts of the burn- ponent obtained much custom by his sign, had a new love titles and divide society into ranks. Some thou. ing of men and women in the sixteenth century, for one put up a: his door, inscribed, “Far better tobacco sand years hence they may think differently and more holding a particular belief, he is apt to be led away by than the best tobacco by Farr.". This had its effect; wisely; nevertheless, they at present have no such his feelings, and exclaim that those who caused the his trade returned, and finally his opponent was notions, and it would be idle to contend against an burning of these men and women were guilty of bar- obliged to give up business.-Freemasons' Review. existing whim. This love of title pervades the whole barous and blameable cruelty. Here he probably falls of society The lowest person likes to be designated into an error. Were he to investigate the genius of

LONDON: Published, with Permission of the Proprietors, by ORR

& SMITH, Paternoster Row; G. BERGER, Horywell Street, by the title of Master, or its contraction Mr. The the period, he would find that thousands of pious ten. Strand; BaxCKS & Co., Manchester; WRIGHTSON & WEBB, more honorary term Esquire is also readily assumed der-hearted people considered these burnings to be any Birmingham; W11LMER & SMITH, Liverpool; W. E. SON KRby all who consider themselves somewhat elevated in thing but cruelties. And what is more, he would tind

SCALK, Leeds; C. N. WRIGHT, Nottinghain; WEST LRY & Co.

Bristol; S. SIMMS, Bath; J. JOHNSON, Cambridge; W. GAIN, the scale of society; and I never yet heard of any one that the party whose members suffered, caused burn. Exeter; J. PUP.DON, Hull; G. RIDGE, Sheffield; H. BELLERBY, refusing to be created a baronet or a lord. A similar, ings in their turn when they gained the ascendancy. York; J. TAYLOR, Brighton ; and sold by all Booksellers,

Newsmea, &c. in town and country. if not still more striking instance of this species of It was the genius of the age to destroy people for not

Stereotyped by A. Kirkwood, Edinburgh. feeling is found in the universal desire to assume an 'thinking as they were bidden to think, and that is all Printed by Bradbury and Evans (late T. Davison), Whitefriars'


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