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source of both sanguineous and nervous disorder to trachea (windpipe), and also of the bronchial ramifi. loss, in the sudden death of two favourite dogs. They the feeble constitution ; and at this period consump. cations, may generally be alleviated by these means, were of the genuine breed of Newfoundland, and for sion does, without question, very often show itself
. and by other methods of producing external irritation; size, courage, and sagacity, unequalled. Poor Emily More rarely, it is seen at an earlier age. But its su- as well as that distressing disturbance of the stomach has cried incessantly since the accident." pervention at a later period is still more common than which is exceedingly troublesome to the greater num. “ Were they stolen ?” at the age of puberty. We are ourselves disposed, ber of phthisical patients. With the same intentions, “Oh, no! I wish they were, for that would afford after some attention to this particular fact, to believe, various soothing medicines, chiefly mucilaginous and a hope that chance or money might recover them. that of all ages at which phthisis shows itself, the most anodyne, are found to be serviceable; and the adop- No, sir, they would not follow a stranger; alas! they common is that between thirty and forty. Instances tiou of a system of diet which is moderately nutriti
. died yesterday by poison. We unfortunately laid have not been wanting in which the malady has become ous, but from which every thing that could cause arsenic in a meal-loft to destroy rats ; and yet, how fatal at a much later time of life, or in which it has excitement is carefully excluded. Every part of the the poor animals could have got to it, is a mystery; even made its first appearance in advanced age. M. regimen of the patient should be so ordered as to con. the steward declares the key never left his possession. Andral mentions the case of a patient of sixty-eight, form to this system ; violent bodily and mental exer. I would give an hundred guineas the meal bad been who had enjoyed previous good health, and in whom tions, late hours, exposure to vicissitudes of weather, in the bottom of the lake. "No loss, short of the death symptoms of phthisis then first showed themselves; insufficient clothing, and every kind of irregularity, are of a friend, could have given us all so much uneasithe complaint proved fatal after a few months, and to be diligently avoided.
ness. They were my daughter's companions by day, numerous tubercles were found in both lungs; which, By the early and rigid adoption of measares of this and my protectors at night. Heigh, ho!-come, sir, judging from the patient's health having previously kind, many individuals in whose lungs tubercles ac. pass the wine." Tears stood in the old gentleman's been uninterrupted, would seem to have been recently tually exist, are enabled to maintain a condition of eyes as he spoke of his unhappy favourites; and from developed.
health very little interrupted, and the duration of life the valuable properties of the lost dogs, it was not The duration of the malady after it has been incon. may, in some cases, be greatly prolonged. Both of surprising that their death occasioned so much regret testibly declared, is also very variable, or rather, to the indications already mentioned are indeed thus si. to the family. speak more correctly, the malady is capable of suspen. multaneously accomplished.
We joined the ladies in the drawing-room. After sion for considerable intervals, with occasional returns, In variable climates like our own, there is always tea, Mr Morden took a bedroom candle, and apolowhich at length prove fatal. In such cases the patient an additional difficulty to be contended against, aris. gised for retiring. “Old habits best suit old people, is generally more or less a valetudinarian ; cannot en ing out of the perpetual irritation of the air-passages, captain ; but I leave you with the ladies, who will sit dure much exertion ; his respiration is soon oppressed, by the actual contact and unavoidable reception of the up till cock-crow, if you please;" and bidding us a and his heart is irritable : he suffers much on every air itself
. If, desirous altogether to avoid this incon- good night, he departed. attack of common catarrh, and seems at last, from this venience, the patient is restricted to the air of rooms “Emily,” said young Morden, "you are still think. cause, to fall into consumption. M. Andral says he of which the temperature is carefully regulated, the ing of your favourites; well, I will ride the country has known individuals remain in this intermediate want of invigorating freshness is too often productive over, till I find you a handsome dog. Julia, hand me state, between illness and health, from early life to of general effects which induce some other disadvan- that violin from the piano, and Captain Dwyer will thirty or forty years of age.
tages, both as regards the general health and the pul. dance a reel with you and Emily.” Far more commonly, consumption destroys the pa. monary disease ; and if attempts are made to secure “Gracious! who is at the window ?” exclaimed Miss tient in a much shorter time. The average duration the benetit of that freshness which the external air Morden, suddenly; "it looked like that nasty beggar. of life, after the disorder is actually established, can. alone can impart, hardly any care or watching can man who has been haunting the house and grounds not be stated as greater than two years. Many pa. long prevent some accidental exposure, which brings these three days. Ah, Wolf and Sailor! had yon tients are worn out by the disease much within that on an aggravation of symptoms which it is most de been living, that vagabond would not have ventured period ; some sink in less than a year, and some are sirable to repel. The hope of securing the advantage, here at this late hour.” Henry Morden had left the hurried to the grave in a few months, or, though more without incurring the counterbalancing disadvantages, room on hearing his cousin's exclamation, but soon rarely, even in a few weeks. The latter description produces the numerous annual migrations of the con- returned, assuring the lady that the beggar was a of cases are so striking, even to common observers, as sumptive to various parts of foreign countries and of creature of her imagination ; he had searched the to be designated, in popular language, galloping con. our own ; and these again impart a high degree of in- shrubbery and flower-garden, and no mendicant was sumptions. Of these M. Andral gives some examples. terest to the character of particular countries of the to be found in either. In one, death took place four weeks after the first ap. Continent, or of particular islands to which so many The alarm was speedily forgotten, and we danced pearance of cough ; in another, five weeks after the sail in quest of health, or of particular parts of our own reels till supper was announced. The doors were first symptom of ill health ; in a third, the symptoms island, to which those who are unwilling or unable to locked, the windows fastened, the ladies wished us of phthisis had been observed in a slight degree for leave their native country commonly resort.*
good night, and retired to their respective chambers. many years, without affecting the patient's health or
Henry and I remained for some time in the eatingstrength; and then the softening and expectoration of tuberculous matter, occurring apparently for the first
THE NIGHT ATTACK.
room; the clock struck twelve, and young Morden
conducted me to my apartment, and took his leave. time, were followed by death in the short space of eleven (From Wild Sports in the West. London, 1832.]
I felt a strange disinclination to go to bed, and days. It cannot be a matter of surprise that the pa. It is thirty.five years, this very month, since I was would have given any thing for a book. For tempotients are in these cases generally unconscious of their quartered with my regiment in Waterford ; I recol. rary employment, I unlocked my guu-case, put my danger, and unprepared for death. We have known lect the time particularly, for I got my company in fowling-piece together, and examined whether my them chiefly complaining of symptoms which had little the thirty-seventh on the same day that I received servant had sent all necessary apparatus along with connection with the pulmonary disorder, and loath to
an invitation from a Mr Morden, with whom I had me. I opened the window.curtains. The moon—a acknowledge any cough or other affection of the re. formed a mail.coach acquaintance, to spend a week full, bright harvest moon—was shining gloriously on spiratory organs, only a few days before they died of with him, and join his nephew in partridge-shooting the lawn and lake : I gazed on the sparkling surface pulmonary consumption in the last degree.
This gentleman's house was fourteen miles distant of the waters, till I felt the chim the night breeze; Such being the hopeless character of consumption from the town, and situated in a very retired part of then closing the shutters, reluctantly prepared to unwhen once established, the fact of its establishment the country. It was a wild but beautiful residence, dress. becomes of the greatest importance, and the means of placed upon the extremity of a peninsula which jutted I had thrown my coat and vest aside, when a dis. determining either its absence or its presence cannot
into an extensive lake. To a sportsman it offered all tant crash was heard ; and a fearful noise, with oaths be too carefully studied. By these means, supposing the inducements that shooting and fishing could af, and screams, succeeded. I rushed into the corridor, them to exist, a protection may be given against the ford. But it had others besides these; no man lived and encountered a terror-stricken maid-servant rundeceptions of the quack, who pretends to cure what better than Mr Morden-and his daughter Emily, ning from the extremity of the passage. Miss Morden does not exist ; and in other cases, where the disorder and her orphan cousin, who resided with her, were next appeared; she was in complete dishabille, and is but too well established, a protection of another decidedly the finest women who had attended the last bad hastily thrown on a dressing gown. “Oh! Capkind may be afforded to the unfortunate patients them. race-ball. No wonder then that I accepted the old tain Dwyer, what has occurred ?" A volley from selves, who may be spared the infliction of remedies gentleman's invitation willingly, and on the appointed without prevented my reply, and the crashing of the which are powerless to heal, and may yet obtain much day put myself into a post-chaise, and reached the place windows, as the glass was splintered by the bullets, relief by palliative measures, adopted in consequence in time for dinner.
made it unnecessary. “ The house is attacked," she of sound views being entertained of the actual state of
The house was one of those old-fashioned, comfort. said ; and then, with amazing self-possession, added, the lungs.
able, Irish lodges, which are now extinct, or only to “ There are always loaded guns above the kitchen If we suppose the disease to be established, or tu. be seen in ruins. It was a long low building, covered fireplace.” We both ran down the corridor, she to bercles to be actually formed in the lungs, there would with an infinity of thatch, which bade defiance to rain, alarm her father, and I to procure a weapon ; young seem to be two especial indications of treatmeut; cold, and storm. The tall and narrow casements Morden, armed with a sword, met us. “The attack is namely, to prevent the progress of these foreign bodies, reached the ground, a handsome flower-knot extended upon the kitchen," he said, hastily; “it is our weak. and to check the symptoms of irritation produced by in their front, bounded by a holly hedge, and wood
est point; this way, Captain," and we both entered it them, not only in the lungs but in other organs. The bine and other creepers festooned the windows with together. presence of the tubercles is often declared more strongly their leaves and berries. At some distance a well
. There was a bright fire burning on the hearth. by the supervention of these secondary irritations than stocked haggard peeped over a spacious range of of. The large window was shattered to pieces ; and the by any primary embarrassment in the functions of the fices ; the lawn was studded with sheep, which ap- idiot I had noticed on the lawn was standing beside lungs themselves. It is, consequently, against these peared overburdened with good condition : and as 'the ruined casement, armed with a spit, making mosecondary states that the efforts of the practitioner drove up the avenue, I passed a well-featured, well. mentary passes at the breach, and swearing and belare very frequently directed ; and some of them—in. clad simpleton, urging before him, from a neighbour- lowing frightfully. I leaped upon a table to seize Sammation of portions of the pulmonary tissue for ex. ing stubble-field, a flock of turkies, as formidable for two muskets which were suspended in the place Mise ample-demand the promptest attention, inasmuch as numbers as for size. In short, every thing about the Morden had described. I handed one to Henry, when they tend to hasten the progress of the tubercles, be place bespoke the opulence and comfort of the pro- the fire blazed out suddenly, and discovered me to the fore existing in a passive condition, into that stage in prietor. which they work the most serious effects on the gene
Mr Morden was a clever and respectable man; he discharged. I heard a bullet whietle past my head,
banditti without. Instantly three or four shots were ral constitution. The means of preventing at once
was land-agent to several large estates—noted for and feli something strike my shoulders like a sharp the inconveniences of the different supervening irrita- plain and unpretending hospitality, punctuality in bu cut from a whip; but having secured the gun, I jumped tions, and the acceleration of the process of tubercular sinens, and a character of unusual determination. from the table uninjured. We heard Mr Morden in change, are, generally, all such as are calculated to The old gentleman received me with friendly sin the passage ; his manner was calm and collected, as prevent excitement of the vascular system. The pre-cerity, and his handsome daughter added a warm wel. he ordered the servant-men to the front of the house, sence of actual inflammation may make it necessary come. They apologised for not having company to and dispatched his daughter for ammunition. to prescribe moderate bleeding, and this may become meet me, but®“ two families which they had ex. Meanwhile, a dropping fire continued from with. again occasionally necessary, although the wasting pected had been detained by some unforeseen occur. out; from within no shot had been returned, as the character of consumption is suficiently declarative of rences, at home.” Dinner was shortly after served. robbers sheltered themselves effectually behind the the impropriety of the repeated, and as it were perio. Like the host, it was excellent without display the angles of the offices, and the piers of the gates. From dical, bleedings, to which practitioners have sometimes wines were superior—and when the ladies left us, the some burried words we overheard, they were arrangresorted. Blistering the chest, as near as possible to claret went round the table merrily.
ing a determined attack. the inflamed part of the lung, the exact situation of
“ We are in trouble here," said Mr Morden, address- - They will make a rush immediately," said the which may be ascertained by the stethoscope, is a ing me," and you have come to a house of mourning: clder Morden, coolly; "and here comes Emily in powerful anxiliary to the venesection; and, in many We have just suffered a serious, I may say, irreparable good time; don't come in, love !" and he took some cases, if resorted to after the application of leeches, may render it unnecessary to incur the inconvenience of the principal places of resort for the consumptive, will be given. I peril of our situation, i could not but gaze a moment
* A further but shorter extract, treating the comparative merits the skirt of her dressing-gown. Notwithstanding the
forty or fifty cartridges, which she had brought in of a general bleeding. Irritations of the larynx and in the next number of the Journal.
on this brave and beautiful girl. “Go, love, tell John ceding night. We refreshed ourselves, and went to In the interim I got a majority in the seventieth, to bring the captain's gun.case from his chamber; bed; but previous to returning to my room, I visited then quartered in Cork. Soon after I joined, I hapo and do you, Emily, watch from the end window, and the scene of action. Another blow, even a very slight pened to be field-officer of the day on which a noto if you perceive any movement on that side, apprise us one, must have driven in the door; and in the rush rious criminal was doomed to suffer. The regiment of it here. Now, my boys, be cool; I'll give my best of twelve .desperate ruffians, the chances would have had given a guard, and curiosity induced me to attend horse to him who shoots the first man. You have a been fearfully against ns. Murphy lay upon his back; the execution. good supply of ammunition, if we could but coax the he was a disgusting object. The charge of heavy shot I entered the press room. In a few minutes the scoundrels from their shelter, and I'll try a ruse." made as large a wound as a cannon-bullet would occa- malefactor appeared in white grave-clothes, attended The old gentleman took the idiot's spit, placed a coat sion. He was the strongest man I ever saw; not by two priests. It was “mine ancient enemy," O'. upon it, wbile Henry and I chose a position at either more than five feet eight inches in height, but his Brien ! Suddenly the sheriff was called out, and after side of the broken window. Mr Morden raised the limbs, body, and arms, were a giant's; he was a black- a short absence returned, accompanied by a plain, vi. garment to the breach ; it was indistinctly seen from smith-a man of infamous character, and most san- gorous country gentleman, enveloped in a huge drivwithont; three bullets perforated it, and it fell. “He's guinary disposition.
ing-coat, and apparently like one who bad travelled a down," roared a robber, exultingly. “Now, Mur. Our escape from robbery was fortunate indeed ; Mr considerable distance. phy, now's your time ; smash in the door with the Morden had seven thousand pounds that night in the I looked at the criminal; he was the ruin of a sledge !” Instantly a huge ruffian sprang from behind lodge, for he had just received the rents of two estates. powerful man, and the worst visaged scoundrel ima. & gable; his rush was so sudden that he struck twice It was almost entirely paid in specie. This was of ginable. He was perfectly unmoved, and as the priests with shattering force. We heard the hinges given course known, and two desperate bands, who had kept hurried over their Latin prayers, made a careless rewe saw the door yielding-and, at that critical mo. the adjoining counties in alarm since the rebellion sponse whenever they directed him. The door lead. ment, young Morden's gun missed fire! He then was suppressed, united, for the purpose of robbing ing to the drop was open ; the felon looked out upon caught up an axe, and placed himself determinately Morden's house, and securing this immense booty. the crowd most earnestly. “He is not there," he mur. before the door, which we expected to be momentarily The body of the smith was sent away—and having mured; "he caused my apprehension, but he will not driven in. Murphy, perceiving the tremendous ef- brought the battle to a close, I shall explain some see me die!" and added with a grim smile, “ Morden, fects of his blows, called to his comrades to “ be ready.” matters connected with this daring outrage.
you neither kept your word nor proved your prophecy!" He stood about five yards from me; the sledge was A man named Mitchell originated the intended rob. The muffled stranger stood suddenly forward" I am raised above his head--that blow would have shivered bery, and arranged the method of attack. He was a here, O'Brien ! I paid for your apprehension, and have the door to atoms. I drew the trigger-the charge, a slight, low-sized person, but his activity was amazing, come some hundred miles to witness your execution.” heavy one of duck-shot, passed like a six-pound bullet and no attempt was too hazardous for his desperate “ Morden !” said the dying felon solemnly, “if 9 through the ruffian's body, and he dropped a dead man courage to undertake. On the morning of his execu. ghost can come back again, I'll visit you !" upon the threshold. “ Captain Dwyer,” said Mrtion (he, with the three others, was hanged the gubse. The person addressed smiled coldly. “I found Morden, calmly, “the horse is yours !"
quent assizes) he gave us a cool detail of his plans. you unable to execute your threats while living, and, I had now received my own double gun, and gave The dogs were to be destroyed, and the premises believe me, I apprehend nothing from you when dead." the musket I had used so successfully to Henry Mor- reconnoitred. In the disguise of a beggar he effected The clock struck - the sheriff gave the signal den. The death of the ruffian with the sledge brought both; laid meat, prepared with arsenic, for the poor O'Brien advanced to the scaffold--the drop feli_and on a heavy fire from his comrades. Between the animals ; then made his way into the kitchen, and as.
in two minutes he was a corpse. volleys, they summoned us to surrender, with fearful certained that the fastenings of the back-door were denunciations of vengeance, if we resisted longer. defective. He purposed surprising the family at sup- MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS IN We were within a few yards of each other, and dur- per, or forcing an entrance when they were asleep. ing the intervals of the firing, they poured out threats, The first attempt he made at the drawing room, but
NATURAL HISTORY. and we sent back defiance. " Morden, you old scoun- quickly perceiving that he had been observed by Miss My first observation relates to that species of marine drel !” exclaimed the captain of the gang, “in five Morden, he retired hastily. A council was held by anirnal which is known to naturalists by the name of minutes we'll have your heart's blood." "No," was the robbers, and it was fortunately determined to Medusa capillata. It is a frequent inhabitant of most the calm reply; “I'll live to see you arrayed in cap postpone the attack until the family had gone to rest. of the shores of this island, and may easily be distin. and halter." “Surrender, or we'll give no quarter.” Nothing could be bolder or more likely to succeed, guished from the other species of the same animal, by “ Cowardly scoundrel! come and try your hand at than Mitchell's desperate resolution. It was to leap the remarkable transparency of its whole mass; and the sledge !” said the old gentleman, with a cold and feet-foremost through the window, armed with a dag
more particularly by some beautiful spots of bright sarcastic smile, as he turned his eye on me, where I ger, and open the back door for his associates. He was watching the door, with the confidence a man made the attempt, and fortuitous circumstances alone purple, which are placed near the centre of its disc. feels who has his own trustworthy weapon to depend prevented its being successful. That very morning, a I ought, perhaps, to remark, for the sake of some upon.
small iron bar had been placed across the window; it readers, that the class of animals, of which that al “Morden! we'll burn the house about ye."." Will caught the robher in his leap, threw him back with luded to in the following observation is a species, is you put the coal in the thatch, O'Brien ?” “Morden, violence, and the noise, attended with the outcry of commonly known in this country by the name of the you have a daughter ?” and the ruffian pronounced a the idiot, alarmed the family instantly.
sea-blubber, and is remarkable for several striking prohorrid threat. The old man shuddered, and in a low Circumstances, they say, will often make men cou.
perties, which characterise some of its species, such as voice, tremulous with rage, he muttered, “O'Brien, rageous. In this case it had the same effect on two I'll spare five hundred pounds to hang you, and travel beings of a very different description—a lovely girl that of occasioning a feeling of irritation in the skin five hundred miles to see the sight !”
and an idiot boy. Miss Morden throughout the try- when touched, and of being phosphorescent in the dark. “The coal! the coal!” shouted several voices, and ing scene displayed the coolest courage_and the poor To a common observer, all the varieties of this ani. unfortunately the scoundrels had procured one in the simpleton, who commonly would avoid the appearance mal appear to be merely masses of a transparent jelly, laundry. “Oh! they will burn us out,” said Henry, of a gun, armed with his spit, defended the breach scarcely worthy of being ranked among the class of in alarm. “ Never fear,” replied his cooler uncle ; like a hero.
animals, and apparently driven, without the power of “the firing must have been heard across the lake, and We met at dinner. Julia, Miss Morden's cousin, directing their course, by the varying direction of the we'll soon have aid sufficient.” But a circumstance would hardly venture to join us, for her brother rated | winds or the waves. If, however, on a fine day, when occurred almost miraculously, that averted the threat her timidity severely. When the alarm was heard, the sea is calm, and when one of the species to which ened danger. The moon became suddenly overcast, the fearful girl buried her face beneath the bed covef- | I now allude is swimming near the shore, an attentive heavy rain-drops fell, and in an instant an overwhelmings, and remained in pitiable agitation until the con. eye be kept upon its movements, within a yard or two ing torrent burst from the clouds, rendering every at- test ended. Mr Morden took her from his daughter's of the place of the animal, the following very beautiful tempt the robbers made to ignite the thatch abortive. arm., kissed her, and congratulated her on their deli- and amusing appearance will be observed :-As the “Who dare doubt an over-ruling Providence ?” said very from the last night's danger.
animal moves forward, it is constantly employed in the old gentleman, with enthusiasm ; “surely God "You little coward,” said the old man, jocularly, forming its disc into a greater or less degree of conis with us !"
“you must give your deliverer one kiss, for your pre- vexity, while at every such change in the form of its The storm which came to our relief appeared to servation :" the blushing girl received my salute. mass, a fringe of most beautiful and apparently silky dispirit our assailants, and their parley recommenced. Miss Morden took my hand. “You, too, Emily, | filaments, all around the circumference of the disc, is “ Norden," said the captain of the banditti,“ you have will you not reward your protector ?' Without co- ì protruded into the water, and again withdrawn into Lord 's rent in the house; give us a thousand quetry she laid her lips to mine, and that kiss was a the body of the animal, as it resumes its ordinary and pounds, and we'll go off and leave you.'
sufficient reward for twice the peril I had encountered. more flattened appearance. These filaments proceed “All I promise, I'll perform,” said the old gentle. For me no praises seemed sufficient; the successful from the circumference of a circular space, which is man coldly. “O'Brien, for this night's work you have defence was attributed to my exertions; and the fore placed near the centre of the animal, and may be disearned a halter, and I'll attend and see you hanged." tunate shot that killed the villain smith, was never to tinctly seen passing from thence, in the form of rays, “Dash in the door,” exclaimed the robber in a fury; | be sufficiently commended.
to the extremity of the disc. The progress of this “ we'll have the old rogue's heart out !” A volley My visit ended-I was in love with Emily; but animal is therefore performed, as the reader will unof stones rattled against the door, but produced no ef- then I bad liccle chance of succeeding to the property, derstand from the foregoing remarks, by a species of fect, and again the robber parleyed. is Will you give which afterwards, by a chapter of accidents, fell to me; spinning ; and the kind of organisation by which this us an hundred, Morden ?' “ Not a sixpence," was and a company of foot was all my eartbly riches. She is effected, has always appeared to myself to be one of the laconic answer. Once more stones were thrown, was an heiress ; would it be generous to take advan. the most pleasing instances of the wisdom of nature shots discharged, and threats of vengeance fulminated tage of a casual service, and press a suit that would be with which I am acquainted, and adapted most bapby the exasperated villains. At last the demand was as painful to refuse as unlikely to be granted ? I mean pily to illustrate the remark, that some of the finest reduced to twelve guineas, a guinea for each man.' (so says vanity) by Mr Morden. No; I overcame the specimens of what is exquisite in structure, may be “ They'll be off immediately,” said the old gentle temptation of risking a trial, and returned to Water discovered in animals of the very lowest order. man :'" they know assistance is at hand : would ford, posseasing the esteem and good wishes of every I have only further to remark on this article, that, that we could amuse them for a little longer !" But inmate of Mr Morden's mansion.
as the substance of the Medusa is gelatinous, and as the ruffians were already moving, and Miss Morden I was on parade some mornings after I rejoined the this matter is soluble in common water, any persoa presently announced that they were embarking, twelve regiment, when a horse, splendidly accoutred, with a may procure the filaments I before noticed, by placing in number, in a boat. “Now for a parting shot or superb tiger skin, holsters, saddle, and every housing one of the animals possessing them in a basin of river two,” said Henry Morden. We picked up a dozen fit for a field-officer, was led into the barrack.yard water during forty.eight hours. At the end of that 'cartridges, and sallied from the house as the banditti by a groom. The animal was a perfect picture of time, the substance of the animal will be found to were pulling hard across the lake. We opened a symmetry and strength ; a dark chestnut, sixteen have become entirely dissolved, leaving the filaments quick and well-directed fire, wbich they feebly, and hands high, and worth at least two hundred guineas. afloat on the surface. without effect, replied to. While a musket-ball would The groom presented me a letter—it was from Mr For many years as a boy I was accustomed to travel reach them, we plied them liberally with shot; and Morden—the horse was a present.
to my parish-school, over a district of wild uncultias we learned afterwards, mortally wounded one man, Emily and her cousin married most happily, and vated country, extending for two or three miles; and and slightly injured two others. As we returned to we have often met since. They treat me as sisters when relieved from the more important duties of the the house, we met some fifty countrymen, armed with would a brother, and we frequently talk of the night day, our great amusement in the spring and summer all sorts of rustic weapons, coming to our relief. | attack upon the lodge.
months was to ramble over that country in search of Without a moment's delay we launched boats, and set Three years passed away; the gang had been inces. birds' nests. Now, even in those days I was struck off to scour the country; and at noon, 80 prompt and santly followed by Mr Morden, and were extirpated, with many singular discoveries (for such I still convigorous had been the pursuit, that six of the gaug, with the solitary exception of Captain O'Brien. Dread. sider them) in the economy of some birds, that I have including the wounded robbers, were secured.
ing the sleepless vengeance of that determined old not as yet seen explained, or even binted at, in any We reached the house completely exhausted by the man, this rutian fled the country, and established him scientific work which I have perused on the sub exertions of the morning, and the fatigue of the pre- self in a disaffected district of the south.
The lapwing or green-plover (Tringa vanellus), it
constitute its cause, it is evident we shall be able to is well known, generally deposits its eggs in low
command the event, whenever we have it in our marshy ground. It is not at the trouble of building a nest, as I have never observed more than a small Born in London, January 22, 1561, this illustrious power to produce that combination of circumstances
out of the means which nature has placed within our round hole scratched in some little eminence, with philosopher was the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, lord reach. perhaps a few particles of fog or dried grass between keeper of the great seal, and Anne, daughter of Sir III. That the means of producing many events the eggs and the moist earth. It lays four eggs; and Anthony Cook, tutor to Edward Ví. The sprightli- which we little dream of, are actually placed within what I have to remark as deserving of consideration ness of mind which he displayed in boyhood caused
our reach ; and that nothing prevents us from using is, that, if the nest is discovered as soon as the bird
those means, but our inability to select them from the has begun to lay, and you remove an egg, so as to Queen Elizabeth to converse with him frequently, and crowd of other circumstances by which they are disallow only one or two to remain in the nest, the bird to style him her young lord-keeper. In 1573, he was guised and surrounded. will continue to lay for ten or twelve days, nay, for entered a student at Trinity College, Cambridge, where IV. That therefore we should endeavour, by diliweeks successively. If, however, you allow the num.
the progress of his intellect was so very rapid, that, gent observation, to find out what circumstances are ber to reach four, it immediately begins to hatch, and there is no further deposition of eggs; but if any of before completing his sixteenth year, he had satisfied essential, and what extraneous, to the production of
each event; and its real cause being stripped free the eggs are then removed, that is, after the natural himself of the futility of that Aristotelian philosophy from all the perplexing concomitants which occur in number has once been completed, it immediately for which had bewildered the human intellect for cen
nature, we shall perceive at once whether we can sakes the nest, and prepares a new one. I have my turies, and which he was destined to supplant by the command the circumstances that compose it or not. self continued to remove the eggs for ten days at a
true philosophy since pursued with so much advan- This, in short, is to generalise ; and having done so, time, and always found a fresh one every morning ;
we shall sometimes discover that objects, which of all and have often tried also to take away one after the tage to mankind. At this period of his life, he was
others appeared the most useless, remote, and inapordinary number four had been completed, but always placed under the charge of Sir Amias Powlet, the plicable to our purpose, possess the very properties we found the nest immediately forsaken.
queen's ambassador in France, where he gathered a are in search of. Nature stands ready to minister to I have tried the same experiment with the common vast quantity of facts useful to an English statesman,
our designs, if we have only the sagacity to disenlark. If you allow only one or two eggs to remain in which he formed, before his nineteenth year, into a
tangle its operations from one another, to refer each the nest, the bird will go on to lay for a time indefiTreatise on the State of Europe. The unexpected qualities of objects into their most abstract form.
event to its real source, and, to trace the powers and nite; but if they reach three, the bird will batch. The common number of eggs in a lark's nest is five; death of his father having obliged him to choose a
In pursuing the dictates of this noble philosophy, but it will hatch with three. In former days, when cockfighting was more in | Profession, he adopted that of the law, and studied it man is no longer impotent and ridiculous. He calmly
with great assiduity at Gray's Inn, but without ne- vanquishes the barriers which oppose his wisheshe gamecock that had been hatched by a magpie. The glecting philosophical pursuits. It was here that
, at joyments, and, at the same time, feels the dignity of
he being nursed by such a stepmother was considered as
the age of twenty-six, he formed the first sketch of intellect, which, like a magician's talisman, has made rendering the hero invincible. Yet no small degree his great work, “ The Instauration of the Sciences.” all things bow before his feet. of finesse was necessary to beguile the pyet, and the His first preferment was to the post of counsel ex- To this extraordinary individual we are indebted being able to paint the ben's egg so as to impose upon traordinary to the queen, which brought him rather also for an attempt to reduce the chaos of literature that wily bird, was considered an acquirement of no
into some degree of order; and to show that, notwithtrifling consequence among the knowing ones of those honour than profit. His contracted circumstances days. If the magpie discovered the egg, it was in leaving him no other choice than between virtuous standing the multiplicity and variety of books, there
are only three different objects, to one or other of dignantly thrown out; but if the young bird was once poverty and the dependence of a courtier, we was so which the contents of every book must apply. Acbatched, she was even more attached to the stranger unfortunate as to choose the latter. He was at first cording to Lord Bacon, human knowiedge is resolvthan to her own offspring. I have seen several game. an adherent of the Earl of Essex, who used every ex
able into history, philosophy, and poetry. By history, cocks that first saw the light on the lofty summit of an old ash-tree that grew in my father's kail-yard. ertion to obtain his advancement, but was thwarted occurred in past time. By philosophy, is meant the
is meant a statement of particular events which have They were certainly much more spirited, and, if I at every step by the secretary Cecil. Afterwards, knowledge of general facts, concerning the relation of may be allowed the expression, more cruel, than when when Essex lost the favour of the queen, and became
one phenomenon to another. By poetry, is meant an hatched by their natural mother. If you disturb a a rebel against her authority, Bacon, in whom the assemblage of ideas brought together for the purpose magpie in her operation of building, she will imme selfishness of ambition had deadened every better prin- of exciting emotion. diately remove the sticks she has collected to another ciple, consented not only to plead against him, but Lord Bacon's Essays are by no means the least part branch of the same tree, but much lower down than the one she first occupied.
disclosed some confidential letters, which went a great of his philosophy: Wisdom has never appeared in a as it is called, upon ducks eggs, and the agony which heartless conduct, this period of his life only presents places the propositions side by side, without any inter
It is a common practice in the country to set a hen, way to prove his guilt. Against such unworthy and garb so closely adapted to her person. Every subject she suffers when she sees her young charge first take
some rather spirited appearances which he made in mediate ornament. A florid discourse may astonish to their natural element, the water, has often been ob- the House of Commons, in behalf of the popular rights. us, but it is a simple one like this which enables us to served and remarked upon. The following anecdote Till the accession of King James, Bacon made little arrive at conclusions."* These essays are the most may be relied upon, as the circumstance was observed advance either in reputation or in fortune. His learn- popular of his writings, being devoted to subjects and by a gentleman of science as well as rank; and it oc ing having recommended him to the king, he was involving thoughts which, as he says of them himself, curred in the town or suburbs of Stirling :-A hen, knighted, and appointed king's counsel, with a salary “ come home to men's business and bosoms." They which had been employed to hatch a duck's eggs, in of forty pounds a-year. In consideration of the merit often unite the most profound philosophy with the the neighbourhood of a dyer's mill, where there was of his work “On the Advancement of Learning," most fanciful illustration and poetical language, and a sinall pond, was observed to exhibit the usual symp- published in 1605, he was appointed, two years after, sometimes display an almost scriptural pathos, as in toms of terror and alarm when the ducklings first to the post of solicitor-general; and about this time the following beautiful passage took to the water, but, by degrees, she became quite his practice as a lawyer became both extensive and “ The parts and signs of goodness are many. Ifa man reconciled to their habits, and was accustomed, in profitable. If Bacon had been content to wait may be gracious and courteous to strangers, it shows great quietness, to enjoy herself on the banks while
upon fortune, he could have hardly failed, with he is a citizen of the world, and that his heart is no they gamboled in the pool. For two or three years the first abilities of his time, to reach, without dis- island cut off from other lands, but a continent that she uniformly brought out ducklings, and, at last
, as credit, the highest honours of the state. But the joins to them. If he be compassionate towards the regularly led them to the water as their natural dam eagerness of his ambition, joined to a certain softness afflictions of others, it shows that his heart is like a would have done. In the course of time, however, and facility of disposition, by which he was disabled, noble tree that is wounded itself when it gives the she brought out a breed of chickens. These she im.
as it were, for the entertainment of high and manly balm. If he easily pardons and remits offences, it mediately led to the side of the pool also, but when principle, caused him to seek elevation by me ins which shows that his mind is planted above injuries, so that she found they did not enter the water, she became have stamped his name with infamy. Not only was he cannot be shot. If he be thankful for small benequite uneasy-called them close to it-made every he content to present an almost impious kind of flat- fits, it shows that he weighs men's minds, and not motion for them to enter it—flew over to the beetling. tery to his weak sovereign, but he stooped to become their trash." stone in the centre of the pond, and then called on the minion of a minion, namely, Villiers Duke of Another specimen of Bacon may be given from his them to follow; but all to no purpose. When she Buckingham, who had been recently raised from ob- praises of learning :-“ Learning taketh away the found that nothing would entice them to enter the scurity to the highest court honours, merely on ac- wildness, barbarism, and fierceness of men's minds ; water, she actually seized upon one or two of them, count of his possessing a handsome person. "By such though a little of it doth rather work a contrary and threw them into it, and if she had not been pre- means, and by writing to the king a letter studiously effect. It taketh away all levity, temerity, and in. vented, it is believed she would have drowned her whole depreciating all the other great lawyers of his day, he solency, by copious suggestion of all doubts and diffiprogeny. This shows how much the native babits obtained, in March 1617, the appointment of lord- culties, and acquainting the mind to balance reasons of even fowls may be changed by circumstances, and keeper, and, two years after, that of lord chancellor, on both sides, and to turn back the first offers and proves, in some degree, the existence of memory, with with the title of Baron Verulam, subsequently ex- conceits of the kind, and to accept of nothing but out judgment, in the feathered tribes. changed for that of Viscount of St Alban's.
( what is examined and tried. It taketh away all A gentleman in the county of Stirling kept a grey- Without apparently gaining much personal esteem, vain admiration of any thing, which is the root of all hound and a pointer, and, being fond of coursing, the Bacon had at this time obtained the highest reputa- weakness : for all things are admired, either because pointer was accustomed to find the bares, and the grey- tion as a philosophical writer. To the Proficience they are new, or because they are great. hound to catch them. When the season was over, it and Advancement of Learning, published in 1605, If a man meditate upon the universal frame of nature, was found that the dogs were in the habit of going and afterwards republished in an extended form, was the earth with men upon it (the divineness of souls out by themselves, and of killing the hares for their added, in 1620, the Novum Organum, which was de excepted) will not seem more than an ant-hill, where own amusement. To prevent this, a large iron ring signed as a second part of his grand work, the Instau- some ants carry corn, and some carry their young, was fastened to the pointer's neck by a leather collar, ration of the Sciences. Another portion, intended to and some go empty, and all to and fro a little heap of and hung down, so as to prevent the dog from run.
complete the work, was never produced. The objects dust. It taketh away or mitigateth fear of death, or ning or jumping over dikes, &c. The animals, how- of the whole work, were, to answer the objections adverse fortune: which is one of the greatest impediever, continued to stroll out to the fields together ; made to the progress of knowledge, to classify the ments of virtue, and imperfection of manners. and one day, the gentleman, suspecting all was not branches of knowledge, and to explain a new me- Virgil did excellently and profoundly couple the knowright, resolved to watch them, and, to his surprise, thod of employing the faculties for the increase of ledge of causes and the conquest of all fears together. found, that the moment they thought they were un- knowledge, namely, to ascertain facts in the first it were too long to go over the particular remedies observed, the greyhound took up the iron ring in his place, and then to reason upon them towards conclu- which learning doth minister to all the diseases of the mouth, and, carrying it, they set off to the hills, and sions a mode which may now appear very obvious, mind—sometimes purging the ill humours, sometimes began to search for bares as usual. They were fol. and even unavoidable, but which was nevertheless opening the obstructions, sometimes helping the dilowed, and it was observed, that whenever the pointer unknown till explained by him. To come to parti- gestion, sometimes increasing appetite, sometimes scented the hare, the ring was dropped, and the grey- culars, Bacon tells us,
healing the wounds and ulcerations thereof, and the hound stood ready to pounce upon poor puss the mo. “1. That the ultimate aim of philosophical investi. like ; and I will therefore conclude with the chief reament the other drove her from her form, but that he gation is to bring the course of events, as much as pos- son of all, which is, that it disposeth the constitution uniformly returned to assist his companion when he sible, under our own control, in order that we may of the mind not to be fixed or settled in the defects had accomplished bis object. *
turn it to our own advantage.
* Life of Bacon, prefixed to an Edinburgh edition of his Essays, * Edinburgh Magazine, 1818.
combination of circumstances which precede it, and | 8vo. 1817.
thereof, but still to be capable and susceptible of re- 9th of April 1626, in the sixty-sixth year of his age. quite intoxicated him with success; all he touched formation. For the unlearned man knoweth not what He was buried in the chapel of St Michael's church, seemed to prove advantageous to his fortunes. it is to descend into himself, and call himself to ac- within the precincts of old Verulam. “When we
As his wealth increased, he drew around him the count; nor the pleasure of that most pleasant life, visit his monument," says an eloquent wriier, “ic
usual groups of adulators and sycophants who at. which consists in our daily feeling ourselves become should be with a sacred awe, which forbids us to rebetter. * The good parts he hath, he will learn to show member his frailties. Envy loves to whisper that he tend on the opulent, and whose subserviency esta. to the full, and use them dexterously, but not much died in disgrace; but gratitude proclaims that he still blished all that the weakness of his understanding to increase them : the faults he hath, he will learn lives and fourishes in the advancement of science;. suggested; he therefore became the slave of folly and how to hide and colour them, but not much to amend and when we behold around us the giant powers of: them ; like an ill mower, that mows on still and never nature performirig whatever tasks man chooses to as
ostentation. He was delighted at hearing himself whets his scythe. Whereas with the learned man it sign them, we may say to the departed philosopher, in praised as a speculator, and was in ecstacies at a puff. fares otherwise, that he doth ever intermix the cor- the words of Shakspeare, 'Oh, St Alban’s, thou art paragraph in one of the public prints, for which he rection and amendment of his mind with the use and mighty yet, thy spirit walks abroad !! »
had previously paid. But with all this sudden in. employment thereof."
crease of riches, Thomson was not a happy man; From the glories of the sage, it is our painful duty
something was always wanting ; he durst not let him. to revert to the infamy of the courtier. In his capa
THE STOCK-JOBBER. city of chancellor, Bacon displayed the same servility PERHAPS no vicissitudes to which speculative men are
self think, and when left by his companions he became to the king and Buckingham as before, affixing the
capricious and tyrannical. great seal to many patents which were intended as liable, have exhibited more wretchedness than those
Mrs Thomson, an excellent woman, who, when instruments of extortion in behalf of the royal fa- | which have arisen out of transactions on the London the family prospects appeared confined, had been vourite. In 1621, these abuses became the subject of Stock Exchange. The immense capital which is there selected for the endowments of her mind, now ocinvestigation by Parliament, when it was discovered that Bacon had also accepted bribes from suitors in subjected to the genuine demands of some individuals, casionally remonstrated with her inflated spouse on the Court of Chancery. A committee of the House and to the illegal uses of others, produces an assem.
the egregious folly of his proceedings. She repreof Lords, appointed to inquire into the latter delin-blage of persons, surprisingly shrewd and active, sti
sented to him the error of concluding that extrava. quencies, brought nofewer than twenty distinct charges mulated by an ever-restless desire to gain by the against him, comprising sums which amounted to sefluctuations to which the stocks are liable. Stock, in
gance was synonymous with comfort, and plainly veral thousand pounds; and Bacon, with his natural
said that it was as ill suited to her love of tranquillity a general sense, means the public funds of Britain, pusillanimity, could only meet them with an abject
as it was to the preservation of his health and repu. confession. He was sentenced to pay a fine of forty and consists of sums which have, at different times, thousand pounds, to be imprisoned in the Tower dur- been lent to the government on condition of receiving tation. This was not to be endured ; he scorned tha ing the king's pleasure, and to be for ever incapable interest until the principal shall be repaid. When admonition, and peremptorily forbade the monitor his of holding any office or employment, and never again merchants require capital for great commercial pur- offended past forgiveness ; and, strange as it may
presence. Ignorance cannot bear reproof; she had to sit in Parliament, or to come within the verge of court. poses, money is drawn from the stocks, or funds, to
to Overwhelmed with the infamy of this sentence, he an enormous amount, and the value of the remaining quit the home she could have graced, and meekly reretired to solitude. During the remainder of his life, stock is proportionably increased. When the unemander the discouragement of public censure, a heavy ployed capitals of merchants and others are placed in from what he deemed an incumbrance, the heedless
tired on a mere pittance to a distant village. Freed Durden of debt, and the still greater pressure of self- the stocks to any great extent, the value of the whole Thomson pursued his idea of happiness. Such had been reproach, he yet retained so much vigour of intellect, writings of singular" merit, in history, morals, and Like all marketable commodities
, the value of money it was suspected he possessed some means of obtaining and warmth of fancy, as to be capable of producing / accumulated amount of stock is in proportion reduced. his extraordinary success on the Stock Exchange, that philosophy. In his humiliated state, he found some is raised by scarcity, and depressed by superabundance. information not given to the general ear ; such was his comfort in comparing himself with three great men circumstances of a political nature will often seriously good luck at the gaming-houses he frequented, and of antiquity, Demosthenes, Cicero, and Seneca, all of affect the money market, raising or lowering the price such was his gain as a contractor, that it was contive countries
, had fallen into delinquency, and been of stocks twice in a day. Any individual possessing cluded his fortunes were augmented by some kind banished into retirement, where they consoled them- money in the funds can sell out, as it is termed, which selves with letters and philosophy. These examples, means relinquishing his title, or transferring, on the the nature of his transactions. A sudden convulsion
of improper means. A short period of time unfolded he declares, confirmed him in the resolution, to which days of transfer, his right to another, whose name is in the monied interest in which he was engaged, tohe was otherwise inclined, of devoting the remainder of his time wholly to writing. Yet even now neither / consequently inserted in the books connected with the gether with a depreciation in the value of a foreign philosophy nor experience had perfectly taught Bacon particular stock in which the transaction may oc
loan in which he had deeply involved his fortune, the lesson of moderation. After his release from the cur. Tower, which was soon granted him, and the entire
instantaneously prostrated his fortune in the dust.
There are transactions of a very different nature, Luckily he was not a defaulter with respect to public remission of his sentence which was by degrees ob. tained, when the king's indulgence had yielded him connected with the Stock Exchange, which have been property, as his pride had caused him to relinquish a pension of L. 1200 a-year, in addition to the grant pursued to a disgraceful extent. All sorts of artifices, the office of collector of rates, and pay up his ar
arrears. which he retained of 1.600 a-year from the Aliena- including falsehoods, are adopted, to produce effects
The result of Thomson's unlucky ventures and tion-Office, and L.700 which he derived from his own on the money market, and of which advantage may estate, he still lived at a great expense and sometimes be taken. There are also time-bargains," which losses, was a species of mental derangement, which appeared in splendour. It is said that the Prince of
for a short time affected him. He raved about bonds, Wales, one day observing, near London,
are illegal contracts, or engagements, between specu- bills, consols, and securities, as things in his posses
coach followed by a considerable number of people on horse-lators and gamblers, who perhaps have no property sion'; but all were gone. He asked for his comback, was told, on inquiry, that it was Lord St Alban's, in the funds. They agree, that, on a specified future panions they had deserted him, after the usual attended by his friends ; upon which his highness day, the difference in value of a nominal sum in some said, “Well, do what we can, this man scorns to go particular stock, or consols, as may be agreed upon, found to alleviate his sufferings, save his discarded
manner of parasitical dependents. No one was out like a snuff.” It was no inconsiderable aggrava. tion of the folly of this prodigality, that he was still shall be paid over to the individual in whose favour wife. That gentle being, forgiving and forgetting encumbered with a heavy load of debt: though, about the rise may be determined ; accordingły, when the all her wrongs, flew to his aid; she endeavoured to the time of his fall
, he found means to discharge ar. settling-day arrives, the amount of the wager is paid console him by all the means in her power, raised rears to the amount of eight thousand pounds, he to the winner. Disgraceful exposures have occurred him from despair to a consciousness of life and hope, died in debt upwards of twenty-two thousand. Yet of extraordinary means having been resorted to for and inspired a belief, that, although greatness bad opinion of himself, as an inordinate thirst for the good the purpose of producing an effect on the funds, by departed, happiness might still be secured. She conopinion and applause of others. With more self-jobbers and gamblers.
tinued closely attendant and solicitous to procure the esteem he might probably have been more virtuous.
Connected with improper transactions on the Stock restoration of his health, while legal proceedings and When the French ambassador flattered him by saying that he had never before been in the company of an Exchange, an example may be given that not very seizures pressed hard on the remnant of his property; angel, he remarked, “ If the politeness of others com- long ago excited the attention of many persons in one even the little that might have been converted into pare me to an angel, my own infirmities remind me of the suburbs of the metropolis. Mr Thomson was use for future exigencies, merged into the general that I am a man.' It was a striking proof of his
a tradesman of considerable shrewdness, and doing ruin, and they were left nearly destitute. Without 3 self-command, that, receiving from a friend an account of the failure of an application at court for some
what is called a pretty little business, by which he ob- friend, without a home, the world that lately bloomed important favour, at the moment when he was dictat- tained all that was necessary to the comforts of life.
luxuriantly appeared a sterile desert; they seemed ing to bis chaplain an account of some philosophical ex. He also managed to obtain an appointment as collector alone amid thousands ; not one heart sympathised periments, he calmly said, “ Be it so," dismissed his of rates and taxes, in a wealthy district, on furnishing with them, nor was there one friendly hand to avert friend with thanks for his services, and turning to his bondsmen to the amount of twenty thousand pounds. the most abject wretchedness. chaplain, and saying, “Well, sir, if that business will not succeed, let us go on with this, which is in Some people conduct themselves remarkably well in Part of a very humble dwelling, in an obscure back our power," continued to dictate for some hours, with society, as long as they are not under any tempta- lane, was taken by Mrs Thomson, to which they reout hesitation of speech or apparent interruption of tion; but no sooner are large sums of money placed moved, and for a time their immediate necessities were thought.
in their power, than they become bewildered with the supplied by the sale of a few trinkets, of which the He pursued his philosophical researches to the last
unfortunate lady had not been deprived. On these in the midst of bodily infirmities brought on by in. possession ; and having no basis of principle, they are tense study, by multiplicity of business, and, above easily turned aside into practices of a disgraceful na- they contrived to subsist until he gained strength, and all, by anguish of mind. In his letters to the king ture. Such was Thomson, the hero of our story. He was enabled to contemplate the miserable state to for the remission of his sentence, he is perpetually did very well till he became a collector of public, which he was reduced. He grew morose or furious,
as the bitterness of adversity pressed upon him. His from his fall. In the winter of 1625, he found his money, when, without reflecting on what might be health and spirits much impaired. In the spring of the consequence of his folly, he began a practice of ravings against a world, which he insisted had trested the following year, making an excursion into the speculating on the Stock Exchange ; and although he him with unparalleled cruelty, were loud and inces. country to try some experiments upon the preserra. risked his reputation, the public property, and the sant, while for days he paced his room, or lay on his tion of bodies, he is supposed to have been affected welfare of his bondsmen, he could not withstand the humble pallet, in a state bordering on distraction. by some noxious effluvium, as he was suddenly seized
In this extremity of hopeless misery, Mrs Thom. with pains i., his head and stomach, which obliged temptation. He first ventured on a large purchase of him , stop at the Earl of Arundel's house at High Sparish bonds, and was successful; a few hundreds son, by chance, met one of their former intimates, gate. Here, after a week’s illness, he expired on the became thousands with the effect of magic. From to whom she related a few of their sufferings. The
what might have been termed a plodding existence, he listener despised the husband; but the sorrows of the • This expression is given in the original in Latin. started into comparative affluence. Another lucky hit I wife called forth an expression of sympathy, and a
purse was administered, containing a few sovereigns towards the spectator's eye. This radiating centre nomenon is rather too regular. That the earch's and coins of lesser value. This accidental relief called did not move eastward with the earth in its diurnal periodic time should be so exact a multiple of that of up the ruling passions of this ill-assorted couple. course, but kept its place nearly stationary in one part ihe nebula, is rather against the doctrine of chances ; The wife, ever thoughtful, proposed that a small stock of the heavens, that is, in one constellation. The path and that so light a body, exposed to disturbance in of trifling articles should be purchased, and that she, of a meteor generally extended to 30° in length, and crossing the orbits of Venus and Mercury, should with a basket over her arm, would endeavour to ob- the time from two to three seconds. Among the meteors, keep its time so regularly since 1799, is improbable. tain the little that was now required to sustain exist- two or three, coming comparatively near to the ob- The radiating centre, too, of a sheet of vapour more ence. The wretch spurned the idea as derogatory; server, seemed to be as large as the moon, and, from than 1000 miles each way, and only 2200 miles high, he would not entertain a thought so contemptible, and their height, have been supposed to be two or three should not have presented itself as a confined space, therefore proposed that he should put himself in for- hundred feet in diameter.
of the breadth of three or four moons, in the consteltune's way by attending one of the lower order of gam- Humboldt and Bonpland witnessed a similar shower lation Leo. These are not reasons for rejecting the bling houses. Nothing venture nothing have, said he, of meteors in Cumana in 1799, and what is remark. hypothesis, but they inculcate the prudence of sus. exultirgly; and despite of every objection which the able, it was also on the 12th November. On the 13th pending our entire faith in it, till time shall add to its prudence and humility of the wife could suggest, the November 1831, an extraordinary fall of meteors was evidences. In the meanwhile, naturalists will do well passion and the propensity of the gambler prevailed. observed in Ohio ; and on the same day, in 1832, at to watch for meteoric phenomena for some nights be. He went—he lost-even the last shilling vanished ; Niocha, in Arabia, by the captain of an American fore and after the 12th November.-Scotsman. and he returned in a state of phrenzy and intoxication trader, and by.another on the same night, in the middle to his disconsolate wife. With woman's kindness she of the Atlantic (lat. 43. long. 40); the phenomenon in again administered every aid, and endeavoured to con- both cases being entered in the log-book.
THE FIVE KERNELS OF CORN. sole him; and although her heart was bursting with We cannot go into the minute details collected, in [From Mrs Sigourney's Tales and Essays for Children. Hartford anguish, she watched him with unremitted care. But order to furnish data for inferences as to the nature
(United States), 1835. ] nothing more could soothe him into resignation_his and source of the meteors. We shall only observe, THOSE who form a new colony, or establish a regular brain was too surely affected with madness.
that from observations made in places at a distance government where there was none before, have need In this melancholy state the hapless couple were from one another, the parallax of the radiating point of patience to endure toil
, and wisdom to overcome taken to the last refuge for the destitute the poor- was found approximatively (parallax is the angular difficulty. The first settlers of New England had house. In a few days Thomson showed symptoms of change of position which an object undergoes when many dangers to meet, and hardships to sustain. returning consciousness ; self-condemnation appeared observed from different localities], from which its Their voyage over the ocean was long and tempestuin all his looks and actions, but he was never heard to height was calculated ; and Professor Olmstead of ous. They approached the coast during the cold of speak after being informed where he was. He felt his Yale College thinks that the facts ascertained afford winter. At their first landing on the rock at Plypride insulted ; and in less than a month he died, the a basis for the following conclusions:
mouth, December 22, 1620, the whole appearance of victim of an acute fever of the brain. Mrs Thomson 1. The meteors of November 1833 had their origin the country was dreary and in hospitable. The thick paid the last tribute to her departed husband, and then far beyond the limits of the atmosphere, at tbe height forests looked dark and gloomy, and the tangled un. accepted of a comfortable home which had been pro- of about 2200 miles above the earth, and they had no derwood and brambles had never been cleared away, vided for her by a few worthy persons, who knew and connection with electricity or the aurora borealis. 2. to make a comfortable path for their feet. There was could appreciate her virtues.
They were attracted to the earth by the force of gra. no shelter from the cold winds and storms of snow. The fate of this infatuated man is not without its vity, and descended in straight lines nearly parallel, Some of their number were delicate women and little lesson to those, who, like him, may imagine that their apparent divergence being the effect of perspec. children, who had been accustomed to comfortable there exists some partial agency that turns the or- tive. 3. As the lightest and heaviest bodies fall rooms and soft beds. But here was not a single house, dinary events of life to success, independently of moral through empty space with the same velocity, these or even a board with which to build one. They were exertion. The knave and the sluggard may cherish meteors would enter the atmosphere (which extends forced to cut down logs, and with them, and the such a hope; but they will perish in the delusion. about fifty miles above the surface of the earth) with a branches of trees, to construct rude huts for the reHe who knows the value of reputation, or possesses velocity of four miles per second, or ten times greater fuge of their families. The Indians, who were nu. the pride of independence, will regulate his expendi- than that of a cannon ball. 4. They were composed merous, lived in simple dwellings called wigwams, ture hy his honest receipt. Such a man can never be of combustible matter, remained invisible while in free and were astonished at the arrival of the white stran. subjected to what is called the “ frowns of Fortune," space, but took fire and were consumed in traversing gers. At first they fled away and viewed them at a nor be ruined in his prospects by gambling, nor injured the atinosphere, the larger ones leaving a cloud visible distance. Then they became acquainted, and were by reverses arising from speculations on the Stock Ex- for some minutes, the product of the combustion. The sometimes friendly, and supplied them with corn. But change. He will move in confidence, however humble ignition was probably caused by the compression of they grew suspicious, and were disposed to consider his path; and, protected by his integrity, his journey the air before them in their rapid course. 5. They them as intruders and enemies--so that wars with through life will be satisfactory to himself, and worthy were composed most probably of light nebulous matter, the natives were among the troubles of our forefathers. the imitation of others, similar to the tails of comets.
They were an industrious and pious people patient From what body did they come ? The professor under hardships, and anxious for the right education
shows that the facts do not consist with the supposin of their children. Their sufferings were so great from METEORIC SHOWER IN AMERICA. tion that the nebula was wandering lawless through cold weather and coarse food, and storms from which A REMARKABLE fall of meteors took place in North the planetary spaces, or that it was a satellite of the their habitations were too poor to shelter them, that America in November 1833, which was amply de. earth, revolving round it like the moon. After weighmany of them died. scribed in the newspapers. If the speculations of ing all the facts, he concludes, that it revolves round Among their domestic privations, it was not the some men of science on this phenomenon be correct, the sun in six months, from left to right, like the least, that for four years no cows were brought to it either reveals to us the existence of a new and cu- earth, and in an elliptical orbit which is nearly in the the colony. It is almost impossible for us to realise rious class of bodies in the solar system, or it discloses plane of the ecliptic; that this orbit lies within the the inconvenience and suffering which would ensue, to us new properties in bodies previously known. We earth's orbit, touching it in its aphelion (or point of if no milk was to be procured, even though our tables are not aware that any connected view of the facts, greatest distance from the sun), and having its peri- should in other respects be well provided. But there and the conclusions drawn from them, has yet been helion (point of least distance) within the orbit of the weaned infant pined—and the aliment best adapted published in this country. What follows is derived Mercury. The nebula was probably of great size, for to its sustenance could not be obtained. The little from various papers in Professor Silliman's Journal. an unusual light, like the zodiacal light, preceded shivering child hungered, and wept for the bread and
On the morning of the 13th November 1833, from the dawn on 13th November, and was visible after milk which it used freely to eat in its home beyond midnight to six o'clock, the whole horizon way filled sunset in the beginning of December. The meteors the sea. The feeble sick woman languished, and there with fiery meteors or shooting stars, as far as the eye consisted of the extreme parts of this nebula, detached was no means of preparing for her what might tempt could reach. They seemed to take their course from from the mass by the earth's attraction, and falling the decaying appetite. There was neither milk, nor a single point, a little S. E. of the zenith, shooting to down in a fiery shower.
sugar, nor eggs, nor chickens. Coarse bread, made every quarter of the compass; they were of all sizes, If these conclusions are sound, an extraordinary of pounded corn, was what they depended on fe. from a small point to three times the diameter of fall of meteors might be looked for about the 12th or nourishment. But they were patient and thankful. Venus ; and the larger ones lest a train of light in 13th November, not perhaps eve year, but fre. And these circumstances are mentioned, that children their course, which continued for some minutes after quently; and we may well suppose that the Anericans may remember what our ancestors endured—and may their extinction, resembling a white cloud, which were on the watch when that day came round in 1834, learn not to complain if their own food is not always moved upwards, curving, undulating, and changing for materials to prove or disprove the hypothesis. The according to their fancy. its shape, till it vanished. Some of these luminous result did not entirely disappoint them. The pheno. But there is a greater evil than being obliged to or phosphorescent clouds occupied six or eight degrees menon wanted the splendour of that of the preceding eat coarse food, namely, not being able to obtain food in lengih, and one in breadth, the colour not fiery, but year, but there was an unusual number of meteors ; enough to support nature. This is called famine. silvery, like moonlight on a thin transparent cloud. ihey seemed also to radiate from a common centre. This also came upon the colonists at Plymouth, or the The meteors shot downwards with great rapidity, and that centre was in the constellation Leo, as in pilyrim-fathers, as they are styled in history. In some descending to within ten or fifteen degrees of 1833. The zodiacal or pseudo-zodiacal light also 1621, the year after their settlement, they were ex. the horizon, but none reached it. There was no re appeared from the middle of October to December, ceedingly distressed for provisions. For two or three port heard, and no solid substance fell, so far as and changed its place in reference to the sun, exactly months they had no bread at all. Their friends known. The sky was perfectly free of clouds; but as the hypothesis required.
across the ocean, three thousand miles distant, knew the atmosphere had a yellowish tinge, and was so very Upon the whole, the hypothesis has a sufficient de. not of their distress, and could not therefore relieve luminous as greatly to obscure the tixed stars. A few gree of probability to entitle it to attention, but it it. Many of the less vigorous were not able to bear meteors were seen as early as nine or ten p. m., and they must still be considered as under trial. It is perfectly it. The flesh wasted away from their bones, and they continued till atter six, but were most numerous from credible that there may be hundreds of parcels of fine died. Children, with dry and parched lips, asked twelve till four. They were described as so thick and transparent vapour, such as the tails of comets or if their parents for a little bread, and they had none to abundant that they resembled a snow-shower, and we choose to vary the expression, comets without give. But they prayed to God, and besought him to many ignorant persons thought them miraculous. nuclei-which revolve round the sun within the li have pity upon his people in the wilderness. Vessels They were observed with nearly the same appear.mits of our system, or revolve round some of the arrived from England, bringing them aid, and sumance at sea and on land, from Lake Superior to the planets, and are generally invisible: we have no rea. mer ripening the corn which they had planted, once middle of the Mexican Gulf, and from 60° W. longi. son to doubt that the attraction of the earth would act more supplied them with food, tude to 90°, over a space greatly exceeding a thou- upon any of these coming within two or three thou- In 1623, was another distressing famine. Scarcely sand miles each way.
sand miles of it; that the matter may be combustible; any corn could be obtained. At one time the quanThe meteors seemed to diverge or radiate from a that portions of it may be detached from the rest, tity distributed was only five kernels to each person. given point, the position of which was noted by its drawn towards the earth, and consumed in the at-Only five kernels to each person! These were parched, place among the constellations. The paths of the mosphere : nor is it very difficult to conceive, that as and eaten. This should not be forgotten by the demeteors were not seen to commence at this point, but diffused aqueous vapour collects into drops of rain, the scendants of the pilgrim-fathers. The anniversary of by tracing them backwards they seemed to meet in it. tine cometary matter may part into thousands of frag. their landing at Plymouth is commemorated by pubThe meteors seen farthest from this centre had long ments, and fall down in the manner described. The lic religicus exercises. On the 224 December 1820, apparent courses ; those seen nearer to it, shorter; and abstraction of a part of their substance in this way was its second centennial celebration, that is, the day at the centie itself, some observers noticed what they would account for the secular decay which comets are on which two centuries had elapsed since their arrival. deen ed a nebulosity, in which slight flickering mo. supposed to undergo. All this is probable or possible; Great pains were taken by pious and eloquent men, tians were discernible; and now and then a luminous but we want some grounds for the distinction drawn to impress the minds of a happy and prosperous peopoint would present itself, swell gradually on the betwixt these meteors and common shooting stars; ple with a sense of what their ancestors had sussight, and then vanish, presenting exactly the appear and if the one class has the origin assigned, whence tained, in their first planting of this land. At the auce which a meteor would have when travelling right) are the other ? Moreover, the recurrence of the phe public dinner, when the table was loaded with the rich