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affair, 80 far as we are acquainted with it, concludes set is dark, the other burnished. The dark set is breaking of coals in the grates by the servants, and by a minute of the bailie, of date the 18th of January: fixed on during winter, and the other set put up in its that the boiler would therefore soon be destroyed.

_" The defender appearing and craving to be allowed stead for show during summer-a plan which people The experience of several years demonstrates the de-
to prove that he uses his wife civilly and in the ordi. of taste may prefer. When the tireplace is placed | lusiveness of such an objection. In this, as in a thou.
nary way, the baillie allows him till to-morrow for low, it has sometimes a belt of brass beneath the bars, sand other details, the comfort of families is made to
doing the same; with certification, if he failed, he to correspond with the brass on the sides. This belt, suffer through the grand palliatory excuse for adher.
would not only remitt the scandalous part to be pu. however, very commonly extends so low that a brush ing to old usages, “It can't be done."
nished by the kirk-session, but otherwise fine and cannot be conveniently got under it to sweep out the
amerciate him, as he should see cause.

ashes. In such cases, there ought to be a moveable
box for the ashes to drop into.

THE ANCIENT EMPIRES OF MEXICO AND
The best kind of fenders are those made of stout

PERU. HINTS ABOUT HOUSE-FURNISHING. cast-iron. Fenders of the most tasteful pacterns and THE most of our readers are probably aware that there A NUMBER of years ago, when I took up housekeep-construction are now manufactured of this material, are five varieties of the human race, one of which is ing, I had a great many things to buy in the way of and are greatly preferable to those of brass, besides contined to the American continent. When the furniture, and among the rest, those indispensable it be of open work; when of one piece, the heat is Europeans, at the end of the fifteenth and beginning articles, room and kitchen grates. After visiting va.

of the sixteenth centuries, first became acquainted with prevented from coming to the feet. rious tradesmen's establishments, purchasing carpets Such is now the taste displayed by our ironmongers, the people of that part of the world, they found them at one, brushes at another, other articles at a third, that you are less likely to be furnished with badly living as savages in all except two comparatively small and so on, I at last came to the ironmonger's. “1 constructed or inelegant room grates, than of fire- districts, where an advance had been made from the

The people of Scotland are barbarous mode of life. One of these regions, denowish to look at some grates," said I to the shopman, very far behind their neighbours the English as re. minated Mexico, was a country of considerable extent “ This way, sir,” said he ; “bere are some capital spects cooking apparatus. The very finest houses in in the centre of the southern part of North America : articles the most fashionable in town—all of the very Edinburgh are furnished with a kind of kitchen grates the other, Peru, was a narrow country stretching best materials,” and so forth. I looked about me. i which must have been disused in the south for at was in a great room, filled up to the roof with grates the component parts of the grates and cooking appaleast a century. This is a very curious fact, because along the western coast of South America, at such å

distance from Mexico, as, in combination with other of brass and iron and steel, all glittering like gola ratus of the English are chiefly made at Carron, in circumstances, rendered it improbable that any com. (ind silver.

Scotland. The prevailing error in the construction of munication had ever taken place between them. If “ How beautiful!" said I to the smiling attendant; the Scotch kitchen grates is their unnecessary large- we could suppose that the light of civilisation bad “ really every thing is here quite fine and dazzling. ness. Those in common use in families of the middle broken out in these two countries through the un.

and higher orders would hold a hundredweight of aided efficacy of the mental powers of the natives, I am afraid it will be almost impossible for me to

coal. They are vast in their dimensions, require a make a selection from such a splendid stock of wares. mass of building to support them, and are generally they would naturally become objects of great interest,

as it would be curious to trace the direction which the Pray be so good as point out what you, who know kept choked up with ashes. Had Count Rumford best, think most suitable for my purpose-bere are seen them, he must have swooned away from grief human mind had taken under such circumstances, the measurements."

and astonishment. I was so unfortunate as to pur. and to compare all its manifestations with those which

chase one of these huge unmeaning things, but it was had been exbibited amongst the Asiatic and European I said this, because I knew nothing of the requisites not long before I was glad to turn it out of the house

. communities. But, even supposing that the means of of grates. What could I know ?-nobody had ever It would have required a coal pit for its own especial intellectual advancement were borrowed from the Old told me, no book had ever informed me, of any thing consumption.

World, the two countries in question exhibited it in a on the subject. I was like a thousand other

young

A good kitchen range should possess the following men under such circumstances. I had a house to indispensable qualifications :- It should require little stage of its progress with which we are so little ac

fuel in cooking ; should be able to roast, boil

, and quainted, that an account of the appearances which furnish, and all that troubled me was the desire to dress a number of dishes at the same time; and should

they presented to Europeans on their first discovery, furnish it like the houses of my neighbours-“every at all times, by night and by day, possess plenty of is one of the most interesting chapters of human his. thing good and respectable," was the principal con. hot water. I sought far and wide before I saw such tory.

The consequence of this ignorance or careless. a grate as possessed these properties. However, I When Hernando Cortes, in 1519, invaded the Mexi. ness was, that I purchased grates at a very high price, Kenuington Lane, a long wide suburban street near fell in with it at last. While one day sauntering down can territory, he found it in much the same state as

that in which some of the Eastern empires appear to which experience has proved to possess many faults Vauxhall, in the vicinity of London, I chanced to have been about a thousand or tifteen hundred years productive of serious discomfort. In order to prevent notice an ironmongery establishment, with an exhi. before Christ. In a city of considerable magnificence, persons furnishing houses from falling into the same bition of grates of all kinds at the door. Among these, in a central part of the country, reigned a monarch, error, I shall take the liberty of offering a few simple on examination, I detected the thing I stood in need who possessed a despotic authority over dominions

of, and forth with made it my own. advices.

stretching in every direction from twenty to forty

Experience has proved the very great superiority leagues, with a less degree of influence over a nuore First, as regards room grates. Have nothing to of the article I mention; and I most sincerely recom. remote range of territory, and who, in personal pomp, do with grates or stoves faced with scoured iron or mend not only persons furnishing houses, but those rivalled the famous sovereigns of Babylonia and steel. I have two reasons for giving you this warn.

already in possession of old-fashioned kitchen ranges, Egypt. The people, living partly in large towns and ing. The cleaning of such grates requires a large ing: in fuel will soon remunerate them for the outlay.

to procure grates of the like construction, as the sav. partly distributed over the country, were chiefly em. portion of time every morning, during the fire-burn.

ployed in agriculture, but also exercised their ingenu. The nature and qualifications of this excellent piece ity in the arts of the mason, the weaver, the goldsmith, ing season, on the part of the housemaid, and this in of mechanism are these: It is altogether composed of the painter, and some others, to which individuals small families is a serious annoyance. Besides, there plates of cast-iron nailed together, and requires very were regularly educated. They were not acquainted are few servants who will take pains, or who possess little building. It measures three feet three inches with the means of fabricating tools of metal, nor did the taste, to clean the cleared part as it ought to be.

and a balf in length, eighteen inches from front to they possess any knowledge of letters, or of money;

back, and two feet two inches in height. At one end but a native ingenuity, peculiar to the race, did much In performing this operation, the rubbing must be all is an oven for baking, and at the other a boiler. In to compensate the first of these wants, and they were one way, either straight across or straight up and the centre is a fireplace, measuring fifteen inches in evidently going through the stages immediately pre. down, in order to preserve the fine lines on the metal. length. The oven is heated, not by a separately liminary to the discovery of the two grand media of If the rubbing be done, as usual, on the “any way" kindled fire, but by some of the burning embers being intellectual and commercial intercourse. principle, the brightness becomes dimmed and marked pushed in below it from the central fireplace. The

The knowledge of their own history, which they de. central fire also heats and keeps boiling the water in rived partly from tradition and partly from rude paint. with cloudy streaks, and is in that condition most of the boiler. This boiler has more than one side pre- ings by which they were accustomed to commemorate fensive to the eye. Reason second is, that steel-faced sented to the fire ; it extends all round the back of events, represented the country as originally peopled by grates, during moist weather in summer, are exceed. the fireplace like a square tube, presenting a large tribes resembling the savages in other parts of America. ingly liable to rust. Unless continually examined surface to the fire; and the water is therefore kept About a period corresponding to the beginning of the and scoured, they become dull and rusty, as it is na.

hot even while a very small quantity of fuel is in the tenth century of our era, several tribes came from un.

grate. The top of the boiler at side and back, and known regions towards the north and north-west, and tural they should, and are thus a standing pest to the also the oven, are perfectly flat, so that the whole began to train the original inhabitants to the arts of housewife who has no relish for incessant scrubbing. upper surface answers the purpose of a hot plate. I social life. At length, about the end of the twelfth

The next thing I have to observe of room grates is, have said the fireplace is fifteen inches in length, but century, the Aztecs, a more polished people than any that you should select those in preference which are

this extent can be diminished by a moveable division of the former, advanced from the border of the Cali.

and hob. From beneath the grate, a grated shelf can wholly faced with dark cast-iron of a neat pattern,

fornian gulf, and took possession of the plains near be pulled out to rest dishes upon. Thus, the whole the centre of the country, where they founded the city and, at most, having only a stripe of burnished brass is of a compact nature, full of conveniences. Such a of Mexico. For several ages they were governed in along the top and down each side. It is no doubt grate roasts meat in front, bakes a dish in the oven, peace and conducted in war by such as were entitled difficult to keep the brass clean at the angles next the boils a saucepan on the tire, keeps simmering at least to pre-eminence by their wisdom and valour; but an bars; but this is a simple matter in comparison with other three vessels, all at the same time, while the fire elective monarchy was at last framed, which, at the time cleaning bright iron or steel fronts. Whatever de in the large unthrifty grates in common use in this and thirty years. Originally the power of the sove

employed is only about half what is usually consumed when the Spaniards arrived, had existed a hundred scription of grates you purchase, let them be all of the country. Besides furthering these various operations, reign was 'limited by regulations favourable to the register kind, and examine them to see that the re- the boiler has always a store of hot water, which all liberties of the people ; but Montezuma, the monarch gistering process works well, and will exclude back good housewives know to be a most valuable com. who reigned at the time just mentioned, had made smoke. If the lid do not shut perfectly close, or if washing. The life of an infant may often be saved tism.

modity, whether for culinary purposes, bathing, or considerable progress in establishing a pure despo. there be any aperture in any part of the grate, your by having plenty of hot water to bathe it.

In the empire thus established, law and religion rooms during summer will frequently have a smell of Grates like that which I describe may be purchased existed under distinct and acknowledged forms, and 800t and smoke. I have remarked that the fireplace from any ironmonger in London for about five pounds distinctions of rank and rights of property were fully in dining and drawing-room stoves is sometimes placed each. Smaller ones, called cottage ranges, may be got recognised. The great body of the people, composed too high, which leads to discomfort in winter; for the But the kind I mention are the best for all families tants, were, like similar races in the older continent,

cheaper, and likewise larger ones at a higher cost. probably of the descendants of the original inhabi. heat by that means lies up the chimney, instead of in the middle ranks of life who do not require a great in a most degraded condition, some being attached to being sent into the room or down upon your hearth. deal of couking. Possibly they may be obrained in the soil like slaves, and deemed of so little account See that this is not the case with your grates ; and Scotland, although I have never seen any exhibited that to kill them was held no crime. Another por. take care also that the bars are not too wide, other.

for sale ; and I was informed in London that they are tion of the people were freemen, and even they were wise the place beneath will be constantly disfigured have heard such grates objected to by Scotch iron body of nobles, about three thousand in number, pos

cast at Carron principally for the London market. 1 treated with little respect by the upper classes. A with ashes and burning embers. In London, parlour mongers, but for the very singular reason, that, hav. sessed of ample estates, and invested with titles of grates can be bought with a double set of bars. One ing cast-iron backs, they could not endure the furious | honour, some of which were connected with particu.

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lar oftices, were the next in rank; and between these to the people ; but it was wonderful to what an extent of a few of the neighbouring tribes, Manco Capac and and the sovereign, there were thirty subordinate their ingenuity and industry compensated for this | Mama Ocollo, for such were the names of these stran. princes or caziques, who exercised an almost indepen. want. One of their most ingenious manufactures gers, founded the city of Cuzco, and established a godent authority. The latter order elected the sove- consisted of representations of men and animals by vernment, which was gradually extended over the reign, and formed a council without which he could means of coloured feathers, which they could arrange more remote provinces. Manco Capac instructed the determine upon no matter of importance. Every in such a way as to give the effect of light and shade.* men in agriculture, and other useful arts; while his person who could be denominated a freeman had pro- Their ornaments of gold and silver were also fabri. consort taught the women to spin and weave. He als perty in land, which, however, was held by various cated with dexterity and neatness. In common with terwards established laws, by which the administramodes of tenure, some possessing it in full right, while the savage nations of America, they had been accus. tion of civil and religious affairs was regulated. The in other cases it was connected with offices, and re- tomed to commemorate events by rude representations children of this mysterious pair had married each tained only as long as the individuals were in employ- on the bark of trees; but in this art they had ad. other, in order to preserve their divine nature from ment. The lowest order of the people possessed vanced in a degree proportioned to their general civi. admixture with that of men, and twelve generations property by a very different tenure. In every district, lisation. By figures of objects, they could exhibit a in succession had now ruled over the empire. Being a certain quantity of land was measured out in pro- complex series of events in progressive order, such as esteemed as children of the Sun, the chief object of portion to the number of families. This was cultivated the occurrences of a king's reign from his accession to worship among the Peruvians, their government had by the joint labour of the whole ; its produce was de his death; the progress of an infant's education, from assumed the character of a pure theocracy. The Inca, posited in a common storehouse, and divided among its birth until it attained the years of maturity; or as the monarch was termed, was obeyed not only on them according to their respective wants.

But as

the different recompenses and marks of distinction account of his apparent and temporal sovereignty, but these portions of land were in no respect at the dis conferred upon warriors, in proportion to the exploits as the messenger of heaven. His messengers were posal of the people, they might be regarded in the light which they had performed. One series of these pic. every where treated with reverence, and his subjects of a national provision for the poor, rather than as torial writings, as they may be called, contained the of highest rank never appeared in his presence with. what the inhabitants of the old continent are accus. history of the empire under its ten monarchs. The out a burden upon their shoulders, as an emblem of tomed to call property. The productions of the soil, figures were very grotesque and rude; but some pro. their servitude, and willingness to bear whatever the as well as articles of manufacture, were exhibited in gress had evidently been made towards a more conve. Inca was pleased to impose. All infractions of the open market, and, in the absence of money, exchanged nient mode of writing, symbols being employed instead law were punished capitally, as implying a kind of for other articles, according as the parties might agree; of objects, while numbers were represented by parti. blasphemy against the decrees of the deity This des. one article—the cocoa-nut, from which chocolate was cular signs. The figure of a circle represented an unit, potism, however, and this severity, met with such per. made-being in universal requisition, and of certain and, in small numbers, the computation was made by fect acquiescence, that neither did the Inca on the one value, had nearly obtained that general and ready ac. repeating it. Larger numbers were expressed by a hand become tyrannical, nor did the people grow fierce ceptance which constitutes a representative medium, peculiar mark, and they had such as denoted all in- under a sense of wrong. Their religion was of a mild and might therefore be considered as a species of tegral numbers from twenty to eight thousand. Had character, being directed only to such natural objects money. It may be mentioned here, that the respect the empire been permitted to exist, they would have as inspire feelings of gratitude and admiration, such due from one rank to another was prescribed with the probably advanced through all those progressive stages the eavenly bodies. Under its genial influence, most ceremonious accuracy, and had incorporated it. by which, from similar beginnings, the people of the they conducted war in a spirit more humane than even self with the expressions and idioms of the language, Old World at length attained to the construction of the polished nations of Europe, taking those whom which abounds in terms of courtesy. The common alphabets.

they subdued under their protection, and admitting people were not allowed to wear the same dress, or to Their mode of computing time is considered as a them to a participation of all the advantages enjoyed dwell in houses of the same form, with those of the more decisive evidence of their progress in improve by themselves. nobles, or to accost them without the most submis.ment. Their civil year was a solar one of 365 days, All the lands capable of cultivation were divided sive reverence ; in the presence of their sovereign, and consisted of eighteen months, of twenty days into three shares, one of which was devoted to the they durst not lift up their eyes from the ground, or each, with five supernumerary days, which were de support of religion, another to the government, while look him in the face. The nobles themselves, when voted to pastime and festivity. The day was reckoned the third and largest was reserved for the maintenance admitted to an audience with the monarch, were to begin at sunrise, and was divided into four inter- of the people, among whom it was parcelled out. obliged to enter barefooted, in mean garments, and vals, by the rising and setting of that luminary, and Neither individuals nor communities had a right of with forms of homage approaching to adoration. It its two passages over the meridian. Each month was exclusive property in the portion set apart for their use. is remarkable that the nobles served the monarch in divided into four weeks of five days each. Thirteen They possessed it only for a year, at the expiration of war with bodies of troops in proportion to the extent years formed a cycle, to which they gave a particular which a new division was made in proportion to the of their domains; a regulation which, taken in con- name, and four of these constituted a period of fifty- rank, the number, and the exigencies of each family. nection with the gradations of rank and other cir. two years, which they denoted by another term. Two All those lands were cultivated by the joint industry of cumstances, suggests the recollection of the feudal of these periods of fifty-two years formed what they the community. The people, summoned by a proper communities of the Old World.

called an old age. At the end of fifty-two years, officer, repaired in a body to the fields, and performed Religion, among the Mexicans, had become an esta- thirteen days were intercalated to bring their time up their common task, while songs and musical instru. blished and regulated system. They had temples of to the seasons ; which makes their year agree with ments cheered them to their labour. “By this singular lofty dimensions, usually in the form of truncated the Italian period of 365 days and 6 hours, and dis distribution of territory,” says Dr Robertson, "as well pyramids, with a small building on the top, in which covers a considerable degree of philosophical accu. as by the mode of cultivating it, the idea of a common they placed idols, in the figures of tigers, serpents, and racy.

interest, and of mutual subserviency, was continually other destructive animals, which they consulted and Among circumstances which, on the other hand, inculcated. Each individual felt his connection with worshipped with ceremonies of revolting cruelty, hu- tend to prove the partial nature of their civilisation, those around him, and knew that he depended on man sacrifices being considered the most acceptable must be reckoned their atrocious religion, the cruel their friendly aid for what increase he was to reap.” to their deities.

No Mexican devotee could ap- character of their wars, their want of money and of There was nevertheless a gradation of ranks, termi. proach the altar without sprinkling it with his own metal tools, and the small progress which they had nating with a body of slaves as numerous and as deblood, and the fasts, penances, and mortifications made in subjecting animals to their service. Their graded as in Mexico. which they endured in their ordinary course of life, architecture was also of a humble sort. The houses In Peru, agriculture was carried on with more skill were almost beyond belief. The priests were an order occupied by the common people were mere hovels, nor and to a greater extent than in Mexico; and there set apart for religious purposes, and their festivals were the dwellings of the nobles of a much superior was accordingly a greater abundance of food. The were as regular as under any religious system of the character. Even the temples of the gods were little people were acquainted with both the arts of manur. elder continent. All the prisoners taken in war were better than heaps of earth faced with stone. Their ing and of irrigation. In turning up the soil for sacrificed to the gods, to which the head and heart religion had also produced a ferocity of manners little seed, which was done by a kind of wooden mattock, were consecrated, while the body was retained by the superior to what was to be found among savages, both sexes were employed. Their houses, especially captor as a feast for himself and his friends. The while the tendency of their civil institutions was to those in the higher and colder regions, were superior barbarity of these ceremonials was even greater than degrade and impoverish the great bulk of the people. to the hovels of Mexico, and their temples and other what was observable among the ruder tribes of Ame. The higher classes alone possessed the more fertile public edifices were extensive, and of massive and rica, and might appear inconsistent with the relations lands; the governors of provinces indulged with im. elegant form. Two roads, which extended through which we have received respecting the progress of the punity in the severest exactions; and the working the length of the country, were equally wonderful Mexicans in the arts of social life, if we were not people were every where oppressed. The highways monuments of the power of the Incas, by whose orders aware, as Dr Robertson has remarked, that “nations, swarmed with mendicants; and from the want of large they were constructed. The one

was conducted long after their ideas begin to enlarge, and their quadrupeds, thousands of the lower orders were em. through the interior and mountainous country, the manners to refine, adhere to systems of superstition ployed as beasts of burden, in conveying the maize, other through the plains on the coast. “We were founded on the crude conceptions of the early ages.” cotton, hides, and other commodities sent from the surprised,” says Baron Humboldt, " to find in this

Justice, civil and criminal, was administered in more remote provinces to the capital in payment of place, and at heights which greatly surpass the top of Mexico, by judges appointed by the sovereign, in ac. tribute.

the peak of Teneriffe, the magnificent remains of a cordance with fixed laws, and with a degree of order The empire of Peru, at the time when it was in- road constructed by the Incas of Peru. This cause and equity worthy of a civilised community. The vaded by the Spaniards, extended above fifteen hun. way, lined with freestone, may be compared to the government was supported by taxes laid upon land, dred miles along the Pacific Ocean, and had attained finest Roman roads I have seen in Italy, France, or and upon the productions of industry, and which were to even a greater degree of civilisation than Mexico. Spain; it is perfectly straight, and keeps the same di. necessarily paid in articles of food and manufacture. According to the accounts communicated by its own rection for six or eight thousand metres." Before Thus a vast quantity of stores of every kind was laid traditions, and by a species of literature consisting of this pathway could have been formed along the skirts up, from which the monarch supplied his numerous knotted cords, t the country was originally peopled by of a chain of mountains like the Andes, a vast labour train of attendants in peace, and his armies in war. ignorant savages, who struggled for ages with the must have been incurred in reducing eminences and The improved state of government was conspicuous, evils incidental to that condition. At length, a man filling up hollows. At various stages were placed not only in points essential to the being of a well-or- and woman, of majestic form, and clothed in decent storehouses for the refreshment of the Inca and his dered society, but in several regulations of inferior garments, appeared on the banks of the lake Titiaca, attendants. Dr Robertson justly observes, that, at consequence. The king, for instance, had couriers representing themselves as children of the Sun, who the time when the Spaniards entered Peru, no kingstationed at proper intervals on all the principal tho had been sent by their beneticent parent to instruct dom in Europe could boast of any work of public roughfares throughout his dominions, to convey intel. and reclaim the inhabitants of the earth. With the aid utility that could be compared with the great roads ligence from the provinces ; a refinement not then

formed by the Incas. The rivers which crossed these known in any part of Europe. The structure of the * The descendants of the aboriginal Mexicans still display the ways were passed in the high grounds by means of capital city in a lake, with artificial causeways or

ingenuity of their race in constructing miniature figures, in which suspension bridges formed of ozier ropes, and in the mounds giving access to it in three directions, and extensive range of specimens in the possession of a gentleman low country by floats, supplied not only with paddles, conduits for supplying the inhabitants with fresh wa. residing in Edinburgh, to whom they were sent by a kinsman but with masts and sails. The Peruvians were expert ter, shows ideas of security and convenience which settled in Mexico. Those formed exclusively of cloth are the most

artificers in gold and copper, with which they made felicitous as representations of the objects, though it might be supcould not have been entertained by any but a refined posed that they would not be the easiest of execution. The faces many neat ornaments, and also in clay, and in the nation. It is also worthy of notice, that the city of of the young are formed of a cloth slightly tinctured, to represent making of warlike instruments.

Various opinions have been entertained respecting quire a inuch more dingy colour. Some of the latter present singuthe streets, lighted them by fires Kindled in different larly lively portraitures of the human visage, every wrinkle and the origin of the partial civilisation found in these places, and patroled as watchmen during the night; an

the dusky red complexion of America, while the old seem to reMexico possessed a regular body of police, who cleaned

peculiarity of expression being given in a space of less than an ancient American nations, but the question is not institution which the contemporary nations of Europe aged wounsa, who is rallying a pair of young lovers, seemed to us | perhaps capable of being definitely settled. Humboldi, lid not possess in nearly so perfect a condition. peculiarly happy pictures. It ought to be mentioned that the eyes the latest and most industrious inquirer, endeavour The works of art produced by the Mexicans were

are representod by beads.
| A'minute account of these was given in the 87th number of

to prove, from resemblances in their language, personal necessarily rude, as the use of metal tools was unknown

aspect, institutions, and popular traditions, to those

the Journal.

of various nations in the eastern parts of Asia, that point out the absurdity of introducing into preserves for the acre of water is quite sufficient. When con. the light of civilisation must have been carried thence those more delicate kinds which require a warmer structing your preserves, include as many natural into America by Behring's Straits, where a constant temperature. Of fresh-water fishes, naturalised in or springs as possible: they both help to keep the water intercourse subsists at this day between the inhabi. native to Scotland, the principal are the salmon, char, pure, and supply the bottom with eels, upon which tants of the various continents. But in eighty-three trout, pike, and perch, with their varieties; our reptiles pike fatten prodigiously. American languages, only one hundred and seventy southern districts afford the bream, roach, and ven. Next, as to the raising of trout. The error most words have been found, in which any resemblance to dise; but these are confessedly localised, and, except prevalent with regard to this fish is, to suppose that, Asiatic words of similar signification could be said in a few instances, do not exist north of Dumfries. by providing an esteemed sort to breed from--for in. to exist, while the other resemblances seem to be only shire.

stance, of Loch Leven-you thereby secure to your such as might arise by accident under the influence The carp, also, and tench, fish much esteemed for table a first-rate stock, without calculating how to of a common human nature. If the originators of stocking waters in England, are met with only as cu. furnish proper food, and prevent the degeneracy of Mexican and Peruvian civilisation left Europe at a riosities among our preserves; they are rarely known the fish. Very indifferent and badly flavoured trout time when such ideas and institutions as those nations to breed here, and require too much severe attention will, it is ascertained, greatly improve when transpossessed were in existence, why did they not also to repay the trouble of cultivating them to any extent ferred into waters where food is plenty ; also white. bring a knowledge of money, of the use of iron, of for our tables. In a small pond at Redbraes, adjoin. fleshed fish, if one may use the expression, will become mortar in building, and many other serviceable de ing Edinburgh, seven or eight carp have been main. red over certain soils. What, then, is to hinder a vices, which have been in vogue in the Old World tained for several years, along with numbers of perch; naturally good trout from losing its flavour and firm. since a period long antecedent to the existence of laws and though of both sexes, no disposition to shed spawn ness when imported into a poor artificial water, from and regulations resembling those found in the two has as yet become apparent; in fact, it may safely be one that is rich in sustenance, and well gifted with American empires ? Upon the whole, in the case of asserted by us, judging from what we have heard on shelter ? Mexico at least, the arguments for a separate origin the subject, that the carp will not thrive in Scotland, We cannot but point out the inutility of sending of civilisation are the strongest. With all its improve- until some means be discovered for meliorating the many miles for a pitcherful of one variety of fish, when ments upon savage life, we cannot fail to remark in climate, and giving a soft quality to our waters. another, which will probably turn out better, may be that country a strong resemblance, in religion, cus. In a paper by Mr Whyte, land-surveyor at Mint. taken from the very nearest brook. As to the ar. toms, and even in matters of civil polity, to the law, which obtained one of the Highland Society's rangements to be pursued in the planning of a good surrounding nations of barbarians the resemblance prizes, it is stated, that in some ponds belonging to Mr trout preserve: Let the primary matter be the choice which the apple bears to the crab. The original type Fergusson of Pitfour, in Aberdeenshire, the tench of your ground, in which, should you be exceedingly was still, it may be said, conspicuous, having been only thrives well; and the carp, although not very prolific, narrowed, and at a loss for good materials, then give cultivated into something better, not altered by the breeds. This is owing, we imagine, to a particular up altogether the idea of a fish-pond. If, however, engrafting of a new stock. Of Peru it is impossible softness in the quality of the water where these fish you can discern the qualities of soil and neighbour. to speak so decisively. The tradition respecting the exist : in fact, it is allowed by Mr Whyte, in allusion hood recommended by us at the outset of this chapter, pair of civilising strangers is so distinct, and refers to to the carp ponds, that it is wholly kept up by rain and, besides these, are able to command a small stream a time so recent; it was so strikingly supported by the water—a very different fuid from the hard springs or brook, then set about and prepare your ground as existence of their descendants, and the reverence paid which naturally supply our preserves.

follows: to them; the civilisation, moreover, of the Peruvians It comes to this, that the only fish we possess, ca- Choose from six to twenty acres, less or more, of was of a nature so unlike that of Mexico, and every pable of being bred and fattened in artificial ponds to an oval shape, but indented with small bays. Cast a thing which we can conceive to have awakened natu. any extent, are the trout, the pike, and the perch, long trench through the middle, from head to foot ; rally in the savage breast ; that we can hardly doubt along of course with eels and minnows; the former noticing that you can readily divert along it the that the improved ideas of the nation came from a of which, namely, the eels, strange as it may appear, stream just mentioned, which stream is intended as a foreign source, though how or whence they came, it would almost seem to be produced spontaneously, or spawning place, seeing that trout never shed their roe would be difficult to surmise. One thing seems clear, from the soil itself.

in dead water. Let this trench deepen gradually as that the illustrious pair were no recent exportation And first, as to the perch. This hardy fish may be the ground descends ; so that, at the intended foot of from either Europe or Asia, as, if they had been so, transported with great ease, being very tenacious of the pond, it should siuk nearly three yards, while the they must have brought a knowledge of the use of life. Even in wet moss, it can be carried alive from upper pari thereof is kept shallow. Dig from either iron, of the arch in building, and other ancient arts, a considerable distance. Perch, if well fed, breed side of your trench, keeping it slope and level, until of which the Peruvians were found to be desti- | quickly in dead dull waters. Their spawning time within four fathoms of the intended margin of the fish. tute. *

is March and part of April. There are two methods pond. When this is done, turn your attention to of stocking a pond with them; one, and by far the what is called the dam-head, at the outlet or lowest

surest, is to obtain the live and grown fish; another part of the pond. From it, continue your trench for FISH-PONDS.

is to collect the impregnated deposit, and lay it along a short distance in the form of a paved sluice. Build We have more than once been asked by country gen. microscope will enable you to detect the proper state side, if needful, and drive in a few

piles to strengthen the shoals of your preserve for the sun to hatch. A stones, grass-sods, and clay, along the bank on each tlemen to give a paper in our Journal on the best of the ova, which you will find in large beds along it. Then set a flood-gate at the outlet, and another means of constructing ponds for the raising and pre- the margin of any tank where perch abound. When to serve as a check in case of accident, three yards serving of fresh-water fish ; and being anxious to properly impregnated, these will appear slightly dis- farther down, where your paved sluice terminates. disseminate some correct information on this subject, coloured, and open or cleft on one side.

A few cart-loads of coarse channel, not from the sea, we beg to lay before our country readers the following be made large; they should slope gradually down to pond, which otherwise are apt to get covered with

Ponds intended solely for perch do not require to ought to be emptied over the earthy parts of your observations of Mr Stoddart, in his recently published wards the middle, from a depth of six inches to one of weeds, or else to encourage eels, the marked enemies entertaining little work on Angling. We need only five or six feet. Water weeds ought not to be greatly of trout in all stages. After this is done, let loose premise, that, in the work from which we quote, there encouraged. A series, or chain, of small basins, at your stream, and form your preserve, introducing are cuts illustrative of the form and nature of the fish. different elevations, is preferable to a single large re- trout of about six inches in length, eight or ten to servoir for this fisb. These basins should be con.

every acre.

Raise also at the head a small nursery ponds alluded to.

nected by a sluice and food-gate, so that one may be of minnows, connecting it by distinct sluices both with The observations introduced into our initiatory readily emptied into another for the mutual conveni- the pond and its feeder. These are favourite food of chapters on Scottish rivers and lochs, with regard to ence of cleaning and repairing. Also, thic uppermost trout, and fatteu them at a quick rate. the soils best calculated for the breeding of good trout, ought to be shallower than those below, and more ex. Some throw a sunken mound across the pond, rising will apply, not without reason, to our present remarks, posed to the sun, so as to serve for a nursery and to within a yard or so of the water-surface. By the In these we have shown that a constant and plentiful breeding pond. Bream live well with perch in a assistance of this embankment, the fish are preserved provision is essential to the growth and increase of

warm situation ; they are not, however, obtained from injury, at those times when you require to re. fish, and that certain dispositions of channel or bottom readily in Scotland. Perch ponds should be let off pair your preserve; since you thereby are enabled to will furnish more readily than others the various and paved with channel stones every four or five years; expel only one half of its contents at a time, keepkinds of sustenance required. Now, in treating of many allow them to remain fallow for some months, ing the other occupied during your cleansing operathe construction of artificial ponds, whether intended and others sow them with grass and oats, a conceit tions. for the raising or fattening of fish, we hold it to be of laboriously encouraged by whimsy and theoretical The first, or parent breed, in an artificial fish en. primary consequence that some means be taken to se.

writers of bygone days. We are no sticklers for an. closure, generally grows to a great size, and with as. cure a steady supply of food, otherwise the object of tiquated and idle absurdities, and believe that many tonishing rapidity. As an instance of this, we may the experimentalist is defeated at its very outset.

fish, for whose benefit they are performed, will thrive mention, that, some years ago, several trout, weighing To do this successfully must depend very much as well without them, provided you afford sweet, fresh each about three or four ounces, were transferred upon the natural conveniences of soil and situation. water, and a plentiful allowance of food. Perch in some from Loch Skene, in Dumfriesshire, to a newly conNo one can rationally expect to find worms and in preserves have been known, although rarely, to attain structed pleasure pond, belonging to Mr Younger of sects under a dry poor earth, or flies in any plenty ihe weight of three or four pounds, averaging, when Craiglands, near Moffat; and that, in the course of apart from shrubs and trees. Undoubtedly those well fed, from twelve to twenty ounces.

eighteen months, they attained, individually, the places which are, to a certain extent, fertile, and in The pike pond, if for breeding and fattening to weight of as many pounds; although Loch Skene itthe neighbourhood of wood, also mosses and moor some extent, ought to be large, covering from eight to seli produces no fish above twelve inches in length. ground, arising as they do from vegetable decay, are twenty acres ; its mean depth, six or seven feet. One The present breed from these trout is much ir ferior to be preferred before arid and unproductive lands for end, however, should be much shallower, and sown in size, owing, of course, to the increase of their num. this purpose.

with bulrushes, or other water-plants. Previous to bers, and the minuter proportion of food attainable by The most natural and effective situations, however, stocking it with this fish, a sub-stock of perch or trout each individual. are small valleys and glens, pervaded by rivulets, and should by all means be introduced, otherwise, with. In our opinion, although not generally the practice, exposed in some degree to the sun. By throwing a out a great supply of such sustenance, pike will not part of the parent or stock breed ought to be carefully strong bank across the lower part, or entrance, these only become thin and ill-tasted, but quarrel and devour preserved, in order to serve as a check upon the too are easily transformed into reservoirs of water, well each other. Nay, we would recommend that both of plentiful spawnings which are apt tiv occur, and to de. calculated to nourish many sorts of fish, especially these sorts of fish be, if possible, made subservient for vour, as their great size and appetites will enable them those native to Scotland. This simple method of con. their use; although, of course, as we shall shortly dis- to do, the superabundant fry. Nay, in some places structing a preserve is very common in our hilly discover, it is in vain tó attempt raising a proper propor- we would introduce a pike for this purpose, and believe tricts, where nature, the head architect, provides the tion of trout without the aid of a stream, directed him to do more good than harm. greater requisites ; yet on level grounds, with no such through the pond. To facilitate, however, a steady sup. During strong frosts in winter, the fish in artificial inherent advantages, it is, we consess, a matter both ply of perch, small tanks should be constructed along- ponds are apt to suffer greatly, especially the young of expense and nicety to complete a pond well adapted side of the leading preserve, with connecting sluices fry. To prevent this there is no proper remedy. A for the breeding of fish.

and flood-gates, so as to expel, when necessary, a shoal becoming disposition of large stones at the bottom of Before we discuss the plans most approved of for of live food.

your reservoir, will, nevertheless, serve in part the fish enclosures, we sball briefly notice what sorts of Pike for stocking should be caught with a drag.net purposes of shelter; although it is very true that the fish thrive best in our northern climate, in order to -oi one size, and below two pounds weight. Although greater damage done by severe frosts results from

termed solitary fish, they are not so, but swim in small the exclusion of air. Wherefore, order holes to be Those who wish to make farther inquiries respecting the an

companies. No less than sixty-seven have been taken made in the ice that the fish may breathe properly, eient Mexicans and Peruvians, may be directed to Robertson's

at one haul from the river Tay, near Almond mouth. which most certainly they will attempt to do, coming Ristory of America, and Humboldt's Researches concerning the

When stocking your pond, do not overdo it by put- up in great numbers to your vents, and by the agitaInstitutions and Monuments of the Ancient Inhabitants of Ame- ting in more pike than is absolutely necessary : of tion they make, sometimes preventing them from re. Ikea

fish under two pounds weight and above one, eight | freezing."

ence.

LONDON SYSTEMS.

chines, for example, at every certain number of strokes, beneath a pair of shagged eyebrows. “I am told, tbe machine rings a bell to inform the workmen of friend, that you are very poor.

" There is no deny. [From “ The Italian Exile," by Count Pecchio.]

the fact. The tread-mill, introduced for a punishment ing the fact, Senor ; it speaks for itself." "I pre. Some people are quite thunderstruck at the silence and an employment in the houses of correction, also sume, then, you will be glad of a job, and will work which prevails among the inhabitants of London. But rings a bell every time it makes a certain number of cheap.” As cheap, my master, as any mason in how could one million four hundred thousand persons revolutions. In the wool-carding manufactory at Granada.” live together without silence ?

The torrent of men, Manchester there is a species of clock to ascertain if " Tbat's what I want. I have an old bonse fallen women, and children, carts, carriages, and horses, the watch man, whose duty it is to guard against fire, to decay, that cost me more money than it is worth to from ;he Strand to the Exchange, is so strong, that has kept awake all the night. If, every quarter of an keep it in repair, for nobody will live in it; so I must it is said that in winter there are two degrees of hour, he omits to pull a rope which hangs from the contrive to patch it up and keep it together at as small Fabrenheit difference between the atmosphere of this

wall outside, the clock within notes down and reveals expense as possible." long line of street, and that of the West End. I have his negligence in the morning.

The mason was accordingly conducted to a huge not ascertained the truth of this ; but from the many

One shopman, therefore, in London, supplies the deserted house that seemed going to ruin. Passing avenues there are to the Strand, it is very likely to place of forty or fifty servants: the shops may be dis- through several empty halls and chambers, he entered 'be correct. From Charing Cross to the Royal Extant, and remotely situated, without any inconveni. an inner court, where his eye was caught by an old change is an encyclopædia of the world. An apparent

The shopkeepers themselves do not remain Moorish fountain. anarchy prevails, but without confusion or disorder. idle, and, instead of "men, in some places lads or chil. He paused for a moment. “ It seems," said he, The rules which the poet Gay lays down in his " Tri. dren are employed. The newspapers are circulated "as if I had been in this place before ; but it is like a via, or the Art of Walking the Streets of London," from house to house at a penny an hour; the carrier dream. Pray, who occupied this house formerly?” for walking with safety along this tract of about three is a boy of ten or twelve years old, active as a sprite, “A pest upon him!” cried the landlord, “it was miles, appear to me unnecessary.

The habit of tra.

exact as time, who brings them and takes them away. an old miserly priest, who cared for nobody but him. versing this whirlpool renders the passage easy to

By this system, the servants remain at home, with self. He was said to be immensely rich, and, baving every one, without disputes, without accidents, with nothing to divert them from their occupations. The no relations, it was thought he would leave all his out punctilio, as if there were no obstacle whatever.

servant maids, especially, very seldom go out during treasure to the church. He died suddenly, and the I suppose it is the same thing at Pekin. The silence all the week, until the arrival of Sunday sets them at priests and friars thronged to take possession of his then of the passengers is the consequence of the mul. liberty for three or four hours. It follows, also, that wealth ; but nothing could they find but a few ducats tiplicity of business. I do not say it by way of epi.

an English family has no need of keeping any great in a leathern purse. The worse luck has fallen on gram, but if Naples should ever have a population of

store of provisions in the house ; there is in conse. me ; for since his death, the old fellow continues to 8 million and a half, it would be necessary for even

quence less occupation of room, and less occasion for occupy my house without paying rent, and there's no Neapolitan windpipes to put themselves under some restraint! It is only in Spain that silence is the capital, less care, less waste, less smell, and less wear taking the law of a dead man. The people pretend and tear.

to hear at night the clinking of gold all night long ia companion of idleness.

the chamber where the old priest slept, as if he were In London I have often risen early, in order to be present at the spectacle of the resurrection of a million THE ADVENTURE OF THE MASON.

counting over his money, and sometimes a groaning

and moaning about the court. Whether true or false, and a half of people. This great monster of a capital, There was once upon a time a poor mason, or brick, these stories have brought a bad name on my house, like an immense giant awaking, shows the first signs | layer, in Granada, who kept all the saints' days and and not a tenant will remain in it." of life in the extremities. Motion begins at the cir. holidays, and Saint Monday into the bargain, and “Enough," said the mason, sturdily—“ Let me lire cumference, and, by little and little, goes on getting yet, with all his devotion, he grew poorer and poorer, in your house rent free until some better tenant prestrength, and pushing towards the centre, till at ten and could scarcely earn bread for his numerous family. sents, and I will engage to put it in repair and quiet o'clock commences the full hubbub, which goes on One night he was roused from his first sleep by a the troubled spirits that disturb it. I am a good continually increasing till four o'clock, the 'Change knocking at his door. He opened it, and beheld be.

Christian and a poor man, and am not to be daunted.” hour. It seems as if the population followed the laws fore him a tall, meagre, cadaverous-looking priest. The offer of the honest mason was gladly accepted ; of the tide until this hour; it now continues flowing “ Hark ye, honest friend,” said the stranger, “ I have he moved with his family into the house, and fulfilled from the circumference to the Exchange : at half.past observed that you are a good Christian, and one to all his engagements. By little and little he restored four, when the Exchange is shut, the ebb begins; and be trusted ;

will you undertake a job this very night?" it to its former state. The clinking of gold was no eurrents of people, coaches, and horses, rush from the “ With all my heart, Senor Padre, on condition longer beard at night in the chamber of the defunct Exchange to the circumference.

that I am paid accordingly." That you shall be priest, but began to be heard by day in the pocket of Among an industrious nation, incessantly occupied, but you must suffer yourself to be blindfolded."

the living mason. In a word, he increased rapidly panting for riches, man, or physical force, is a valu. To this the mason made no objection; so being in wealth, to the admiration of all his neighbours, able commodity. Man is dear, and it is therefore hoodwinked, he was led by the priest through various and became one of the richest men in Granada. He expedient to be very economical of him. It is not as rough lanes and winding passages until they stopped gave large sums to the church, by way, no doubt, of in the countries of indolence, where the man and the before the portal of a house. The priest then applied satisfying his conscience, and never revealed the secret earth alike have little or no value. A Turkish effendi, a key, turned a creaking lock, and opened what of the wealth until on his deathbed, to his son and or gentleman, always walks about with a train of use. sounded like a ponderous door. They entered, the heir.-Washington Irving. less servants at his heels. In the same manner a door was closed and bolted, and the inason was con. Polish nobleman, or a grandee of Spain, consumes a ducted through an echoing corridor and spacious hall, great quantity of men, who are otherwise unproducto an interior part of the building. Here the ban

Burns often made extempore rhymes the vehicle of tive. "I was told that the Duke of Medini Celi has in dage was removed from his

eyes, and be found him. his sarcasm : having beard a person, of no very elehis pay four hundred servants, and that he goes to the self in a patio, or court dimly lighted by a single lamp. vated rank, talk loud and long of some aristocratic Prado in a carriage worse than a Parisian fiacre. It In the centre was the dry basin of an old Moorish festivities in which he had the honour to mingle, was the same in England when there was a foreign fountain, under which the priest requested him to

Burns, when he was called upon for his song, chanted commerce, and no home manufactures. Not knowing form a small vault, bricks and mortar being at hand some verses, of which one has been preserved :

of lordly acquaintance you boast, in what way to consume their surplus revenues, the for the purpose. He accordingly worked all night,

And the dukes that you dined wi' yestreen, old English landowner used to maintain a hundred, but without finishing the job. Just before daybreak and, in some cases, even a thousand followers. At the priest put a piece of gold into his hand, and hav.

Though it crawl on the curl of a queen.

-Edinburgh Literary Journal. the present day, the greatest bouses have not more ing again blindfolded him, conducted him back to his than ten or twelve servants; and, setting aside the dwelling.

ANECDOTE OF A Dog.–A small pet dog, belonging wealthy, who are always an exception in every nation, “ Are you willing," said he, “to return and com.

to a gentleman in Fife, lately had six pups, one of and taking the greatest number, it cannot be denied plete your work ?" “Gladly, Senor Padre, provided which died, and was buried in the garden. Soon after, that in England, and especially in London, there is I am as well paid.” “Well, then, to.morrow at mid- another took ill, and seemed likely to die also, when a very great saving, both of time and of servants. night I will call again.”

the mother carried the miserable creature out to the But how can this be reconciled with the loudly vaunted He did so, and the vault was completed. “Now,” garden, scraped a hole, in which she deposited her comfort of the English ?. Thus: the milk, the bread, said the priest, “ you must help me to bring forth the offspring, and had proceeded to replace the earth, the butter, the beer, the fish, the meat, the newspaper, bodies that are to be buried in this vault.”

when her master entered, and, being attracted by a the letters-all are brought to the house every day, at The poor mason's hair rose on his head at these peepy cry, went up to the spot, and found the ailing the same hour, without fail, by the shopkeepers and words; he followed the priest with trembling steps pup nearly buried. There can be no doubt that the the postmen. It is well known that all the street into a retired chamber of the mansion, expecting to

dog acted upon the principle of imitation. doors are kept shut, as is the custom in Florence and behold some ghastly spectacle of death, but was re

NATURAL AFFECTION OF A LAMB.-In the year the other cities of Tuscany. In order that the neigh- lieved, on perceiving three or four portly

jars stand. 1810, a small enclosure in Leith Links, employed for bourhood should not be disturbed, it has become an ing in one corner. They were evidently full of inoney, keeping a few sheep, was broken into, and a ewe abunderstood thing for all tradespeople to give a single and it was with great labour that he and the priest stracted, the head of which was left by the depredators rap on the knocker, or a single pull at the bell, which carried them fortħ and consigned them to their tomb. on the outside of the paling. In the morning, ber coinmunicates with the underground kitchen, where The vault was then closed, the pavement replaced, and lamb, only two days old, was found by the keeper the servants are ; while the postman distinguishes his all traces of the work obliterated.

standing over this relic of her parent, as if lamenting visit by precisely two knocks. There is another con- The mason was again hoodwinked and led forth by her fate, and could only be brought away by force. ventual sign for visits, which consists in a rapid suc. a route different from that by which he had come. Edinburgh Annual Register. cession of knocks, the more loud and noisy according After they had wandered for a long time through a PLOUGH AND HARROWS.-A clergyman in one of to the real or assumed consequence or fashion of the perplexed maze of lanes and alleys, they halted. The the agricultural districts of Scotland had busied him. visitor.

priest then put two pieces of gold into his hand. self in producing an improved plough, about which he This custom requires punctuality in servants, and “Wait here,” said he, "until you hear the cathedral was for some time very “full," as the Scotch say, and an unfailing attendance at their posts. The price of bell toll for matins. If you presume to uncover your accordingly, wherever he was, he was sure to overflow every thing is fixed, so that there is no room for eyes before that time, evil will befall you.” So say. in reference to the subject. He afterwards employed haggling, dispute, or gossip. All tbis going and coming ing, be departed.

his busy brain in editing a school Horace, of which for of buyers and sellers is noiseless. Many bakers ride The mason waited faithfully, amusing himself by some time he was also very "full.” Calling one day about London in vehicles so rapid, elastic, and elegant, weighing the gold pieces in his hand, and clinking upon a farmer in the neighbourhood, he said, “Well, that an Italian dandy would not disdain to appear in them against each other. The moment the cathedral have you seen my Horace.?" "Na, sir," quoth the one of them at the Corso. The butchers may be fre. bell rung its matin peel, he uncovered his eyes, and agriculturist, “ I haena seen your harrows; but weel quently met with, conveying the ineat to their distant found himself on the banks of the Xeni), from whence I kent your ploo !" customers, mounted on fiery steeds, and dashing along he made the best of his way home, and revelled with at full gallop. A system like this requires inviolable his family for a whole fortnight on the profits of his LONDON: Published, with Permission of the Proprietors, by ORS order and a scrupulous division of time. For this rea. two nights' work, after which he was as poor as ever.

& Sauty, Paternoster Row; and sold by G. BERGER, Holy.

well Street, Strand; BANCKS & Co., Manchester; WRIGHTSON son there are clocks and watches every where-on He continued to work a little and pray a good deal, & WEBB, Birmingham; WILLMER & SMITH, Liverpool : W. every steeple, and sometimes on all the four sides of a and keep holidays and saints' days from year to year, E. SOMERSCALE, Leeds; C. N. WRIGHT, Nottingham; M.

BINGHAN, Bristol ; S. SIMMS, Bath; C. GAIN, Exeter; J. Pok xteeple ; in the pocket of every one ; in the kitchen of while his family grew up as gaunt and 'ragged as a

DON, Hull; A. WHITTAKER, Sheffield; H. BELLERBY, York: the lowest journeyman. This is a nation working to crew of gipsies.

J. TAYLOR, Brighton; GEORGE YOUNG, Dublin; and all other the stroke of the clock, like an orchestra playing to As he was seated one morning at the door of his

Booksellers and Newsmen in Great Britain and Ireland, Canada,

Nova Scotia, and United States of America. the “ time” of the leader, or a regiment marching to hovel, he was accosted by a rich old curmudgeon who o Complete sets of the work from its commencement, or nuthe sound of the drum. Nothing can be more inge. was noted for owning many houses and being a grip. bers to complete sets, may at all times be obtained from the Pub

lishers or their Agents. nious than the various ways in wbich the English ing landlord.

Stereotyped by A. Kirkwood, Edinburgh. contrive to mark the division of time. In some ma- The man of money eyed him for a moment from Printed by Bradbury and 'Evans (late T. Davison), Whitefriand

Yet an insect's an insect at most,

[graphic]

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM CHAMBERS, AUTHOR OF “ THE BOOK OF SCOTLAND,” &c., AND BY ROBERT CHAMBERS,

AUTHOR OF “ TRADITIONS OF EDINBURGH," “ PICTURE OF SCOTLAND," &c.

No. 189.

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 12, 1835. PRICE THREE HALFPENCE. SINCERITY.

ing present energies, and creating contempt in the in the placid enjoyment of an internal fountain of What honesty is in deeds, sincerity is in words—the discerning, serve but to postpone the time of genuine happiness, which can neither be damaged nor im. best policy. It is a virtue, nevertheless, to which the approbation. The peculiar mode here pointed at is paired. artificial habits of society are not very favourable. no exception from the rule. The insincerity is much The forms of politeness, with all their utility, have more liable to be detected than may be imagined, if

A GLANCE AT THE NEW FOREST. this disadvantage, that, in teaching to restrain the real not by the immediate object, at least by some other

-Be my retreat sentiments and ideas which cannot conveniently be person ; but, at the best, it can only impose upon those

Between the groaning forest and the shore, expressed, they are apt to lead to the expression of whose approbation is not worth having, or will, when

A rural, shelter'd, solitary scene.-THOMBON. others which are not consistent with the truth. In obtained, be equally false. With the discerning and In that pleasant sunoy district of “merry England" sincerity, however, arises from many sources in the good, such a miserable expedient can only serve to which lies on the borders of the British Channel, opkuman character. In some it springs from the go raise the worst suspicions, neutralising the value of posite the Isle of Wight, and within the boundaries duine love of concealment and intrigue. In others it any little merit that may exist.

of Hampshire, lies the New Forest, or rather the is prompted by a dread of the consequences which There is a kind of insincerity to which it may be scattered remains of that once famous bunting ground. they suppose would result from the disclosure of the more difficult to attach the idea of guilt, but which What an antiquity does this tract of woodland boast, truth. In others, it arises from a false love of approba. must not be overlooked. It is the abuse of the habit of though still receiving the appellation of New! It tion, the flattering of others seeming to them a sure innocent jesting. Some give themselves up 80 entirely was originally made a forest by William the Conqueror way of gaining that object.

to an ironical and bantering kind of discourse, and in the year 1079, about thirteen years after the battle To the first of these classes of individuals, all that use a phraseology so full of whimsical slang, that their of Hastinge, and it took the designation of New, from can be said is, that they possess a feature of character real sentiments are at length buried beneath a mass its being an addition to the many forests which the which they should endeavour to keep in check, as, if of rubbish, and, after knowing them for years, you crown already possessed. According to the chro. indulged, it cannot fail to procure them much con become alive to the painful recollection, that, during niclers of the period, William laid waste at least thirty tempt, and frustrate all those cherished views which the whole time, you have not found in their character miles of cultivated lands, and committed great dethey think by such means to realise.

a single piece of solid ground whereon to rest your vastations on the property of the inhabitants, in de. To the second class, I would say, that, like all foot. Persons of this kind live in a perpetual mas dicating the place as a bunting ground, and partially cowards, they are apt to miscalculate the supposed querade ; they grow old with the rattle in their hands; covering it with trees.* danger. Even if a dread of consequence were a fair and, while their neighbours are all more or less bu. In those days, however, it was a matter of little cereexcuse for a departure from truth, they should still re- sied with serious objects, aim at no higher gratifica- mony either to make or enlarge a forest. The king flect that they should not give way to it in a greater tion than that of being laughed at. All manly and was invested with the privilege of having his place of degree than is absolutely necessary. They will readily estimable qualities in time sink under the babit ; the recreation and pleasure wherever he might appoint. allow that to incur a considerable danger in endea- motley, at first put on as a mask, eats in time into the Agreeably to this arrangement the royal forests were vouring to escape a small one, can only be the mark character itself ; and that which was once perhaps a regulated ; each had its government and laws, whic's of an imbecile mind. In the most of circumstances, good and valid human being, is found in the end a were sufficiently annoying; and in this manner the the danger from telling the truth, as it is usually im. mere painted husk. There is, in contrast with such right of hunting or taking game became a peculiar mediate, can at least be calculated with accuracy ; a habit, an open and pure kind of speech which, how. privilege of the monarch and those who enjoyed his but no one can tell what mischiefs are to ensue, in ever homely its tone, or in whatever dialect it may be favour. The idea of forest law and forest rights ob. long.drawn succession, from either the saying of what expressed, dignifies every one who uses it, and is un. tained early, indeed in Saxon times. But the Saxon is false, or the suppression of what is true. In general, questionably conducive to moral excellence.

princes were in general a mild race, and there were the straight-forward course only threatens us with a In the indulgence of every kind of dissimulation, some traces of liberal sentiment in their institutions. xlight loss of the respect of others, which the majesty in whatever circumstances, there is much danger. The Norman princes were a different race. They in. of sincerity is almost sure immediately to restore : However innocent a transaction may be in itself, bow.creased the rigour of the forest laws, and to such an but what an awful responsibility do we incur when ever absolute may appear the necessity of managing extent was the rigour carried, that, till the reign of we undertake to endure the unalleviated miseries, it clandestinely, it cannot be so carried into effect one of the Edwards, it was death to be guilty of kill. with which we are to be overpowered at that moment, without injury to virtue. In the very consciousness ing a hawk. Forest law is now abolished, but the when it is discovered that we were not only guilty of of putting a veil over our thoughts, there is a sure officials who are entrusted with the care of the New the fault, but destroyed our honour in a vain endeavour degradation. Hence, smugglers, conspirators, and Forest, still in some measure continue to exercise to conceal it! In the very dread of such a detection the members of various ambuscading professions, how their functions.

The principal functionary is the there must be infinitely greater pain than in the most ever convinced they may be of the abstract innocence, lord-warden, who is appointed by the crown, and be. humiliating confession. The timid insincere, when and even praise-worthiness of their practices, in time neath whom there are rangers and other officials, for tempted to take this means of avoiding a little trouble, become vitiated. It is of very great importance that preservation of the game and timber. We believe would do well to consider the one danger as well as the the course of our lives should be such that we have that some of the ancient offices are now disused, espeother, and not, for the sake of a trifle, pledge away more little to conceal.

cially that of bow.bearer. It was the duty of this than the nature of the risk entitles them to stake. In conclusion, to all who may be disposed by nature personage to attend the king with a bow and arrows But persons of this kind often imagine there is danger or "evil communications” to the vice of insincerity, whilst in the forest. His salary was forty shillings where there is none, and act the hypocrite for nothing. I would not only represent the obvious disadvantages per annum, with a fee of a buck and doe yearly. They conceive themselves to be called upon either to which follow the practice of the vice, but also the The keepers and under-keepers form the principal assuine certain feelings, which they would not natu. great advantages which accrue from the opposite vir. executive in this ancient domain. According to Gil. rally assume, or to put a disguise upon those which tue. No one can reflect on the vast number of evils pin, the under-keeper feeds the deer in winter, browses really animate them, and thus, from whatever cause and inconveniences which afflict society on account of them in summer, knows where to find a fat buck, often from a mistaken deference to a few surround the necessity of being guarded against possible insin. executes the king's warrants for venison, presents ing minds—subject themselves to the humbling and cerity; no one can reckon up the fears, discomforts, offences in the forest courts, and prevents the destruc. vitiating sense of doing what is mean and wrong; and expense of both money and pains, which are tion of game. In this last article his virtue is chiefly when a candid and conscientious course, so far from every where occasioned by the few who habitually de- shown, and to this purpose the memory of every sound injuring them in any way, would gain them that ap- part from truth,—or contemplate the happiness which keeper should be furnished with this cabalistic verseprobation which sincerity never fails to command. would attend even a sublunary world, where truth

Stable stand, Insincere discourse towards others, for the sake of prevailed more generally; without feeling that he

Dog draw, gaining a larger return of approbation, is 80 short-cannot in himself practise a virtue more useful to his

Bloody hand. sighted and so contemptible a folly, that they must kind, or accord to any fellow.creature greater praise It implies the several circumstances in which offend. be weak indeed who are guilty of it. In more than than to say that he is sincere. But, besides the lustre ers may be taken with the manner, as it is phrased. one previous paper, an endeavour has been made to im. with which we are invested by the practice of since. If a man be found armed, and stationed in some sus. press the great truth, that, without genuine deserv. rity, there is the comfort of the still brighter and ings, there can be no genuine or estimable praise. All more blessed light which it kindles in our own bosoms. • The greater part of what follows is a condensation from “Gil. false arts for obtaining the respect and admiration of He who is conscious of sincerity can scarcely know Thomas Dick Lauder ; vols.: Fraser and Co., Edinburgh ; and

pin's Forest Scenery," as edited and considerably extended by Sir our fellows, are labour in vain; or rather, by engross. I fear : he walks through the wilderness of this world, Smith, Elder, and Co., London, 1834

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