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retreat. They reached the first breach in safety, | tive before the triumphant Cortez. The city then extraordinary man expired near Seville on the 2d of when the Mexicans, who had watched their more. yielded, August 13, 1521, after a siege of seventy- December 1547, in the sixty-second year of his age. ments in silence, suddenly assailed them by land and five days, and this large and partially civilised empire His remains were interred with great pomp in the chawater with tremendous force, and put them all into became an appanage of the crown of Spain.

pel of the Dukes of Medina Sidonia, but were afterconfusion. The Spaniards, unable to remove their At the conclusion of this siege, Cortez saw no fewer wards removed to New Spain, in conformity with the bridge to the second breach, were exposed on a small than two hundred thousand Indians ranged under his desire expressed in his will. The titles of Cortez bave piece of ground to these numberles& assailants, and standard ; such extraordinary success had attended passed by marriage to the Dukes of Monteleone, wno fell in great pumbers, while others perished in the his policy and resolution. The account of his vic. also retained possession of bis immense estates in lake, or were taken prisoners. It was with the utmost tories, which he had dispatched to Europe, secured Mexico up to the recent revolutions in the New difficulty that Cortez forced his way with a hundred him the approbation of the court of Spain, and ex. World.* of his men across the reinaining breaches, and gained cused the irregularity of his conduct. Charles V., the open country. Before morning, others were able overlooking the claims of Velasquez, appointed Cortez to extricate themselves from the scene of carnage; governor and captain-general of Mexico. The grate- FOLLIES AND FRIVOLITIES AT THE but fully a half of the army had perished on this ful monarch, at the same time, bestowed on the con.

RESTORATION. dreadful night, or were reserved to be sacrificed to queror the valley of Guaxaca, with the title of marquess, In reference to the Restoration of Charles II., in the idols of the Mexicans.

and ample revenues. As the survivors were now upon the side of the lake As soon as Cortez found his authority confirmed by kintosh's History of the Reign of James II. in the

1660, Mr Macaulay, in an article on Sir James Mace most remote from Tlascala, the only place where they the royal sanction, he applied himself with fresh arcould hope for a friendly reception, they had to com. dour to consolidate bis dominion, by the establishment 124th number of the Edinburgh Review, says, “All the mence a long and toilsome march, frequently inter- of police, by building towns, and encouraging the arte contemporary accounts represent the nation as in a rupted by parties of the enemy, who, if they did not of peace. The struggle with the Mexicans was no

state of hysterical excitement, of drunken joy. In attack them, called out, “ Go on, robbers ! till you sooner decided, than several expeditions were dig. arrive at the place where just punishment awaits patched by him, in order to obtain a more perfect Dover, and bordered the road along which the king

the immense multitude which crowded the beach at you.” This menacing intimation was not understood knowledge of the country. The genius of this man by them, till, on ascending the heights which look down was, however, less fitted for conducting civil business travelled to London, there was not one who was not on the great plain of Otumba, they saw an immense than fur deeds of desperate adventure ; and, excepto weeping. Bonfires blazed; bells jingled; and the streets army drawn out, and ready to receive them. At this ing in a remarkable land expedition to Honduras for spectacle, the hearts of the Spaniards were ready to

were thronged at night by boon.companions, who the suppression of a revolt, he exhibited, after this forced all the passers-by to swallow on their knees faint within them ; but the heroic spirit of Cortez period, few of those qualities which have procured | brimming glasses to the health of his Most Sacred always appeared to greatest advantage in the inost him so much celebrity. For several years he maindesperate conjunctures. Without allowing his soldiers tained himself with difficulty in power, being fre. Majesty, and confusion to Red-nosed Noll.” time to contemplate the fearful array of the enemy, quently superseded by nobles and lawyers sent out for Though Scotland had more cause for alarm on this but reminding them that they must choose between that purpose from Spain. Hurt at this treatment, occasion than the neighbouring country, in as far as death and victory, he gave the signal of battle ; rushed, and aware that an equitable trial was not to be ex. with a chosen band, into the thickest of the fight; pected in the New World, where the sentiments of threatened to be replaced by episcopacy, the wild

her favourite presbyterian forms of worship were cans, gained,

with little loss, a most decisive victory lence and rapacity, he resolved to return to Spain, feeling of joy did not fail to spread thither--as appears This remarkable battle, in which a handful of Spani. and vindicate his conduct to the emperor in person from a newspaper which was commenced in Edinburgh ards defeated the whole forces of the Mexican empire, He appeared at Toledo with a costly retinue, and such early in the year 1661, under the title of Mercurius was fought on the 7th of July 1520. On the following a display of wealth as was calculated to raise the esti- Caledonius. This print, which professed to com. day Cortez reached Tlascala, the inhabitants of which mation of those rich countries which he had annexed prise the affairs now in agitation in Scotland, with a continued faithful to him in all his reverses.

The followers of Cortez, who had been unable to followed in his train. This splendour produced the survey of foreign intelligence," and consisted of a small maintain their ground in Mexico, supposed that no intended effect. Cortez, now Marquesa del Valle de quarto sheet, published weekly, was conducted, it

must be allowed, by one who, from his connection with course was now left them to adopt but to abandon a Guaxaca, was received by the emperor with every de. struggle, to which their numbers and provision were in- monstration of favour and esteem. But although his the episcopal party, must bave been anxious to give adequate. But Cortez himself was obstinately bent on enemies were silenced, the inflexible policy of the go.

as vociferous expression as possible to the popular feel. effecting the subjugation of the Mexican empire. He vernment was not moved by the openness of his beba. ing. He was named Thomas Sydserf, and was the employed agents to procure him ammunition, and to viour. His authority was abridged ; and Antonio de son of a clergyman who had been Bishop of Galloway collect.recruits among the adventurers of the Spanish Mendoza was appointed viceroy of New Spain, while before 1638, and was now Bishop of Orkney, being colonies. The fame of his exploits, and of the rich spoils the marquess was allowed to retain only the powers the only one of the former bench who had survived the won at Otumba, brought not a few to join his standard. of captain-general and admiral of the South Seas.

troubles. We have either read, or learned from tra In a brief space, he found himself once more in rea. The enterprising genius of Cortez, thus confined diness for aggressive operations. He then advanced in its operations, and debarred the further pursuit of dition, that this loyal editor was hanged : if he were to the lake in which the city of Mexico is situated, political greatness, engaged eagerly in the prosecution so, the literary profession certainly experienced little and reduced several minor towns to subjection. Part of geograpbical discoveries. Here an ample tield lay of either loss or degradation, for he seems to have of his troops he employed in fashioning, from a distant open to him, in which his active spirit

might be been as miserable a concomb as ever drew quill. A forest, the separable parts of a number of brigantines, laudably employed and fame acquired. During his copy of the ten numbers to which his paper extended, which he designed to employ against the capital. absence in Spain, Nunez de Guzman had marched with

exists in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh ; and Much of his time and labour was required to support an army from Mexico, towards the north-west : he

from this we shall make a few extracts. the spirits of his countrymen against the dangers of bad collected in his course a large quantity of gold,

“Our mischiefs,” says Sydserf, p. 18," began with their situation, and to counteract the conspiracies and received the submission of many caciques. To

tumult and sedition; and we are restored to our for. which were perpetually formed against himself. At the rugged mountainous country which terminated his length, by dint of enthusiasm, fortitude, and skill, progress northward, he gave the name of New Galicia.

mer felicity with miracles. The sea-coasts of Fire, such as are rarely found in any of the scenes of life, Cortez, desirous to obtain a perfect knowledge of the Angus, Mearns, and Buchan, which were famous for this extraordinary man was able, within six months coast in the same direction, fitted out an armament

the fertility of fishing, were barred zince his Majesty of his late disastrous retreat, to advance against at Acapulco, which he placed under the command of

went from Scotland to Worcester i in 1651]; insomuch Mexico with nine hundred Spaniards, of whom eighty. Hurtado de Mendoza; but violent storms, and the that the poor men who subsisted by the trade, were six were cavalry, and a vast host of friendly Indians, misconduct of the officers employed, defeated the ob reduced to go a.begging to the In.country. But now, besides twelve small armed vessels, which, consider- ject of the expedition. At length, in 1536, Cortez

blessed be God, since his Majesties return, the seas

are so plentiful, that in some places they are in a con. ing the difficulties with which they must have been equipped a second feet, of which he took the command

dition to duug the land with soals : an argument suf. prepared, were perhaps the most surprising part of in person, and, after enduring great bardships, disco.

ficient to stop the black mouths of those wretches, the armament. The Mexicans, under their new em. vered the peninsula of California, and advanced above peror Guatimozin, had made vast preparations for his fifty leagues within the Gulf of California, called also

that would have persuaded the people that curses reception. The flower of the provinces were collected the Verinilion Sea. The Spaniards still name it, from

was entailed upon the Royal Family. As our old

laws are renewed, so is likewise our good honest an. in the city for its defence ; new fortifications had been its discoverer, Mar de Cortez. reared ; and the European weapous which fell into Two vessels, which Cortez sent about the same time cient customs ; for Nobility in streets are known by

brave retinues of their relations ; when, during the their hands at the retreat of the Spaniards, had been with succours to Pizarro, and with orders to steer from fitted upon long spears, with the view of annoying Peru to the Moluccas, accomplished the voyage with captivity, a lord was scarcely to be distinguished from

Nay the old hospitality returns ; for the cavalry. Divided into three parties, each of success. They sailed for a thousand leagues across

that laudable custom of suppers, which was covenanted which was attended by a portion of the brigan. the Pacific without seeing any land, but afterwards

out with Raisins and Roasted Cheese, is again in fa. tines, the army of Cortez made a series of vigorous touched at numerous islands. These expeditions, from attacks upon the city; always retiring in the even. which so little resulted, are said to have cost Cortez

shion; and where, before, a peevish nurse would have ing to their posts, and apparently producing little three hundred thousand crowns. But he hoped ihiat Pusset or Berry, for the Laird or the Lady, you shall

been seen tripping up stairs and down stairs with a effect upon the enemy. After wasting a month in the generosity of the emperor would indemnify him

now see sturdy Jackmen, groaning with the weight of this manner, he made a desperate and united attack for losses incurred in undertakings of this nature :

sirloins of beef, and chargers loaden with wild fowl and upon the city, which he had penetrated a consider. he also expected to obtain restitution of the estates

capon.” able way, when the Mexican emperor, after taking which had been unjustly wrested from him during measures for intercepting his retreat, called forth new the former suspension of his authority. With these

And not only did the fish come back to the sea, but troops, and very nearly renewed the late disaster. views he returned to Spain in 1540. But bis merits

the water-fowl also came back to at least one of the

inlaud lakes. The Spaniards only regained their quarters with a weighed lightly in the interested calculations of the

In the very first number of the Mer. loss of sixty men, forty of whom, having been taken Spanish court.

curius is the following statement:-“At the town of

Charles V. received bim. coldly, and Liolithgow, equally remarkable for its antiquity and alive, were that night sacrificed in their sight to the evaded his demands. Cortez attended the emperor loyalty, his Majesty hath a palace upon the skirt of a god of war. The Mexican sovereigo now gave out in the celebrated expedition to Algiers; the vessel

most beautiful lake. This lake hath ever been famous a religious prophecy, that, on a particular day, an in which he had embarked was stranded, and in

for the great number of swans that frequented it, in. end was to be put to the Spanish power; and not wading to the shore he lost his valuable jewels. In only did this give new animation to his subjects, but the combat that ensued he had a horse killed under somuch that several of our poetical philosophers are

of opinion, that, if there be a civil government among it greatly dispirited the auxiliaries of his enemy. bim, and appeared conspicuous, for the last time, in Cortez, however, with his usual prudence, avoided the field of battle. Charles V. treated him with such the birds, and if divided in several companies and cor. all danger on this account, by scrupulously abstain. neglect, as not even to allow him the favour of an porations, this same lake must be the Hall or Meeting, on the appointed day, from every warlike de audience. Cortez, on one occasion, forced his way business, which is most miraculous, and, I hope, shall

ing-Place of the Fraternity of Swans. But to the their gode, experienced a proportionate depression. peror's carriage. Charles V., astonished

at his bold; in their allegiance to our most dread sovereign. When The city was now 80 completely hemmed in, that the ness, demanded who he was. "I am one,” replied this kingdom, as England, was oppressed by usurpers, besieged began to suffer from famine and pestilence. the conqueror of Mexico, “who has given you more Still they disputed every inch of ground, and saw provinces than your ancestors have left you tons." they put a garrison in this same palace of his Majesthree-fourths of the city laid in ruins and possessed But his boldness gave offence to imperial pride, and

ties; which was no sooner done, than these excellent by the Spaniards, before their resolution failed. The he was allowed to remain in obscurity. His health nobles then prevailed on Guatimuzin to attempt his now rapidly declined : worn out by fatigues, disap.

• In this article the writer has used several portions of the nas.

rative in the History of Maritime and Inland Discovery (s vols escape. He was seized in his canoe, and led a capo I pointment increased his natural infirmities ; and this I 1830), foria ing part of Lardner's Cubinet Cyclopædia

a commoner.

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creatures, scorning to live in the same air with these course, that the late infection among the horses in was exhausted, they were almost broken-hearted at contemners of Majesty, they all of them abandoned the that part of the country had been much exaggerated the sudden disappearance of the whale to the depths lake, and were never seen these ten years, till the 1st by public rumour, and was now subdued, so that there below. The bleeding fish, however, still pursued its of January last, a day remarkable both for his Ma.

was now no longer any danger “ in our excellent course along the coast, and neared the shore, off Hastjesties coronation at Scone, and for the down-sitting fields, which, for these sports, the world hath not the ings in Sussex, where it got into shallow water. The of the present parliament, when a squadron of these better.” Another advertisement of March 8th, states fishermen of this town immediately assembled all their royal birds did alight in the lake, and, by their extra. as follows :-" The famous horse-course of Cowper in strength, and soon vanquished the defenceless enemy. ordinar motions and conceily interweavings of swim. fife, which, by the iniquity of the times, hath been so The tackle was well adjusted, and the expiring whale ming, the country-people fancied them revelling at a long buried, to the great dissatisfaction of our nobility was towed and drawn on the beach by capstany, amid country-dance for joy of our gracious Restauration [!]" and gentry, is to be run, conforme to the institution, shouts of triumph. This was considered a deed so It is also recorded that a small fish, called the Cherry upon the second Tuesday of April. There is to be a worthy of commemoration, that a sum was set apart of the Tay, a species of whiting, returned to that river considerable number of horses to carry on the work by the captors, as a premium for the best poetical effrom a voluutary exile, along with the king.

of the day ; among others, a Waywood of Polonia fusion on the subject. Among the number who, on In the early numbers of Mercurius, intelligence of hath a Tartarian horse. This gentleman is pleased this occasion, invoked the muse, old Gedge's great this kind, as well as of a soberer description, is com. to come to this nation, to congratulate our happy grandfather's brother, Tom, was dubbed the Fishermunicated in comparatively sober language. But, as restauration ; and it is to be desired that such curious man's Poet Laureate. The lines which gained him he advances, he gradually addicts himself to a bur- gallants as come from foreign nations to see the course, this distinction, were these lesque and hyperbolical style, which renders it very that they do not, as others formerly did, sleep in the A mortal great whale comed off our coast, indud ! difficult to perceive whether he be in jest or earnest, time of the solemnity. It is now clearly made to The Folkstoners coud'nt catch un, but the Hasteners dud. or whether there be even a foundation in fact for appear, by a frequent concourse of gentry in these This elevation above his fellows was not to be per. what he appears to state. Under Shrove- Tuesday, he fields, that the report of the horse infection was an

mitted to slide into oblivion, although, like the gout informs us that “our old carnival sports are in some absolute aspersion.”

in some families, it might lie dormant for a generation measure revived, for, according to the ancient custom, An advertisernent, supplementary to the preceding, or two; so the Gedges' ancestral lustre was thought to the work was carried on by cock-fighting in the schools, appeared in the Mercurius for the 22d of March :- have been smouldering for a time, and now to burst and in the streets among the vulgar sort, tilting at * In regard the fair of the town of Cowper falls into extraordinary effulgence in young Tom. Poor cocks with faggot sticks. In the evening, the learned out to be upon the same day which the race doth ; it old Gedge looked on his son as a superior being in virtuosi of the Pallat recreate themselves with lusty was thought expedient by the honourable foundators of embryo; his good dame, however, who had no poetry caudels, powerful cock.broath, and natural-crammed the course, to prorogue it to the 23d of April; and to in her composition, and was of a more sober way of pullets, a divertisement not much inferior to our

66 A tell add to the solemnity, the Provost of Cow per gives a

thinking, discouraged such a ballucination. neighbour nation's fritters and pancakes.” silver cup of five pounds sterling value, to be run the

e whot," he would say again and again to his sagaWe are also informed by advertisement of the fol. next day after the grand course, by any gentleman cious helpmate," a do think our 'Tom be a mortal lowing coarse, but, we suspect, very characteristic that pleases.".

clever chap, he ha gotten such a protty nack o' wroitfrolic:-"On the eleventh of June, six brewster wives, Owing, probably, to the want of encouragement at ing poetry," “ Ay, there it be again,” she would

are to run from the Thicket (probably that early period for such an undertaking, the Mer. grumble; "a do wish e woudn't talk such nonsense Figgot] Burn, to the top of Arthur's Seat, for a groan. curius Caledonius stopped on the 28th of March, at e be chock full on't te year, a do think. A tell e whot, ing cheese of one hundred pounds weight, and a Bud. the tenth publication. Of course, the Cupar races are

Tom ad better moind his work; there be morts of gell of Dunkel Aquavitæ and a Rumpkine of Bruns. not recorded. Fortunately, however, the copy pre- heath to bind, an there be no hondles ready.” “ Now, week Mum for the second, set down by the Dutch served in the Advocates' Library has, under the same doant e zay thot, deam; why there be four score ready, midwife. The next day after, sixteen fish wives are

“ Did e do boards, a few fugitive papers, apparently written by

a did we moy own honds this vera day." to trot from Musselburgh to the Cannon.cross (the the same person, among which is one in four leaves,

so ? tben more sheam to Tom to let e, whoile he be cross of the Canongate) for twelve pair of lambs' har. entitled The Prince of Tartaria, his voyage to Cowper sitten scratchen head, an lookin at vlies on bacon rigals.”

in Fife,” having for the moito the old popular saying, rack, whoil nothen do e do we pen but twiddle and Amidst the rejoicings for his majesty's coronation, “ He that will to Cowper, will to Cowper.” It is twiddle, tell a be just ready to throw all into vire. I which are chronicled at great lengih, occurs the fola impossible to quote this ducument at length ; indeed, tell e whot, measter, meaking brooms be mortal deal lowing :-"But among all our bontadoes and caprices, the greater part of it is a mere tissue of allegorical better thon meaking werses, vor nauchen do come that of the immortal Jenny Geddes, princesse of the nonsense, and would only be interesting perhaps to

on't.” “Ay, ay, deam! never moind, it be all in good Trone Adventurers, * was most pleasant ; for slie was the good folk of Fife. The account of the races is toime. A must zay e knaw no more about poetry than not only content to assemble all her creels, basquets, concluded in these words :-" This was the last day

a cat do o' an eclipse. Look at whot be wroitlen up creepies (small stools], furmes, and the other ingre of this year's Olympiad at Cowper in Fife, which o' the signpost at John Charnam's out at Warnham. dients that composed the shope of her sallets, radishes, town bas shown well who was their patron by their People stop and read em over and over again ; sum turnips, carrots, spinage, cabbage, with all other sori hospitality to strangers, celebrate in the highest mea. on um do laugh mortally, zo doan't e zay Tom bean't of pot-merchandise that belongs to the garden, but sare. All these sportful recreations were carried on

a poet. A tell e, deam, he ha got the roight sort o' even her weather chair of state, where she used to by a most pleasant harmony, and a behaviour free of stuff in his head, else how cou'd such mortal protty dispense justice to the rest of her lang-kale vassals, all contests and contradictions.”

words all noisely packed up in poetry, come trickling were all very nearly burned, she herself countenan.

out at end o' his pen. Listen, deamcing the action with a high-flown spirit and vermillion

John Charnam doth live here,
OLD AND YOUNG GEDGE.*

To play at cricket I do not fear; majesty.” If tradition were correct in assigning to

Bats and balls he also keeps, this personage the honour of having fung the first Enelish country villages and towns bave their pass.

And welcome every friend I mects. stool at the dean's head in the cathedral of Edinburgh ing subjects for amusement as well as the great city And up t'other soid of signpost there be, (July 23, 1637), on the reading of the obnoxious ser. itself. Practical joking-a dangerous weapon of its

I, John Charnam, vice-book, the loyalty displayed by Jenny on the pre- kind-out-of-door sports, and betting, and the writing With ere a long-legged man in Warham. sent occasion would be the more remarkable. Sir Walter Scott has not only assumed that she was the of quizzical rhymes on a neighbour, form at all times Half-annum, deam, do mean hop, step, an'jump; an' and not the least formidable weapon used in the civil the ability to pen a verse—make lines which will jingle but broom-meaking wull pay the rent; a do tell e thot, identical heroine, but that the famed stool- the first a pretty good staple of entertainment. He who has it be all mortal clever, I must zay that.” “Faugh!”

exclaimed the old woman, “a do knaw that nothing war-was part of the bonfire kiudled in congratula. Lis reckoned at once a poet and a person of no small measter.” And with this home-thrust the debate was tion of a new state of thiuge. But, after all, there seems to be some reason for doubting if she really consequence, one whose acquaintanceship is well worthy usually terminated. of cultivation. Some years ago, while residing for a

After several months had passed in such contenthe gossip,

short period in a village on the borders of the weala tion, a circumstance occurred that brought the old Put the gown upon the bishopin Sussex, we had an opportunity of marking these dame, however reluctant, was compelled to yield. A

man an argument most triumphant, and to which his as Wod row, in his Diary (M$. Advocates' Library),

man named Wilkinson had been for some years a has the following memorandum :-“It is the constantly peculiarities, and of gathering a few particulars rebelieved tradition that it was Mrs Mean, wife to John garding a humble family in which one of these great barber in the town, although originally bred a shoeMean, merchant in Edinburgh, who threw the first versifiers appeared.

maker ; so, as shaving fell off, he took up that of stool when the service.book was read in the New Poor old Matthew Gedge followed the profession of field, the first shoemaker and cobbler in the town;

cobbling. This change gave offence to Mr Scardi. Kirk, 1637, and that many of the lasses that carried

a broom-maker in the weald, and, as we are told, had and young Tom Gedge was requested to write a few on the fray were preachers in disguise, for they threw for years been noted for the excellence of his rude lines, by which the said Wilkinson might be put into stools to a great length.” It is, nevertheless, highly probable that Mrs Geddes took a conspicuous part in wares ; but of this eminence he was much less proud utter insignificance. Tom tried, and received twenty

the Casting o' the Stules," as this great day was than of another cause of supposed distinction, namely, shillings for his production. The poetry not only apcalled, though not perhaps the first to lend a blow, 1 that of having a son who, as he fondly imagined, ex

peared in manuscript, but Scardifield had it painted Samuel Johnson, the pamphleteer, in a tract dated hibited an extraordinary talent for poetry. Nothing

on a large board, and placed over his shop window 1694, distinguishes Jenuy Geddes, the herbwoman, could exceed Mat's delight in chuckling over this

John Scardifield, a man of good renown,

As any in this pretty little town, as the leader in the riot. We must leave to some

Lives here, a cobbler in his stall, more painstaking antiquary the task of clearing up splendid accomplishmentsplendid, for it promised to Who will make or mend shoes with any of them all; this obscure but important point in our history. do great things for the family.

And there is one Tim Wilkinson, who knows

That people do not shave who must have shoes; At this festive time horse-racing was revived in This youth of promise had been christened Tom, So leaves off taking any by the nose, many parts of the country, and, in particular, was prac- because it had been the favourite name in the family

To place bad leather on the people's toes. tised at Leith every Saturday. “Saturday, March 2.

But, ladies and gentlemen, i'll let you into the light, Our accustomed recreations on the sands of Leith was for ages, or ever since old Gedge's great grandfather's

What he puts together in the morn, comes to pieces long before

night. much bindered, because of a furious storm of winde, brother Tom obtained celebrity as a poet under the Such a wonderfully clever effusion produced the deaccompanied with a thick snow ; yet we have bad following circumstances :-A whale that had been sired effect, and the jibes became so grating to Tim some noble gamsters that were so constant at their wounded, perhaps in the North Seas, had wandered Wilkinson, that he applied to young Tom Gedge to sport, as would not forbear a designed horse-match. It was a providence the wind was from the sea ; other into the British Channel, and there attracted the at- write a counteracting poetical show-board forth with. wise they had run a hazard of drowning or splitting tention of several fishermen belonging to the town of endeavoured to win over old Gedge, that his influenco

Tom bummed and hawed so long, that Wilkinson upon Inchkeith. This tempest was nothing inferior Folkstone, in Kent, who were out mackerel.catching with the poetical youth might produce a few lines that to shat which was lately in Caithness, where a bark in their well.constructed boats. The energies of every should annihilate Scardifield outright. This was ra. of fifty ton was blown five furlongs into the land, and man were directed to the capture of the huge mon.

cher an embarrassing affair to the old man, who perwould have gone fariher, if it had not been arrested by the steepness of a large promontory." [!]

ster. They occupied several hours in the endeavour ceived the inconsistency; but he submitted it to his To the gentlemen of the Fife Hunt, it may be inte. to entangle it in their nets, or to force it on the Kent wroiting poetry, but whot meak such a woundy clat

dame, who at once replied, “ Thot's whot curs o' resting intelligence that no place seems to have then ish shore ; but after having in vain employed every ter for? A tell e whot; a think if Tom do set up a been more conspicuous for its races than Cupar. The means that could be devised, in which their strength poetry-shop, a moight as well serve one as t'other wo Mercurius of 1st February contains an advertisement,

his articles, just as 't were we brooms." This was a assuring such gentlemen as designed to frequent the

• This article has been received from a literary gentleman in

clenching argument ; still there was a more powerful England, and we give it a place, not from any merit it possesses,

reason in favour of Tom's undertaking the business. Herbwomen-so called with a reference to their station in the

but from the national characteristics it exhibits, and the amusing Tim offered forty shillings, and therefore it is not sur. High Street of Edinburgh, near the Tron Church. specimen it affords of the Sussex dialect.

prising that he at once agreed to Wilkinson's pro.

Will do half-annum

were

tence.

posal. In the course of the succeeding night, he Mankind continued long to take shelter under | In the numerous Aleutian, or Aleutan, islands of the hammered out the following inimitable lines - ground from the injuries of the seasons or of enemies, North Pacific Ocean, extending in a chain, like the Here lives a shoemaker who people shaved,

before they betook themselves to erect fabrics on its arc of a circle, from Kamtschatka, in Asia, to the proTim Wilkinson his naine. Most well behaved ; He tells John Scardifield, to poze his empty noddle,

surface. The country of Judæa, one of the four re- montory of Alashka, in North America, the savages That henceforth thinking people will refuse

gions into which Canaan or the Holy Land, a part of dwell in subterranean caverns. These abodes under To wear his ill-made boots and worthless shoes,

Asia, was divided, being mountainous and rocky, bas the surface of the ground are so large, and are divided That pinch their toes, or make them liinp and woddle, And sets one's teeth on edge to see them iry to toddle.

every where on its surface numerous caverns, which into so many compartments, that they may well be Two pounds were paid for them by Wilkinson, and

were used as dwellings by the inhabitants of the coun- called subterraneous villages ; for one cavern contains many printed copies were handed about the town; civilisation, they were in the habit of fleeing to them inhabitants.

try. We are told in the Bible that, when advanced to fifty, one hundred, or even one hundred and fifty but it never appeared on a board to compete with its

The tops of these mansions are covered rival over Scardifield's window. Tom's mother's opi.

for shelter from their enemies. During times of trouble, with turf, and are almost on a level with the adjacent nion was found to be correct. She prophesied that in these asylums. In a cave at Mak kedah, the five

not only they themselves, but their goods, lay concealed country; so that, as the turf soon becomes green, they no more fools would be found to commission such

can scarcely be distinguished from the natural surface. stuff, and old Gedge at length softened into silence, shua. In caves the Israelites hid themselves from the in his expedition were crossing a field, the ground

Canaanitish kings thought to hide themselves from Jo. When two officers who accompanied Captain Meares although, till the day of his death, he believed his son

Midianites and Philistines. David, during his exile, suddenly gave way, sinking beneath them; and they to be a prodigy of poetical genius. Tom, having received a few quiet hints regarding the folly of his as

often lodged in caves at Adullam, Engedi, and other found themselves, to the infinite astonishment and pirations, took his mother's advice, and settled down places; and it was in a cave that Elijah lived when alarm of both parties, in the midst of a numerous as a broom-maker, in which occupation he sustained

be tied from Jezebel. But it would be quite unneces- family of the savages, who were busily taken up with the glory of the family, and is now at the head of one

sary to multiply instances of this nature. It appears various domestic occupations.

that these caves of the most thriving families in the weald of Sussex.

were often of great extent; for Cartwright, in the first volume of his Journal of in the sides of the cave of Engedi, David and six Transactions, assures us, that, in the peninsula of

hundred men concealed themselves. And Strabo, Labrador, on the east coast of North America, where THE DWELLINGS OF RUDE NATIONS.

a celebrated Greek author on geography, who died the frost is most intense, he met with a family living ACCORDING to the most accurate accounts of our soon after the Christian era, informs us, that, in in a cavern hollowed, not out of the earth, but out of species, Mau is to be viewed simply as an improveable Arabia, there were caves sufficiently large for hold the snow. This extraordinary habitation was seven savage-a being possessing the most brutal propensities, ing four thousand men. In Africa, a chain of high feet high, and ten or twelve in diameter ; a large piece and naturally so defective in intellectual developement, southern direction, through Egypt, and onwards along lamp was burning, while the inhabitants were lying

of ice was used as a door; and in the snow cavern a that be is hardly elevated in his condition above the

the shore of the Arabian Gull, otherwise named the beasts of the field. Yet he is endowed with a wonder. Red Sea. These mountains are composed of granite, constructed of snow. Similar accounts are given by

on skius. At a short distance was a kitchen, also ful possibility of cultivation. His mind is so susceptible marble, alabaster, and, towards the south, of even Parry of the snow and ice-huts of the Esquimaus. of improvement, that he bas the power of raising softer stone than alabaster. It is an undisputed his. While thns, at every period of the history of the himself to a high pitch of civilisation and social com. torical fact, that, in the earliest ages of the world, a world, the uncivilised tribes of the human race, in fort. We now propose to take him in this character, rude nation of shepherds, called Troglodytæ or Trog- some regions of the earth, are regardless of any shel. and exhibit him in different stages of his progress from lodytes, belonging to Æthiopia, an extensive ancient ter at all from the weather, or are, like foxes, sleeping utter barbarism to refinement. This may be done in country to the south of Egypt, lived in the natural in the crevices of rocks, or are, at best, living in different ways; but it appears to us that both instruc- Bruce, the well-known traveller, describes some of vage natives of other countries covered with wood,

crevices of the rocks on the sides of these mountains. rudely constructed subterranean habitations, the sation and entertainment will in a peculiar degree be this nation of Troglodytes as still remaining in exis. are spending their nights in almost impenetrable afforded, by detailing merely the various descriptions

And although the Nile annually overflowed thickets, or they are sleeping either in the decayed of dwellings he has formed for his convenience and its banks in Egypt, yet, farther up to the south in hollow truuks of trees, or, like monkeys, upon the pleasure, from the rudest kind of but in his unculti- Æthiopia, it was contined in its channel by high and tops of them. vated state, up to the princely palace and temple in rocky banks in the midst of parched and solitary The Bosjesmans or Bushmen, originally a tribe of his era of intelligence and refinement.

deserts ; in these rocky banks, also, the Troglodytes Hottentots inhabiting the interior part of Southern Nothing is so significant of the utter intellectual burrowed. In the course of time, as their country Africa, wander over hills and dales, hunting and darkness of man in his perfectly savage condition, as

furnished very little wood, they learned to make in plandering for a precarious subsistence. Bushes and his ignorance of the art of constructing a shelter for

struments capable of excavating the rocky banks, and, thickets, as well as holes made in the ground and himself against the inclemency of the weather. Such by labour, to enlarge the clefts into spacious caverns, clefts in rocks, serve them in common with the beasts uncivilised nations as have no means of recording which, being considerably elevated above the surface of the field for their habitations. They dwell in de. their ideas by writing or otherwise, and subsist upon

of the Nile, afforded them safe and dry retreats from solate tracts of the plains and almost inaccessible wild fruits and roots of plants, or by hunting, fishing, the sultry heat of the climate ; for, having very few beings, in the most forlorn and abject condition. They

the river, and, at the same time, agreeable ones from parts of the mountains, and are, perhaps, of all human or pasturing cattle, at first, and before they know how to construct the most humble sort of tents or

trees to screen themselves from the scorching rays of no doubt are still so ignorant as to be unable to sell & huts, live at random in the open air, or inhabit the sun at noon-day beating upon their sandy deserts, tree for constructing a cabin to shelter themselves. caves in rocks and under ground : if, however, their

these vaulted caverns of earth and stone, which were The dwelling of one of these Bosjesman Hottentots, country be covered with forests, they shelter them. at first but retreats for a short while during day till who is so fortunate as to have acquired a dwelling, selves for the night in thickets, and in the hollow the heat was abated, in after-times became, by means consists of a small mat of rushes or grass called tongtrunks or in the tops of trees. in this state of rude. of art, capacious and comfortable dwellings. The vale grass, bent between two sticks into a semicircular ness as to shelter from the inclemency of the seasons,

of Ipsica, in Sicily, the largest island in the Mediter. shape over a hollow in the ground, scooped out into they continue for a longer or shorter period, according ranean, affords another similar example of such sub the form of the nest of the ostrich. The mat is about as their climate is favourable for agriculture, or na.

terranean excavations as are supposed to be the oldest three feet high and four feet wide. Within it he lies

human abodes to be seen in existence on the globe at tional character and surrounding circumstances may the present day. This vale has, for eight miles long, drupeds. His house he easily carries about with him

while asleep, coiled up after the manner of most quarender them inclined either for commerce or war. Many of the American tribes, on being first visited

a series of caverns, which, in the earliest times, were on his back. But it ought to be mentioned that tbe by the people of Europe, had advanced so little be inhabited by an uncivilised race of men. But the Namaqua Hottentots, who inhabit the north-western yond the primeval simplicity of nature, that they had

caverns or grottoes, some of which have inhabitants parts of the same division of South Africa, have 63. no houses at all. During the day they sheltered them.

at the present time, are excavated in such shapes as bins which are much superior to those of the Bosjes. selves from the scorching rays of the sun under thick

to bear a nearer resemblance to modern dwellings man Hottentots. They consist of framework of the trees, and at night they formed for themselves a shed than those of Egypt and the adjoining parts of Africa, shape of a complete hemisphere, ten or twelve feet in with their branches and leaves, which they deserted already alluded to: They are divided into apartments, diameter ; and which framework is composed of sticks in the morning, and never thought of it again. In and also into stories, which require ladders for getting bent into semicircles, and the sticks so bent remind the rainy season, they retired into coves, which

up to them; and there are as many separate doors to us of the shape of the couples or framework of a were either natural or hollowed out by their own la.

the fields as there are rooms in a cavern, no one com- modern mansion in a civilised country, and of the bour. The Gauchos, a rude people inhabiting the exmunicating internally, with another. These improve adaptation of this shape in both instances for the pare tensive plains named the Pampas, stretching in a

ments on the original form of the natural crevices, ticular purpose of letting the rain run down. The westerly direction from Buenos Ayres in South Ame- must evidently have been thought of when those in. Namaqua Hottentots have nothing for covering their rica, during summer live unprotected by any sort of habiting them had made considerable advances in framework but matting made of sedge. habitation. They sleep with their whole families in

civilisation ; and Diodorus Siculus of Greece, a uni- In the interior, and among the mountains, of New the open air, wrapped up in the skins of animals. versal historian, who flourished about forty-four years Guinea, a large island in the South Pacific Ocean to They, however, have by this time advanced so far in

before the Christian era, tells us that the Baleares or the north of Australia, is a race of Haraforas, who the scale of civilisation as to be able to construct for Balearians, the ancient inhabitants of the islands of live in trees, which they ascend by the assistance of winter wretched small cabins of mud, with one apart. Majorca and Minorca, which, as well as Sicily, lie in a long pole, serving the purpose of a ladder or stair. ment. Some of the indigenous or native tribes of the

the Mediterranean, lived in subterranean dwellings on case, and it they draw up after them to prevent surinhabitants in Cinaloa, a province of Mexico, border

the sides of rocks and precipices. The ancient Ger- prise during sleep by an enemy. But the Papuans, ing on the Gulf of California in North America, were

mans, also, retreated from the cold of winter into sub. or oriental negroes, in the plains of New Guinea, are

terraneous caves dug out by their own labour, and not so rude a race as these mountaineers or the New formerly among the rudest people either of North or South America. They had no houses. In the rainy cavities were also the repositories of their corn, and upon stages which are raised aloft, and rest upon poles

carefully covered with litter from their cattle. These Hollanders. They have huts made of planks of wood, season, to procure some shelter, they gathered a bundle of strong grass; then binding it together at one

it eluded the search of their enemies while they were generally fixed in the sea. These huts are thus eleend, and opening it at the other, they fitted it to their laying waste their country.

vated above the water for security from the attacks of beads, and they were thus covered as with a large

In the north of Kamtschatka, a large and long the Haraforas sallying down from the mountains, or cap. The cone-shaped bundle of grass answered the peninsula on the east coast of Siberia, which forms other enemies. Each tenement in the water contains purpose of a roof or a penthouse for throwing off the part of Russia in Asia, the rude people make subter- several families, having cabins ranged on each side rain, and it kept them dry for several hours. Reeds months, which, by being under the surface of the rising above the sea from every part of the roof, which

raneous excavations for habitations during the winter of a wide common hall in the middle. The smoke, were sometimes used by them for the same purpose. ground, best retain the heat in that cold region. Some, is composed of slight clumsily joined planks of timber, screen them from the sun, and in cold weather they however, of the dwellings in the north of Kamtschatka and which bas no chimney, gives the marine tene slept in the open air around large fires.

are only half sunk in the earth, and they are covered ment a picturesque appearance. The hall has two All authors agree, ancient as well as modern, that, clay above them for a plaster. And the Esquimaux, land, so that, according to the quarter whence dan

or roofed with the rough branches of trees, and with doors, one towards the sea and another towards the in the infancy of the world, while mankind still remained in their primitive state of barbarism, natural

who dwell at Davis' Straits, and in California, a long ger is threatened, they may betake themselves either caverns, or similar natural covers and retreats, were

peninsula in tbe Pacific Ocean, parallel to the western to their canoes or the woods. This reminds us that, almost the only habitations upon the earth for such

part of the continent of North America, from which by similar instinct in regard to danger, the door of tribes as wished for some sort of shelter.

it is separated by its deep gulf, when they were first the beaver's but is always at a considerable depth Then air with sultry heats began to glow,

visited by Europeans, and long afterwards, used to under the surface of a river, and it is invariably on The wings of winds were elogs'd with ice and snow; pass the whole winter in deep recesses under ground, the side farthest from the land. When disturbed by And shivering mortals, into huuses drivn,

some of which were formed by the hand of nature, its enemies, this creature attempts to escape either by Sought shelter from the inclemency of heav'n :

and some were excavated by themselves; and during swimming with surprising swiftness to a distance Those houses, then, were caves or homely sheds, With twining osiers fenc'd; and moss their beds.

all that time, they never ventured into the open air. ( underneath the water, or rather by betaking itself to

rance.

large vaults excavated at regular distances in the ad-ligion, which is the true source of all sound morality, courage, by the effectual means above mentioned, the jacent banks, to serve as retreats in cases of peril. of all public and private virtue. This building is to sin of drunkenness, the peculiar opprobrium of our

The Abipones, a warlike tribe of Indians dwelling be erected and maintained on the principle of pure people both at home and abroad. • The English on the banks of the La Plata, a great river of South and genuine benevolence, and is intended to conse- workmen in the American factories,' adds Mr KempAmerica, resided, when they were discovered by Eu- crate as much of the piety and charity of this town as ton, are notorious for drunkenness and discontent ropeans, at the tops of trees, for from four to five will supply a succession of gratuitous teachers. Their iguorant expectations generate ill-will and hosmonths in winter, while, during the rains of that sea. feel happy to declare thus publicly the sentiments of tility towards the master, whence arise strikes, which son, their country to an extent of about three hundred the committee, that this building is not to be confined grievously interfere with his commercial operations. miles was inundated by the river. The foliage of the to any sect or party, vor to be under any exclusive For these reasons, they do not like to take English expanded top of a favourite tree, as a roof, afforded direction or influence. Learning is intended to be workmen in the New England factories. There are them some protection from the rain and the wind. In put in its proper place, as the bandmaid of religion ; no jealousies between the American workmen and their a similar manner, the inhabitants on the borders of and whatever human science is taught, is to be ren employers, of the nature of those which appear to prethe Orinoco, which is also a noble river of South dered subservient to this important purpose.'

vail between the English workman and his master.' America, and annually, from April or May till August In the annual report of this admirable institution The good effects of educating and training the inor September, inundates its banks to a great height, for 1833, the committee state, that, since its com. fant poor are well exemplified in some of the factory have been found by travellers visiting them to be liv. mencement, the names of 40,850 scholars have been villages. In the township of Turton, two miles from ing safe from the foods and at ease in very neatly inscribed on our registers, a considerable part of Egerton, already

mentioned, there is a charity school constructed buts upon the tops of the adjacent fan whom have received a moral and religious education in which ten or iwelve boys are boarded and educated. leaved palms. This is more particularly the case within our walls. Part of the fruit of these pious This privilege has been enjoyed for nearly a century where the branches of the river form what geogra- labours is already reaped in a temporal point of view, and a half. Henry Ashworth, Esq., proprietor of the phers call a delta, by enclosing a three-cornered piece in the general decorum that pervades this town and cotton-mills of Turton and Egerton, states that he has of land, for the water there overtops the numerous neighbourhood, and the regard for the liberties, lives, heard it remarked, that during the recollection of the islands. The inhabitants, nestling in the trees, are and properties of others, evinced by the Stockport oldest officers and residents of the township, only two. surrounded by a boundless expanse of waters, the population at a period of political excitement, in which instances were known where the persons who had been plains being inundated for eighty or ninety miles on they were too much disregarded at other places. The educated under this privilege had received parochial each side of the river during the rainy season. Even well-judged liberality of the public has now made relief. One of these never could learn his alphabet, at the distance of about thirteen hundred miles from Sunday-schools so numerous in our borders, that it is and was, in fact, a kind of half idiot. In the other the ocean, the rise is about thirteen fathoms. The bardly possible to approach the town of Stockport in case, relief was claimed only in extreme old age, and huts or hammocks are made with netting of the fibres any direction, without encountering one or more of when the family of the pauper had deserted him. The of the leaves of the fan-leaved palm, and are partly these quiet fortresses, which a wise benevolence has children were all of the labouring classes, and were lined with mud. On these hanging floors the women erected against the encroachments of vice and igno- annually selected by the guardians of the poor. The light their fires and cook their vegetable repasts. The

The advocates of general education hear no Messrs Ashworth, deeply impressed with the above tree to which each family is attached furnishes all the more of the danger of educating the lowest classes ; on results, of training up children in the way they should nourishment which they receive. The pith of the the contrary, the necessity of doing so is generally go, have introduced into their establishments infant fan-leaved palm, which resembles sago, is baked into insisted upon the people are extravagantly compli. schools, under the care of young females of superior thin cakes, and its fruits, in the different stages of mented upon the proficiency they have already made, habits.' In such seminaries they are sure that the their progress, afford no inconsiderable variety of excel. and appear to be in as much danger of suffering from children learn to be obedient and orderly, and to lent food. In Sumatra, one of the largest of the East the effects of artful and injudicious flattery, as they restrain their passions ; and they are equally sure that, India islands, protection from wild beasts is one of the have done in times past from the unnatural neglect in a large proportion of cases, it is not so at their own chief concerns of the natives in the construction of with which they have been treated.'

homes. At two schools connected with their two their rude dwellings. The detached buildings scattered When I visited this school a few months ago, there works, and at another school supported by Messrs over the country are raised ten or twelve feet from were from 4000 to 5000 young people profiting by the Ashworth and others jointly, one hundred and fifty the ground for security against the tigers, which there instructions administered by 400 teachers, distributed children, from three to nine years of age, have had for are both large and ferocious.

into proper classes, and arranged in upwards of forty many years the benefits of education, with the happiest We shall in another paper proceed to describe the school-rooms, besides the grand ball in the top of the consequences. The mule-spinners, even the most rude character of the tents and huts which mankind com- building. I witnessed the very gratifying sight of and uneducated, and who do not make very nice dismenced to erect in one of their more advanced stages. about 1500 boys, and as many girls, regularly seated tinctions, always prefer children who have been edu

upon separate benches, the one set on the right side, cated at an infant school, as they are most obedient

and the other on the left. They were becomingly and docile. Such children are bespoke beforehand by SCHOOLS IN THE FACTORY DISTRICTS.

attired, decorous in deportment, and of healthy, even While the peasantry of England are for the most blooming complexions. Their hymn-singing thrilled the most pointed way in which the effects of these in

the workmen, who engage their own piecers. This is part unhappily brought up in a perfectly uneducated through the heart like the festival chorus of West; fant

schools have appeared ; and it is a most unequicondition, the children of the factory towns and vil. minster. The organ, which was excellent, was well vocal proof of their usefulness, equally pleasing to the lages, notwithstanding the closeness of their applica. played by a young man who had lately been a piecer parents and the patrons. Other characteristics will tion, generally possess the elements of education, such in the spinning-factory of the gentleman who kindly doubtless be manifested as the children agrow up.

Animated with a moral population, our factories as reading and writing and the first principles of re. In visiting the several school-rooms, I observed will flourish in expanding fruitfulness, for they possess ligion and morality. It appears that much of this that each subordinate teacher usually concentrated his deeper and more extensive roots than is commonly good, in the absence of parish schools, has been ef. attention to one bench of children, about ten or twelve conceived, even by many of the manufacturers them fected by means of Sunday-schools and other philan. mind in contact, so to speak, with the mind of each, vent all despondent misgivings. Indeed, I met with

in number ; whereby he was enabled to place his selves; a fact which, if well considered, should pre. thropic establishments, planted and upreared chiefly and thus remarkably to facilitate their acquisition of only a few individuals who feared foreign competition, by the work-people themselves, unaided by opulence, knowledge. The proficiency, made by some of them and these were gentlemen little versant in mechani. and unpatronised by power. “It is a sublime spec- in learning, from Sunday teaching alone, is truly won. cal science, and of narrow views in political economy." tacle (says Dr Ure)* to witness crowds of factory derful, and indicates a zeal in the gratuitous instrucchildren arranged in a Sunday school. I would ex.

tors, and a docility in the pupils, alike laudable. hort the friends of humanity, who may chance to The unrivalled growth of the factory establishments

SINGLE LADIES IN INDIA. of Stockport, which work up now, it is said, as much | The greatest drawback upon the chances of happi. pass through Cheshire or Lancashire, not to miss a

cotton as those of Manchester, may be fairly ascribed, ness in an Indian marriage, exists in the sort of compul. Sunday's visit to the busy town of Stockport, which in no small measure, to the intelligence and probity of sion sometimes used to effect the consent of a lady. joins these two counties. It contains 67 factories, in the recent race of operatives trained up in the nurture Many young women in India are almost homeless ; which 21,489 operatives of all ages are employed com- of its Sunday-schools.

their parents or friends have no means of providing for fortably for their families.

The neglect of moral discipline may be readily de them except by a matrimonial establishment; they The Sunday-school of this place was erected by the tected in any establishment by a practised eye, in the feel that they are burdens upon families who can iỉ voluntary contributions, chiefly of mill.owners, in disorder of the general system, the irregularities of the afford to support them, and they do not consider the year 1805. It is a large, plain, lofty building, individual machines, the waste of time and material themselves at liberty to refuse an offer, although which cost L. 10,000, having a magnificent hall for from the broken and pieced yarns. The master the person proposing may not be particularly agreegeneral examinations and public worship on the up- meanwhile may lose his temper on finding that his able to them. There cannot, indeed, be a more permost story, capable of accommodating nearly 3000 indulgence of the

vices of his men is requited by in. wretched situation than that of a young woman who persons, besides

upwards of forty comfortable apart difference to his interests ; since he never doubts but has been induced to follow the fortunes of a married ments for the male and female schools, committee and that the payment of wages gives him a claim to their sister, under the delusive expectation that she will library rooms, on the other floors. On the 16th of zealous services, however indifferent he may show exchange the privations attached to limited means in June in the above year, the committee, teachers, and himself to be to their vital interests. It is therefore England for the far-famed luxuries of the East. The children of the then existing Sunday-schools, assem.

as much for the advantage, as it is the duty, of every husband is usually desirous to lessen the regret of his bled on the elevated site of the new building, to cele- factory proprietor, to observe, in reference to his wife at quitting her home, by persuading an affection. brate, in a solemn manner, the commencement of this operatives, the divine injunction of loving his neigh- ate relative to accompany her, and does not calculate noble enterprise, the foundation-stone having been bours as himself; for in so doing he will cause a new beforehand the expense and inconvenience which he laid the evening before. Many thousand inhabitants life to circulate through every vein of industry. has entailed upon himself by the additional burden. of the town and neighbourhood having joined them, It appears that the artizans of the United States Soon after their arrival in India, the family, in all the whole multitude raised their voices in a hymn of are treated on this principle, and they are accordingly probability, have to travel to an up-country station ; praise to the Father of Light

and Life, in which they declared to be more moral than the agricultural po- and here the poor girl's troubles begin. She is thrust were accompanied by a full band of music. The pulation. At our establishment, says our authority, into an outer cabin in a budgerow, or into an inner treasurer then pronounced a solemn prayer, dedicat Mr Kempton, the proprietors (deeply sensible of room in a tent; she makes perhaps a third in a ing the intended edifice to God, and imploring his the value of religious nurture) paid the greater part buggy, and finds herself

always in the way; she disblessing on its objects. In a concluding address he of the minister's salary after building a meeting.house; covers that she is a source of continual expense ; that said, our meeting together this day on this spot has and they frequently officiated themselves at the evening an additional person in a family imposes the neces. nothing in it of parade or show nothing that can meetings, which were well attended. We would not sity of keeping several additional servants, and where allure the eye by its splendour, or beguile the imagi. keep any workers that would drink spirits, nor did there is not a close carriage she must remain a pri. nation by its pomp. It is nevertheless of the highest they at other establishments. Almost all of them

soner. She cannot walk out beyond the garden or importance, to the rising generation, to the town of belong to temperance societies

. In the New England the verandah ; and all the out-of-door recreations in Stock port, and as far as its influence extends, to the States, no man will get employment who is known to which she may have been accustomed to indulge in at nation. We meet to erect a perpetual standard drink. In America, the employer is viewed rather as home are denied ter. Tending flowers, that truly against ignorance and vice, to confirm and render a tradesman to whom the work-people dispose of their feminine employment, is an utter impossibility; the permanent an establishment intended to train up the labour, than as a person having a hostile interest

. garden may be full of plants (which she has only seen children of this town in knowledge and virtue. The manufacturers are always anxious that the child in their exotic state) in all the abundance and beauty

"We expect thousands of children will here be dren should be well educated, as they find them so of native luxuriance, but except before the sun bas taught not only the grounds of human science, but much the more useful and trustworthy.

risen, or after it has set, they are not to be approached; the first principles of the Christian religion ; that re- I hope the mother-country will not disdain to take and even then, the frame is too completely ener

a word of advice from her meritorious daughter, and vated by the climate to admit of those little pleasing Philosophy of Manufactures, p. 408. Knight, London. that the mill-owners of Old England will study to dis- | labours, which render the greenhouse and the parterre

99

STORY OF THE FARMER AND THE SOLDIER.

80 interesting. She may be condemned to a long me. tired to rest, had now laid down in the deeper sleep gave me. God grant that it may be purified by re. lancholy sojourn at some out-station, offering little so. of the grave. They were pious, and among the little pentance, before I am summoned to the dread bar of ciety, and none to her taste. If she should be musical, circle of their native village, their memory was held judgment." so much the worse; the hot winds have split her piano in sweet remembrance.

His friends flattered themselves, that by medical skill and her guitar, or the former is in a wretched condi. In the same chairs which they used to occupy, were and nursing, he might eventually be restored to health. tion, and there is nobody to tune it; the white ants seated their eldest son and his wise. A babe lay in the But he said, “ It can never be. My vital energies are have demolished her music-books, and new ones are cradle, and two otber little ones breathed sweetly from wasted." not to be had. Drawing offers a better resource, but their trundle-bed, in the quiet sleep of childhood.

Brother,"

,” he would say, "you have been a man of it is often suspended from want of materials ; and A blast with snow came against the casement. “I peace. In the quiet occupations of husbandry, you needle.work is not suited to the climate. Her brother always think,” said John, “ a great deal about my poor have served God, and loved your neighbour." You and sister are domestic, and do not sympathise in her brother, at this season of the year, and especially in bave been merciful to the animal creation.

You ennui ; they either see little company, or invite guests stormy nights. But it is now so many years since have taken the fleece and saved the sheep alive. But merely with a view to be quit of an incumbrance. If we have heard from him, and his way of life exposed I bave wantonly defaced the image of God, and the few young men who may be at the station should him to so much danger, that I fear we have strong stopped that breath which I never can restore. You pot entertain matrimonial views, they will be shy reason to believe him dead.”—“What a pity," replied bave taken the honey, and preserved the labouring of their attention to a single woman, lest expectations the wife, “that he would be a soldier !"

bee. But I have destroyed man and his habitation, should be formed which they are not inclined to fulfil. A faint knocking was heard at the door. It was burned the hive, and spilled the honey on the ground. It is dangerous to hand a disengaged lady too often to opened, and a man entered wearily, and leaning upon You cannot imagine how bitter is now my sorrow for table ; for though no conversation may take place be. crutches. His clothes were thin and tattered, and his the performance of such abominations." tween the parties, the gentleman's silence is attributed countenance haggard. They reached him a chair, He declined rapidly. Death came on with hasty to want of courage to speak, and the offer, if not forth and he sank into it. He gazed earnestly on each of strides. Laying his cold hand upon the head of the coming, is inferred. A determined Airt may certainly their faces, then on the sleeping children ; and then eldest little boy, who had been much around his bed succeed in drawing a train of adınirers around her; on every article of furniture, as on some recollected in his sickness, he said, “Dear John, never be a but such exhibitions are not common; and where friend. Stretching out his withered arms, he said in soldier. Sister-Brother-you have been as angels ladies are exceedingly scarce, they are sometimes sub. a tone scarcely audible, “ Brother Brother!” The of mercy to me. The blessing of the God of peace ject to very extraordinary instances of neglect. These sound of that voice opened the tender remembrances abide with you and upon your house." are sufficiently frequent to be designated by a peculiar of many years. They bastened to welcome the wan. So saying, be expired. Such was the concluding pbrase; the wife or sister who may be obliged to ac- derer, and to mingle their tears with his.

scene in the life of a being who had fondly anticipated cept a relative's arm, or walk alone, is said to be “ Brother, Sister, I have come home to you, to die.” | in the soldier's career nothing but splendour and un. “ wrecked :" and perhaps an undue degree of appre- He was too much exhausted to converse, and they fading glory. heusion is entertained upon the subject-a mark of exerted themselves to prepare him fitting nourishrudeness of this nature reflecting more discredit uponment, and to make him comfortable for the night.

GAME.-That game may be injurious to the farmer, the persons who can be guilty of it, than upon those The next morning he was unable to rise. They sat

cannot be denied; but that a much greater outcry is subjected to the affront. Few young women, who by his bed, and soothed his worn heart with kindness,

raised concerning it than a deliberate investigation have accompanied their married sisters to India, pos- and told him the simple narrative of all that had be.

would justify, is equally incontestible; nor have I the sess the means of returning home; however strong fallen them in their quiet abode. their dislike may be to the country, their lot is cast in “Among all my troubles,” said he, “and I bave had least hesitation in now asserting that partridges, how. is, and they must remain in a state of miserable de many, none has so bowed me down, as my sin in leaving rather than injuriolis to the cultivator of the land.

ever numerous they may be, will be found beneficial pendence, with the danger of being left unprovided home without the knowledge of my parents, to become

In the first place, let us inquire what constitutes the for before them, until they shall be rescued from this a soldier, when I knew it was against their will. I distressing situation by an offer of marriage. – Miss have felt the pain of wounds, but there is nothing like food of these beautiful birds. Why, ants' eggs, in. Roverls's Scenes and Characteristics of Hindustan. the sting of conscience. When I have laiu perishing sects of all kinds, and occasionally a few blades of

with hunger, and parching with thirst, a prisoner in grass, the last taken medicinally as it were, in the the enemy's hands, the image of my home, and of my mestic poultry. Young partridges never touch grain

same way as we see blades of grasz swallowed by do. Column for the Boys.

ingratitude, would be with me, when I lay down, and
when I rose up. I would think I saw my mother the arrival of autumn, when their supply of insecí

till they bave nearly attained maturity—till, in fact, Boys are apt to form very ridiculous notions regard- bending tenderly over me, as she used to do when I ing the splendour and delights of a soldier's life, had only a headache ; and my father with the Bible food failing, they pick up the

grains scattered amongst which, instead of being one of happiness, as they in his hand, out of which he read to us in the evening, applied to the pheasant, with this difference, however, imagine, is perhaps the most miserable in the world. before his prayer but when I have stretched out my that these birds will scratch up the newly-sown wheat; While the youth of genius and industry is rising in called thy son,' I would awake, and it was all a dream.

if not prevented, which may be regarded as tbe ex. the pursuit of his peaceful and honourable occupations, But there would be the memory of my disobedience ;

tent of their depredations.-Sportsman and Velerinary

Recorder. how often is his thoughtless early companion, who has and how bitterly have I wept to think that the child

THE CHILDREN OF THE POOR.-Of all qualities, a embraced the career of a soldier's life, spending his of so many peaceful precepts bad become a man of blood !”

sweet temper is perhaps the one least cultivated in best years in the listlessness of an unidea'd range of duty, becoming old in doing nothing, and only pre- forgiveness of his parents, and that daily and nightly

His brother hastened to assure him of the perfect the lower ranks of life. The peculiar disposition is

not watched ; care is not taken to distinguish between paring for himself, most likely, a painful conclusion he was mentioned in their supplications as their loved,

the passionate child, the sulky, the obstinate, and the to a valueless existence! Boys who are not aware of and absent, and erring one.

timid. The children of the poor are allowed a latitude the sufferings which often accompany the soldier's

As his strength permitted, he told them the story

of spee

unknown among the higher orders, and career, may possibly profit by the perusal of the fol- of his wanderings and his sufferings. He had been they are free from the salutary restraint imposed by

what is termed " He had heard the

company.” When in the enjoyment lowing little story, written by Mrs Sigourney, an deep ocean echo with the thunders of war, and seen the of full bealth and strength, the ungoverned temper of American authoress :earth drink in the strange, red shower from mangled

the poor is one of their most striking faults, while It was a cold evening in winter. A lamp cast its and palpitating bosons. He had stood in the martial bodily, is the point of all others in which the rich

their resignation under affliction, wherber mental or cheerful ray from the window of a small farm-house, lists of Enrope, and jeoparded bis life for a foreign mighè'with advantage study to imitate them. Tales in one of the villages of New England. A fire was power, and be bad pursued in his own land the hunted burning brightly on the hearth, and two brothers sat | Indian, Aying at midnight from his flaming hut. He

of the Peerage and the Peasantry. Several school books lay by them on the had gone with the bravest, where dangers thickened,

SMELLIE's PuilosOPHY OF NATURAL HISTORY. table, from which they had been studying their lessons and had sought in every place for the glory of war, but In reference to a late leading article on Literary Re. for the next day. Their parents had retired to rest, had found only misery.

munerations, it may be mentioned, as a very remark. and the boys were conversing earnestly. The youngest, " That glory which dazzled me in my days of boy- able instance of liberality on the part of a book seller, who was about thirteen, said, “ John, I mean to be hood, and which I supposed was always the reward of that, in 1786, when “the trade" was less accustomed a soldier.” “Why so, James ?” “I have been read. the brave, continually eluded me. It is reserved for than now to extensive transactions, and wben in Scoting the life of Alexander of Macedon, and also a good the successful leaders of armies. They alone are the

land, more particularly, there was little diaposition to deal about Napoleon Bonaparte. I think they were heroes, while the poor soldiers, by whose toil the

encourage literary men by high rewards, Mr Charles the greatest men that ever lived. There is nothing victories are won, endure the hardship, that others may

Elliot, of the Parliament Square, Edinburgh, barin this world like the glory of the warrior." reap the fame. Yet how light is all the boasted glory

gained with Mr Smellie, the eminent naturalist, for a “ It does not seem to me glorious, to do so much which was ever obtained by the greatest commander,

quarto volume of six hundred pages, under the title harm. To destroy multitudes of innocent men, and compared with the good that he forfeits, and the sorrow

of the Philosophy of Natural History, at one thousand to make such mourning in families, and so much po. that he inflicts, in order to obtain it !

guineas for the first edition, and fifty for every subseverty and misery in the world, is more cruel than Sometimes, when we were ready for a battle, and

quent impression ; probably the largest payment reglorious." just before we rushed into it, I have felt a fearful

latively that had then been made for literary copyright. “Oh, but then, John, to be so honoured, and to have shuddering, an inexpressible horror at the thought of 80 many soldiers under your command, and the fame butchering my fellow.creatures. But in the heat of THE “HERO IN HUMBLE LIFE.” of such mighty victories what glory is there to be contest, such feelings vanished, and the madness and The following sums bave been received since the 8th compared with this ?".

desperation of a demon possessed me. I cared neither of July, for James Maxwell, the individual mentioned “James, our good minister told us in his sermon for heaven nor hell.

under the fictitious name of Cochrane, in the article eslast Sunday, that the end of life was the test of its good. You, who dwell in the midst of the influences of titled “ A Hero in Humble Life," and transmitted to ness. Now, Alexander, that you call the great, got mercy, and shrink to give pain even to an animal, can him as an additional tribute of respect for his merits. intoxicated, and died like a madman; and Napoleon hardly imagine what hardness of heart comes with the

LO 10 0 was imprisoned on a desolate island, like a chained life of a soldier. Deeds of cruelty are always before

T. A., London

100 wild beast, for all the world to gaze and wonder at. him, and he heeds neither the sufferings of the starv.

A Lady, Strangeways, Manchester

Various individuals in London, as per list It was as necessary that he should be contined, as that ing infant, nor the groans of its dying mother.

Marianne, London a ferocious monster should be put in a cage.”

Miss Maxwell Of my own varieties of pain, I will not speak. Yet John, your ideas are very limited. You are not when I have lain on the field of battle, and unable to capable of adıniring heroes. You are just fit to be a move froin among the feet of trampling horses, when

Waterloo Place, Edinburgh, Aug. 26, 1835. farmer. I dare say that to break a pair of steers is my wounds stiffened in the chilly night-air, and no your highest ambition, and to spend your days in man cared for my soul, I have thought it no more than LONDON: Published, with permission of the Proprietors, by One ploughing and reaping, would be glory enough for just, since my own hand had dealt the same violence

& SMITH, Paternoster Row; and sold by G. BERGKR, Hoiy.

well Street, Strand; BANCKS & Co., Manchester; WROHTSOX you.'

to others, perhaps inflicted even keener anguish than & WEBB, Birmingham: WILLMER & SMITH, Liverpool; W. The voice of their father was now heard, calling, that wbich was appointed to me. :

E. SOMERSCALE, Leeds; C. N. WRIGYT, Nottinghamn ; N. “Boys, go to bed.” So ended their conversation for

BINGHAM, Bristol ; $. SIMMS, Bath; C. GAIN, Exeter; J. PU

But the greatest evil of a soldier's life is not the that night.

DON, Hull; A. WHITTAKER, Sheffield; H. BELLERBY, York; hardship to wbich he is exposed, or the wounds he J. TAYLOR,,Brighton; GBORG: Youno, Dublin; and all othet Fifteen years passed away, and the same season may sustain, but the sin with which he is surrounded Booksellers and Newsmen in Great Britain and Ireland, Canada, again returned. From the same window a bright lamp and made familiar. Oaths, imprecations, and contempt

Nova Scotia, and United States of America.

Complete sets of the work from its commencement, or num gleamed, and on the same bearth was a cheerful fire. of every thing sacred, are the elements of his trade. bers to complete sets, may at all times be obtained from the Pub The building seemed unaltered, but among its inmates In this hardened career, though I exerted myself to

lishers or their Agents. there were changes. The parents who had then re- l appear bold and courageous, my heart constantly mis

Stereotyped by A. Kirkwood, Edinburgh.
Printed by Bradbury and Evans (late T. Davison), Whitefriara

near it.

1

Misses Douglas

2 10 0 1 0 0 0 10 ຜູ້

L.5 12

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