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bination of water and land conveyances as to place North Queensferry, stands a tall ruined edifice, called the huge masses of Ben Lomond and Ben Ledi, and tourists, particularly those who can walk a few miles, Rosyth Castle, the base of wbich is washed by the waves others scarcely less elevated, and while before the completely at their ease. A fourth tour, distinct from of the sea at high water. There is something impres spectator, in the north, there rise to an inferior height

various woody hills broken into precipitous cliffs, the any of the above, may be performed from Edinburgh sive, and even august, in the appearance of this an.

scene on the east offers to the eye an extensive flat to Perth, by way of the Tay, and from thence on. cient fortalice, deserted as it is, in these its days of vale, bounded by the range of the Ochil hills on the wards Dunkeld or other scenes of beauty in Perth- ruin and decay, by every thing but the wild sea-bird north, and, on the south, by those rising grounds on a shire, both highland and lowland. In undertaking and the timid sheep. It was in its days of pride the part of which was fought the battle of Bannockburn. tours such as we allude to, a good deal depends on seat of that branch of the Stuart family from which Edinburgh may be seen rising over the shoulder of

In this direction, in a clear day, the pinnacles of having a proper starting point, as well as a clear idea Oliver Cromwell was descended, the posterity, namely, the Corstorphine hill. The view of the vale below is of what is wished to be seen.

of Sir James Stuart, uncle to King Robert II. On a exceedingly beautiful. The river Forth, after passing Glasgow and Edinburgh are the two chief starting stone in the south side of the tower, near the ground, beneath the bridge which here crosses it, winds, as places; from either of these cities there are innumer. and where the dinner bell used to hang, is a quaint has been described, in a singularly capricious serpenable stage-coaches, canal-boats, and steam-vessels con- inscription, the words of which may be thus modern riantly covered with vegetation, and here and there

tine course, forming a number of peninsulæ, luxu. stantly plying, and inviting the tourist to take ad. ised :

dotted with farm-houses and cottages. In the fore. vantage of their accommodations. We love Glasgow In due time, draw this cord, the bell to clink, ground, on one of these peninsulated fields, are obe above all the places in the world for its admirable ar- Whose merry voice warns to meat and drink.

served the tall ruins of the ancient abbey of Cambns. rangements in regard to jannting. From its commo.

Above the strait of Queensferry, the Firth assumes

kenneth, once one of the principal religious houses dious quey, steam-vessels start daily and at all hours the appearance of an inland lake, which character queen were interred.

in Scotland, and the place where James III. and his for all places within the scope of the Highland tour

it possesses as far up as the town of Alloa, a dis. The view from the south side of the castle is less scenery. Leaving this qualification, however, as a tance of twenty miles. After this, it closes in as a

extensive, but still possesses a number of interesting matter for future observation, we wish to begin at the river, resembling the Thames above Westminster,

features. On the low ground in this direction lay the beginning, and go along with the stranger on the tour and is confined to a serpentine channel through the that of a desolate heath or marsh. It is yet possible,

king's gardens, the present condition of which is now from Edinburgh to Loch Katrine, by way of Stirling. midst of verdant meadows. It is worth any one's however, to trace on this wild spot the peculiar form Edinburgh, as is generally known, stands on a

while to visit Stirling by water, merely to see the into which the ground had been thrown by its royal series of hilly grounds, which rise gradually from the links or windings of the Forth. The water describes proprietors. Immediately beneath the woody sloping southern shore of the Firth of Forth, its distance a long series of sweeps, which are all but formed into ancient place of tournament and games, still distin.

bank of the esplanade in front of the castle, is the from which is about a mile and a half. The view from perfect circles; and in sailing along it, the stranger is guishable by its raised tumuli. the eminences in Edinburgh across and along this puzzled and amused to the last degree by the variety castle, and viewing this splendid panorama of bill and

After examining the inlet of the sea is usually considered to be remarkably of positions into which he is thrown in regard to the dale, wood and water, the visitor returns to the town fine, and such as to attract the attention of strangers. surrounding objects. In some instances, an artificial

to explore the objects it offers for bis inspection. The On the right, the Firth is seen widening till lost in

interior and more ancient streets of Stirling present cut of twenty or thirty yards would save perhaps a the German Ocean ; on the left it is observed to con. couple of miles in the course of the stream.

rather a mean appearance, being generally long, nar. tract and disappear amidst the bosom of hills, having Unless the tide serve, steam-vessels are unable to houses. It is nevertheless undergoing considerable

row, and containing many old-fashioned and decayed for their background some of the loftiest of the High- reach Stirling, in which case the passengers are trans- improvements; it contains many excellent shops and Jand mountains. The most pleasing route to the ferred to a large row-boat, and by it landed at the several good inns; and the environs are now embela Trosachs is by way of this piece of water; and to its

town. Stirling is one of the most ancient of the Scot. lished with new streets and handsome villas. The shore a number of vehicles are continually plying, tish burghs, and bears a striking resemblance, though municipal affairs are also now well managed, and, a miniature one, to the old town of Edinburgh ; each

to the honour of the corporations, they a short time particularly at such times as suit the sailing

being built on the ridge and sides of a hill which rises ago voluntarily abandoned their old exclusive pri. steam-boats to Stirling, which lies at the head of the gradually from the east, and presents an abrupt crag vileges, so that any kind of trade may now be carried navigation. If the traveller means to go no farther or rocky cliff towards the west; and each having a

on in the place without let or hindrance, Such an than Loch Katrine, he may take his luggage with principal street on the surface of the ridge, the upper instance of liberality on a great scale is so pleasing him ; but if he intends or be able to walk several end of which opens upon a castle. While the situa.

an indication of the improvement of society and the tion of Stirling is thus one of the most pleasing and growing intelligence of the age, that we have thought miles over a bad mountain road (on which there are picturesque in the country, it is a place noted for its it worthy of being made widely known. The princi. no conveyances) from Loch Katrine to Loch Lomond, antiquities, and the historical associations connected pal manufacture carried on in this district of country and so save himself from turning back a great many with it. Throughout the period of the reign of the is that of coarse woollens, such as plaids and tartans, miles, he should take nothing with him but what he Stuarts, it was a favourite seat of royalty; and it fi. which find a market in all parts of Britain. can conveniently carry. gured in divers exploits of Wallace during the struggle

If the tourist has a day or two to spare, he may We strongly recommend for national independence. It was particularly fa

make some most agreeable excursions in the neigh. him to take only as much luggage as he can carry, voured by the residence of James V., who was born bourhood of Stirling. Airthrie is a scattered village, and so go on from Loch Katrine to Loch Lomond and crowned in its castle, and who adorned it by the situated about a mile north-west of the town, and is and the rest of the Clyde scenery, which will save erection of the present palace. While this merry

now the place of summer resort of certain classes of both time and expense.

monarch resided in the castle, he frequently went valetudinarians, who proceed thither to drink the

forth in disguise, and his adventures on these occa. waters of a powerful mineral spring. Visitants chiefly · The stearo-boats from Edinburgh to Stirling gene- sions have furnished a theme for many amusing anec.

reside at Stirling, or at an adjacent rustic and pic. rally leave Newhaven chain.pier, the port of Edin dutes. Of the many historical incidents transacted turesque village called the Bridge of Allan. Leaving burgh for steamers, at hours from six till ten in the in the castle, none so well illustrate the state of miss this agreeable spot, the tourist may pay a visit to the morning, and the fare is seldom more than two shil rule in Scotland in early times as the assassination of ancient episcopal city of Dumblane, which occupies a lings. It is best to get away as soon as possible, for the Earl of Douglas by James II. This monarch was delightful and somewhat elevated' situation on the

so exceedingly annoyed through the whole of his reign east bank of the river Allan. It may be easily reached the sail occupies from five to six hours, and some time by this too powerful family of nobles, which at one time by means of one-horse chaises, called noddies, from should, if possible, be spent at Stirling. If the wea. had so nearly unsettled him from his throne, that in Stirling. Though entitled to be called a city, from ther be propitious, this forms one of the most agree. a fit of disgust he formed the resolution of retiring to having been the seat of a bishop, Dumblane is now able sails which can be undertaken. The scenery on

the Continent. At length, a means of escape from only a large village, consisting of a single street of an

the annoyance of the family arrived. William, Earl old-fashioned character, with a few lanes. In recent the Forth is not grand, but the grounds on either side

of Douglas, having entered into a league with the years it has become a place of considerable resort in rise to a moderate height, and are in many places rich. Earls of Crawford and Ross against their sovereign, the summer months by persons intending to ruralise ly clothed by plantations, and embellished with noble James invited him to Stirling Castle, and endeavoured and take the benefit of a mineral well in the neigh. men's and gentlemen's seats. On the south shore, the to persuade him to break the treasonable compact. The bourhood. The great object of attraction in Dumblane traveller will not fail to observe the woody pleasure- king led him out of his audience-chamber

(now the is what was once the cathedral of the bishop, the grounds and splendid mansions of the Earls of Rose into a small closet close beside it (now thrown into ing exhibits many traces of fine architecture and bery and Hopetoun ; on the north, he will be equally the drawing-room), and there proceeded to entreat that carving. Within the parish of Dumblane, and at the pleased with the domains and house of the Earl of he would break the league: Douglas peremptorily re

north base of the Ochil hills, was fought the bloody Moray, and of Alloa House, the seat of the Earl of fusing, James at last exclaimed in a rage, "Then, if but indecisive battle of Sheriff.moor in 1715, between Mar, besides other places not less agreeably situated you will not, I shall,” and instantly plunged his dag. the government forces under the Duke of Argyle,

ger into the body of the obstinate noble. According and the insurgent Jacobite army led on by the Earl on the nearest rising grounds.

to tradition, his body was thrown over the window of of Mar. In passing up and down the Firth, the steam-boats the closet into a retired courtyard behind, and there It is worthy of remark, that Stirling is a kind of stop at various places to land or take on board passen- buried ; in confirmation of which, the skeleton of an central point in what may be styled the battle-country gers. One of the chief of these stopping-places is armed man was found in the ground at that place of Scotland. The field of Bannockburn is, however,

some years ago. Such is a tolerable sample of the the chief object of curiosity to those interested in our Charleston, on the north side, the nearest port to

deeds performed without semblance of law or justice national annals ; and as it lies only about a couple of Dunfermline. This ancient town is situated on a ris. in what are called “the good old times.”

miles from Stirling in a south-easterly direction, it is ing ground at the distance of three or four miles from The most interesting object in or about Stirling is the very frequently visited by tourists. The field is an up. the water's edge; and if the tourist has time to spare, castle, which consists of a number of buildings perched land, lying betwixt the villages of Bannockburn and

on the summit of the before-mentioned cliff, and sur. and be curious in old ecclesiastical architecture, he rounded by walls, bristling with a few useless can

St Ninians, on the face of those long.descending braes

which have a northern exposure to the Firth. The may advantageously wend his way thither. Dunferm- non, and garrisoned with as useless a body of soldiers. battle, which was fought betwixt the Scottish forces line was the place of residence of Malcolm Canmore, The principal building in the castle is the palace, a under Robert Bruce, and the English invaders under and Margaret of England, his queen, in the eleventh lofty erection, externally exhibiting many fine traces Edward II., as is well known, established the perma

nent independence of Scotland against the ambition of century, and it was from his court held here that the of sculpture, but, in the interior, adapted entirely to

the purposes of a barrack. It is not any work of art, the English monarchy. About half a mile south from Anglo-Saxon usages and language spread over Scot. however, which will long engage attention. The eye St Ninians, upon the top of an eminence called the Cal. land. The remains of an abbey originally founded turns from the dull vacant courts to the splendid scene don hill, and close by the old road from Stirling to Kil. by Margaret are still extant, and have become famed which nature spreads out on all sides of the fort. The syth, is a large earth-fast granite, called the Bore-stone, in recent times from having been discovered to be the view from the battery at the north-east angle, is, with having a hole or bore in the top, in which the Scottis

out exception, in our opinion, the finest in Scotland. king inserted his standard. This spot is, we believe, burial place of Robert Bruce. Dunfermline is now a

It is worth travelling a hundred miles to see. The the object of an annual visit, on the anniversary of the busy seat of the Scottish linen manufacture. Near the

prospect embraces both the lofty rugged grandeur of battle, to one or more associations of patriotio indivi. little sea-port, at which passengers are put ashore for the Highlands, and the soft luxuriance of an Italian duals, who walk in procession thither the preserva. Dunfermline, and a short way west of the village of | plain. While the western horizon is crowded with I tion of feelings connected with historical events being

roads.

one of the prevailing traits of character of the people at Lockport. The portage railway across the Alleg. To secure the trade of the Susquehanah, a railroad in the northern division of the island.

hany Mountains is certainly one of the boldest works has been projected from Baltimore, to strike that river As the places we have mentioned either may or may of the kind undertaken and completed, in this or any in Pennsylvania, by the way of York; but what pronot be visited, the tourist has an opportunity of stay other country. It is thirty-six miles in length, and gress has been made in it, we have not ascertained. ing at Stirling for a day, or of passing almost imme. in this distance overcomes a rise and fall of two thou. The citizens of Baltimore had at various times ex. diately onwards to the Trosachs, to which we shall sand five hundred and seventy feet; and in one part pended many hundred thousand dollars in improving conduct him in next paper.

of it has a tunnel of nine hundred feet cut through a the navigation of the Susquehanah, lying within the solid rock ; it has ten stationary steam-engines, and limits of Maryland, by which they had enjoyed no

ten inclined planes, five on each side of the mountain; small share of the trade of that river. This trade, RAILWAYS IN THE UNITED STATES.

and the ropes alone, necessary on these inclined planes, however, they were losing, in consequence of the in [Condensed from the Statistical Work of Mr Pitkin, formerly would reach more than eleven miles, and their expense ternal improvements of Pennsylvania, and of the De. mentioned.]

has been more than D.20,000- and what is still more laware and Chesapeake canal: and to regain it, this The enterprise of the North Americans is not more singular, a rigger's loft has been erected for these ropes, road was projected. conspicuous in respect of the canals which have been on the summit of the mountain, where riggers are em. As we proceed south, we find that Virginia, also, formed, than for the railways which have been pro- ployed, at an annual expense of more than D. 1600. has her railroads already in operation, and others in jected, and are either finished or now in the course of

The whole expense of this stupendous work will be contemplation. In this state a railroad has been con.

about D.1,750,000. completion. Such indeed has been the mania for this

structed from the tide waters on James' River, near

In addition to the state railroads, many roads of Richmond, to the coal-mines in Chesterfield county, kind of internal improvement, that between one and this kind have been made and are now making in a distance of thirteen and a half miles. It was comtwo hundred private companies have been incorpo. Pennsylvania, by companies and individuals, the most menced in January 1830, and was in operation in July rated, for this object, in different parts of the United of which are connected with the coal mines, and have 1831; and was made for about 1.8000 per mile, and States. It is not our intention (says Mr Pitkin), even been constructed for the purpose of facilitating the has been very profitable to the stockholders. were it in our power, to trace the various routes con. transportation of coal from these mines to the canals A railroad from Petersburgh to Weldon on the templated in these various acts of incorporation many

or other water communications. The most consider. Roanoke, a distance of sixty miles, has been in opera. of them will, probably, never be commenced, or, if able of these are the Philadelphia and Trenton, which tion for about two years. 'In November 1833, there commenced, finished. In this, as well as in every

will soon be completed; the Philadelphia and German- had been expended upon it D.515,334, and its income thing else which is new, and connected with indivi. town, the Little Schuylkill, Mine Hill and Schuyl- for a year ending October 31st, 1833, was D.37,574. dual interest, fancied benefits outrun sober calcula. kill, Mount Carbon, Danville, and Pottsville, Schuyl. This road was calculated to divert a part of the trade tions. We shall only notice, and that in a general kill valley, Mauch Chunk, Room Run, West branch, of the river Roanoke from Norfolk to Petersburgh. way, some of the principal of those already completed, Mill creek, Pine grove, Lykens valley, and Carbon To prevent this, a similar road has been projected, and or in such progress as to insure their completion.

dale, and many collateral roads, connected with these is now in progress, from Portsmouth to a place on the In New England (to begin at the north), a railway at the mines. A lateral railroad is made from the Roanoke, in North Carolina, opposite Weldon, a disof three miles in extent was constructed at Quincy, in

state road to Columbia, about twenty miles from Phi. tance of seventy-seven miles; the estimated cost of Massachusetts, in 1825 or 1826, at the expense of ladelphia to West Chester, a distance of nine miles, which is only D.475,000. A company has also been about D.11,000 (dollars) per milé, for the purpose of at an expense of about D.100,000. About forty-five lately chartered, to construct a railroad from Wintransporting the valuable granite of that town to tide miles from Philadelphia, on the Columbia railroad, a chester to Harper's Ferry, to meet the road from Bal. water. Three railroads are now constructing from road is located to Port Deposit, on the Susquehanah, timore to that place, and which will soon be completed. Boston: one to the manufacturing town of Lowell, a through Oxford, a distance of about thirty-one miles, Virginia has also long contemplated to secure a share distance of about thirty miles ; one to Worcester, to meet a similar road from Baltimore. The whole of the western trade, by connecting James' River with about forty miles; and one, about the same distance, extent of railroads in Pennsylvania, made by compa- the Ohio, by the way of the Great Kanaway. A comto Providence. These three roads, at an expense of nies and individuals, is about three hundred miles. pany has been for some time formed to effect this great about one million of dollars each, will be completed, The Newcastle and French Town railroad, sixteen object, by connecting the rivers with canals or rail. in all probability, in 1835. From Providence, a rail- miles in length, connects the Delaware River with the The expense has been estimated at somewhat road was commenced in 1833 to Stonington, in Con. Chesapeake, in the state of Delaware. This road cost more than D.8,000,000, but the whole stock, it is beDecticut, a distance of about forty.eight miles, the about 1.400,000, and is one of the best in the United lieved, has not yet been taken up. expense of which is estimated at about D.1,140,000. States.

South Carolina has already completed the longest In the state of New York, the Hudson and Mo. The enterprising citizens of Baltimore, in 1826, railroad, now in operation, in any part of the world. hawk, the Schenectady and Saratoga railroads, are perceiving that, in consequence of steam-navigation It extends from Charleston to Hamburgh, on the Sa. well known-the former, about fifteen miles in length, on the western waters, and the exertions of other vannah river, opposite to Augusta, a distance of one has cost nearly D. 1,000,000; and the latter, twenty- states, they were losing the trade of the west, began hundred and thirty-five and a quarter miles. It was one miles long, will have only cost, including every seriously to consider of some mode of recovering it. commenced in 1830, and was opened for use through. thing, about D.297,000. A similar road has lately A communication with the Ohio by a canal was first out, in 1833. It is built on piles, and may be consi. been established, and the stock taken up, from Troy contemplated ; but the report of the engineers sent dered as a continuous bridge. Its original cost, into Saratoga, twenty-four miles, and which, it is said, out by the government of the United States, by which cluding preliminary surveys, locomotive engines, cars, will be finished in 1835, at an expense of D.300,000. the cost of such a canal was estimated at more than depositories, inclined planes, stationary engines, purA railroad from Harlaem to New York is nearly twenty-two millions of dollars, induced them to sub. chase of land, &c. was D.904,500. Where these piles completed. Farther west in that state, a similar road stitute a railroad ; and for this purpose, in February are above the surface of the ground, it has been con. is nearly finished, from Ithica, the head of the Cayuga 1827, they obtained acts of incorporation from Mary- sidered necessary to fill up the space with earth, and Lake, to Oswego, on the Susquehanab, twenty-nine land and Virginia. The company was authorised to this has been partly done; and this, with other items, miles, at an expense of about D.400,000"; and a short strike the Ohio River at any place between Pittsburgh increased the cost of the road, up to October 31st, 1834, road connecting Rochester with Lake Ontario. and the mouth of the Little Kanaway. The distance to D.1,336,615. The stock is considered valuable.

The railroad between Schenectady and Utica was to Pittsburgh was about three hundred and thirty From May to October 1834, a period of six months, chartered in 1833, is now in progress, and will, no miles.

the company received, for transportation of passengers doubt, be completed as soon as a road of that length This was the most extensive, and, we may add, the and cotton on this road, 1.83,445. The number of and magnitude can be done. Its length is seventy- boldest project of the kind ever undertaken by any passengers, during this period, was thirteen thousand seven and a half miles, and the estimated cost government, or by individuals. The road contem- five hundred and seventy-five, paying D.35, 140, and D. 1,500,000.

plated was about four times the length of any similar the quantity of cotton transported the same time, was The number of passengers on the Mohawk and one in Europe, and over ground much higher and twelve thousand seven hundred and fifty-six bales, Hudson road, in 1834, exceeded the number between more difficult than any other before occupied for such and which paid 1.47,304. New York and Philadelphia, on the Camden and Am. a road. But neither the boldness of the plan, nor the In Georgia, a company has been incorporated to boy road, more than thirty-three thousand, the num. difficulties attending its execution, prevented an im- make a road from Augusta to Athens, and we are in. ber on the latter being only, as will be seen hereafter, mediate subscription to the amount of D.4,000,000, formed that the stock has been taken up, the route one hundred and ten thousand. We would here ob towards carrying it into effect-the state of Maryland surveyed, and will probably be made, and at an ex. serve, that the railroad from New York to Lake Erie, and the city of Baltimore each furnishing D.500,000 pense of about 1.10,000 per mile. The distance is through Binghampton, so long in contemplation, has of this sum, and individuals the remainder. The about one hundred and fourteen miles. This road is been lately accurately surveyed and pronounced prac. work was commenced on the 4th of July 1828, but considered a continuation of the Charleston road, and ticable, to strike the lake somewhere between Dun. was for a long time retarded by a dispute between the naturally connected with it. From Athens, it is kirk and Portland, a distance of four hundred and company and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Com- contemplated to extend it to Decatur on the Tennessee eighty-three miles, the expense, with a single track, pany, as to prior right of location in certain parts of river, and thus, in this direction, connect the trade of being estimated at 1.4,762,260.

the route. This dispute, however, has been adjusted, the west with the city of Charleston. The Camden and Amboy railroad, sixty-one miles and on the 1st of December 1834, the road was tinished In Alabama, a railroad round the Muscle shoals in length, is now completed, and brings the cities of to Harper's Ferry, so as to admit the passage of cars in the Tennessee river, was finished about the 1st of New York and Philadelphia into the vicinity of each to that place, a distance of about eighty-two miles, December 1834. It extends from Tuscumbia, through other, the travel of five or six hours being only re. and at an expense of towards D.3,000,000. At Har- Cortland to Decatur, a little more than forty-tive quired from one city to the other. The cost of this per's Ferry, this road meets another railroad from miles ; twenty-five of which was made in 1834. This road, including real estate, steam-boats connected that place to Winchester, in Virginia, which is now road must be advantageous to a great extent of coun. with it, locomotive cars, wharves, &c. was about in progress—from Winchester, it is calculated that a try adjoining the Tennessee river, above the Muscle D.2,000,000. The number of passengers on this road, road will be continued to the Ohio, either at Parkens shoals'; as that river above these shoals is navigable during the past season (1834), was one hundred and ten burgh, by crossing the mountains from Winchester, for steam boats as high up as Knoxville, a distance of thousand, and the gross income said to be D.500,000. or by ascending the valley of the Shenandoah, tó about four hundred miles. This road is connected with the Raritan and Delaware Staunton, and then to Jennings gap, and the white An important road of this character has been comcanal. A road from the manufacturing village of Pat. sulphur springs, to Guyandotte.

menced in Kentucky, and will no doubt be soon comterson, to New York, about sixteen miles, is nearly The tolls collected on the Baltimore and Ohio rail. pleted. It extends from Lexington, through Frank. finished, but at what expense, we have not ascer- road, from October 1st, 1833, to September 30th, 1834, fort, the seat of government, to Louisville, a distance tained. In addition to these, a road is now in progress, was from tonnage and passengers, D.205,436; the ex- of about ninety miles. The work upon it was comfrom Jersey City, through Newark and Elizabeth. penses for the same period were D.132,862, leaving a menced in April 1832, but during the summer of town to Brunswick.

revenue of D.72,574. The number of passengers on 1833 was suspended on account of the cholera. In The railroads as well as the canals of Pennsylvania, the road the same year, was ninety-four thousand September 1834, twenty-three miles were finished, exceed in number, extent, and expense, those of any eight hundred and forty-four, and the tonnage of ar- and by the 1st of January following, it was completed other state. The Philadelphia and Columbia road, ticles fifty-six thousand one hundred and twenty- and used to Frankfort, twenty-eight miles. The cost and the portage road, over the Alleghany, constitute nineteen thousand nine hundred and twenty-eight go of this road, with a single track, was estimated at a part, as before stated, of the great inland communi. ing westwardly, and thirty-six thousand one hundred D.1,032,000 ; and its actual expense thus far has not cation between the Delaware and Lake Erie, and and ninety-one eastwardly.

much exceeded the estimate the estimated cost to were constructed at the expense of the state.

The

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company are now Frankfort being D.355,000, and the actual cost to that former is eighty-two miles in length, and the expense, constructing a lateral railroad to the city of Washing- place about D.370,000. This road, we understand, when completed, will be about D.3,500,000, or more ton, commencing about eight miles from Baltimore. has been built in a substantial manner. than D.44,000 per mile.

It is about thirty-two miles in length, and will proba- Other roads of this kind have been contemplated In crossing the Alleghany, the Pennsylvanians had bly be completed in 1835. The expense of making it and authorised, in the western states, and some of to encounter difficulties, apparently insurmountable, is estimated at D. 1,500,000, and on the 1st of October them will no doubt ere long be finished. The state as the New Yorkers bad, in passing the rocky ridge | 1834, about 1.900,000 had been expended upon it. of Indiana has lately authorised a loan of about a

A CONVERSATION.

A HINT TO WIVES.--" If I'm not home from the million and a half to make similar roads in that state.

WHAT DRAM-DRINKING IS DOING. In Louisiana, a railroad has been completed from party to.night at ten o'clock," said a husband to his

" That

CAPITAL punishments have of late years been uncom. New Orleans to Lake Ponchartrain, about six miles, better and bigger half, “don't wait for me.

mon in Scotlaud except in cases of murder, and it is at an expense, including machinery and real estate, I won't,” said the lady, significantly." I wont wait

; exceedingly worthy

of notice, that few murders ara but I'll come for you.

at ten . of D.443,443. The railroads before noticed, which were completed

TAKING THINGS COOLLY.-Some time ago, a young than drunkenness. It is still more lamentable to re

now perpetrated in the country from any other cause on the lst of January 1835, or would not long after farmer left a market town,, situated no matter where; mark, that the murders are generally of husbands by be completed, are in length, taken together, about and proceeded homewards, mounted on a nag of which sixteen hundred miles, and their cost not far from he has often boasted, as 'Tam O'Shanter did of his their wives, and of wives by their husbands. It would

appear that, in all such cases, the unhappy murderers D.30,000,000. The aggregate length of those in Penn. mare, that “a better never lifted leg.” The season

have been roused to a state of ungovernable fury from sylvania is about four hundred and eighteen miles, was winter, and the night very dark; and from some

the conduct of their partners in life, and the utter inade at an expense estimated to exceed D.7,000,000. cause or other the animal deviated from the proper When the cost of the railroads in the United States path, stumbled over a crag, and broke its neck; 'als hopelessness of relief from their misery. The demo

ralised condition of the lower order of females in par. is added to that of the canals, it will be found that though the rider, strange to say, escaped uphurt, Or; ticular, in large towns, purely from the practice of there has been or will soon be expended in this coun. sum not less than about L.94,000,000; and this has happened, and directed one of them to proceed to the cipate that murders will go on rapidly increasingtry, on these two kinds of internal improvement, a journeyed home on foot, told the servants what had dram-drinking, is becoming daily more distressing:

and if no remedy interpose, we may rationally antibeen done principally since 1817. In reviewing the foregoing brief account of the and bringing away the skin and shoes. The lad of for the fear of public execution has no influence what.

ever in arresting the progress of crime. There is a canals and railroads of the United States, it will be course obeyed his instructions, and was busily engaged, law in one of the American states, Ohio we believe, perceived that the two principal objects originally con. when his senior master, who had also been at mar. templated in making them, have in a great measure ket, but who preferred travelling in day-light, passed by which confirmed drunkenness forms a plea for di

vorce, which must save many lives, and not a little the spot, and on hearing some noise, patised, and domestic misery. In some of the northern countries cation, along or near the Atlantic sea board, has been looked into the ravine below. On recognising through of Europe, there are also regulations of a peculiar completed-large vessels can now go from the Hud. the branches one of his own men, he called out, “ Is son to the Delaware, through the Raritan and Dela. that you, Benjie ?" “Ay, it's just me, maister.” might find advantageous to examine. In Sweden, as

nature relative to drunkenness, which our legislators ware caual, from tbence through the Delaware and An' what are you doing there ?”. Ou, just skin.

" What pony ?"

i Maister Chesapeake canal, and Chesapeake bay, to Norfolk in nin' the pony, sir."

we learn from Schubert, in his Travels, the laws for Virginia, and from Norfolk, through the Dismal George's, that tubled down last night, and broke its punishing intemperance are very rigorons." The

laws against intoxication (says he) are enforced with Swamp canal, to Albemarle sound in North Carolina. neck." “Ay, indeed! and can ye tell me wha's skin

great rigour in Sweden. Whoever is seen drunk, The eastern and western waters are now connected, nin’ George ?"

is fined, for the first offence, three dollars ; for the se. not only from the Hudson to Lake Erie, through the

cond, six ; for the third and fourth, a still larger sum, State of New York, but also from the Delaware to

THE FOUNTAIN,

and is also deprived of the right of voting at elections, the Ohio, and to the same lake, through Pennsylva.

and of being appointed a representative. He is, benia. This has greatly facilitated the intercourse be

sides, publicly exposed in the parish church on the

(From Wordsworth's Poems.) tween the east and the west, to the immense advantage of both, and has bound them together by ties, which

We talked with open heart, and tongue

following Sunday. If the same individual is found

comaiting the same offence a fifth time, he is shut we trust can never be broken. In addition to this Affectionate and true,

A pair of Friends, though I was young,

up in a house of correction, and condemned to six evidence of the great and growing wealth and re

And Matthew seventy-two.

months' bard labour; and if he is again guilty, of s sources of this country, it will be remembered, that

twelvemonth's punishment of a similar description the United States, during the same period, have paid We lay beneath a spreading oak,

If the offence has been committed in public, such as off a national debt of more than D.120,000,000.

Beside a mossy seat;

at a fair, an auction, &c., the fine is doubled ; and if And from the turf a fountain broke,

the offender has made bis appearance in a church, the And gurgled at our feet. JOKES.

punishment is still more severe. Whoever is con. “Now, Matthew !” said I, “let us match

victed of having induced another to intoxicate him. (From the “ Laird of Logan, or Wit of the West," recently published.] This water's pleasant tune

self, is fined three dollars, which sum is doubled if the

With some old Border-Song, or Catch, CAN SHE SPIN ?-A young girl was presented to

person is a minor. An ecclesiastic who falls into this

That suis a summer's noon. James I. as an English prodigy, because she was

offence loses his benefice : if it is a layman who occu. deeply learned. The person who introduced her Or of the Church-clock and the chimes

pies any considerable post, his functions are suspended, boasted of her proficiency in ancient languages. “I

Sing here beneath the shade,

and perhaps he is dismissed. Drnokenness is never

That hall-mad thing of witty rhymes can assure your majesty," said he, “that she can both

admitted as an excuse for any crime; and whoever

Which you last April made !" speak and write Latin, Greek, and Hebrew.” “These

dies when drunk is buried ignominiously, and deprived are rare attainments for a damsel,” said James ; “but In silence Matthew lay, and eyed

of the prayers of the church. It is forbidden to give, pray, tell me, can she spin ?"

The spring beneath the tree;

and more explicitly to sell, any spirituoas liquors to THE INGENUITY OF A BEGGAR Boy.—A beggar

And thus the dear old man replied,

students, workmen, servants, apprentices, and private boy made application to a farmer's wife for relief, and

The gray-haired man of glee :

soldiers. Whoever is observed drunk in the streets, was refused ; on which the boy, with an arch look, in. “ Down to the vale this water steers,

or making a noise in a tavern, is sure to be taken to * furmed the good dame that he would, if she gave him How merrily it goes !

prison and detained till sober, without, however, le& slice of bread and cheese, put her in possession of a

"Twill murmur on a thousand years,

ing on that account exempted from the fines. Half secret which would be of service to her all the days of

And flow as now it flows.

of these tines goes to the informers (who are generally ber life; the boon was granted, and the boy, agree. And here on this delightful day,

police officers), the other half to the poor. If the de. ably to his word, remarked, “If you knit a knot at I cannot choose but think

linquent has no money, he is kept in prison until the end of your thread, you will never lose your first How oft, a vigorous man, I lay

some one pays for him, or until he has worked out bis stitch."

Beside this Fountain's brink.

enlargement. Twice a-year these ordinances are read COMING TO CLOSE QUARTERS.-An old woman to

aloud from the pulpit by the clergy; and every ta

My eyes are dimn with childish tears, whom an unfortunate son of poverty was owing : My heart is idly stirred,

vern-keeper is bound, under the penalty of a heary small account, had repeatedly called for payment, but For the same sound is in my ears

fine, to have a copy of them hung up in the priucipal the answer to her inquiry invariably turned up, the Which in those days I heard.

rooms of his house." usual retort when a debtor wishes genteelly to cut a Thus fares it still in our decay: troublesome creditor, “ Not at home!” Having once

And yet the wiser mind

Making Coffee.-In making coffee, much care or twice dogged her neighbour, and knocked at the Mourns less for what age takes away

is requisite to extract the whole strength and flavoor door which his coat-tails had not a moment before Than what it leaves behind.

of the berry; and, moreover, it is very erroneous and swept in passing in, and receiving still the chilling The Blackbird in the summer trees,

most expensive to sweeten it with moist or raw sugar. reply, “Not at home,” she determined to come to

The Lark upon the hill,

Many persons imagine that the moist sugar tends more closer quarters when she next got scent of him. An Let loose their carols when they please,

to swceten ; but if experiment be made, it will be found opportunity soon occurred, for when an eagle eye is

Are quiet when they will.

that half the qnantity in weight of retined sugar will on the watchi, nothing escapes it; the unfortunate

With nature never do they wage

add more sweetness, and the favour of the coffee will dehtor passed her windows, and she bolted out in pur.

A foolish strise; they see

be much more pure and delicate. In Holland, where suit. Step by step she dogged him to his door--he rung the bell_his importunate friend was at his back ;

A happy youth and their old age

coffee is the universal beverage of the lower classes, Is beautiful and free :

the sugar cannot be too refined, and the boatmen on the door opened, and catching her opportunity before

the canals may be seen mixing the most beautiful white he disappeared, she rapped sharply with her knuckles

But we are pressed by heavy laws ,
And often, glad no more,

refined sugar with their coffee; while on such their on his back ; he wheeled round. Weel, is Tammas Williamson in noo ?" said she, staring him in the

We wear a face of joy, becauso

custom and taste they pride themselves highly. It reWe have been glad of yore.

quires but little thought to acquiesce in this departura face. The appeal went home, and the money was in.

from our custom, and when economy is blended with stantly tabled.

If there is one who need bemoan

such judgment, it is only necessary to call the atten. HONESTY REWARDED. About the end of harvest,

His kindred laid in earth,
The household hearts that were his own,

tion of those whose means naturally excite them to & cow-herd, in the neighbourhood of Dundee, in

seek for facts combining what is cheap and what is best.

It is the man of mirth. throwing a stone at one of his master's cows in an out

The first mention of coffee in the west of Europe is by field, unfortunately broke one of her legs. Scratching My days, my Friend, are almost gone,

Ramsolf, a German traveller, who returned from Syhis curly head, the rustic began to think seriously

My life has been approved,

ria in 1573. It was first brought into England by Me about what he should say to his master. After mus

And many love me ; but by none

Nathaniel Conopius, a Cretan, who made it his coming for some time, his countenance began to brighten,

Am I enough beloved.”

mon beverage, at Baliol College, Oxford, in 1641. and he observed, loud enough to be heard, “ Fegs,

“ Now both himself and me he wrongs,

Coffee trees were conveyed from Mocha to Holland in I'll just say she took the rig, and got it jumpin' the

The man who thus complains !

1626, and carried to the West Indies in the year 1726; style to the stooks." On farther reflection, however,

I live and sing my idle songs

first cultivated at Surinan by the Dutch, 1718; its his conscience began to remonstrate with him on the

Upon these happy plains,

culture encouraged in the plantations, 1732.—Mirror. impropriety of telling a lie; and at last he murmured, And, Matthew, for thy children dead “Weel, I'll tell the truth, gif I should lose my place I'll be a son to thee !"

LONDON: Published, with Permission of the Proprietors, by URR and fee.” “Yes, callant," said his master, who had At this he grasped my hand, and said,

& SMITH, Paternoster Row; and sold by G. BxRosa, Hols. heard the soliloquy, “ that's the best plan, and for “ Alas! that cannot be."

well Street, Strand ; BANCKS & Co., Manchester: WRIGHTSOS

'& WEBB, Birmingham; WILLMER & SMITH, Liverpool; F. your honesty you shall be forgiven.”

We rose up from the fountain-side ;

E. SOMERSCALE, Leeds; C. N. WRIGHT, Nottingham; H.

BINGHAM, Bristol ; S. SIMMS, Bath; C. GAIN, Exeter; J. PURA HIGHLAND PLEDGE.-An aspirant after parlia. And down the smooth descent

DON, Hull; A. WHITTAKER, Sheffield: H. BRLLERBY, York: mentary honours, in one of the Higbland burghs, was Of the green sheep-track did we glide ;

J. TAYLOR, Brighton; GEORGE YOUNG, Dublin ; and all other thus interrogated by a kilted elector :-" Whether or And through the wood we went;

Booksellers and Newsmen in Great Britain and Ireland, Canada,

Nova Scotia, and United States of America. mot are you prepared to bring a bill into parliament

And, ere we came to Leonard's Rock,

Complete sets of the work from its commencement, or numwhen you go there, obliging every man or woman who He sang those witty rhymes

bers to complete sets, may at all times be obtained from the Pub

lishers or their Agents. keeps a public-house to sell the gill of the best whisky, About the crazy old church-clock,

Stereotyped by A. Kirkwood, Edinburgh. new measure, at the old price ?"

And the bewildered chimes.

Printed by Bradbury and Evans (late T. Davison), Whitefriar.

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CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM CHAMBERS, AUTHOR OF “ THE BOOK OF SCOTLAND,” &c., AND BY ROBERT CHAMBERS,

AUTHOR OF “ TRADITIONS OF EDINBURGH,” “ PICTURE OF SCOTLAND,” &c.

No. 187.

SATURDAY, AUGUST 29, 1835.

PRICE THREE HALFPENCE.

men.

EVERY MAN HAS HIS ERA. kind—who think that nothing has been right since splendid silken robes, and eyes balf sleeping beneath The bodies of men live in the present year. The the year 1650 : that fatal measure by which the Cava. the profusion of the flowing hair. The black boy, so mind, or at least that portion of it which is usually liers were admitted into the army, has ruined every frequent in the portraits of that time, is better to bim employed in speculative thought, may or may not do thing. One of my most particular friends, in early than the finest ladies painted by our own Lawrence. so. Generally speaking, every man has a different youth, made one of these strange halts. Like Hume's China vases are one of his passions, because they first spiritual anno domini : his date of soul may be past, history, he stopped at the Revolution. Nothing after figure in this reign. He delights in chocolate, be. present, or future. So regularly does this principle that had the least charm for him. Chivalry abdicated cause several court ladies of that time had poison ad. operate, that it might be a new means of classifying with James II., and he used to speak with absolute ministered to them in it. The very worst atrocities

You might distinguish a prospective from a horror of the later reigns, filled with parliamentary of the period have something that redeems them in retrospective man ; a seventeenth century man, from proceedings and tame continental wars, Mr Pulteney, his estimation. The conduct of the Countess of an eighteenth century one ; a man of the second quar. the Duke of Newcastle, and the Earl of Chatham. I Shrewsbury, who held the horse of her gallant, the ter of the nineteenth century, from one of the third question if he have yet once read the history of the Duke of Buckingham, while he killed her husband in or fourth ; and so on. The now living generation eighteenth, for ten times that he has gloated over that a duel, is to him only romantic. Its smack of the bal. would probably be found to exhibit specimens of man. of the seventeenth century. Crazes of this kind are lad age purges away the sin. The court ruffians who kind, from about the time of the crusades, down to very apt to beset youth. Another of my young friends slashed Sir John Coventry's nose in the streets of Lon. the happy period which is to see moral evil almost used to speak, with more minute knowledge and in a don by night, for his bold speaking in the House of banished from the face of the earth.

more familiar tone, of the character and history of Commons, might be said to have committed a breach It is my good fortune to be on intimate terms with Mary Queen of Scots, than of any personage or period of privilege or a capital crime; but to my friend their a considerable number of people who live towards the of history more recent and more “useful to be conduct only serves as a mediate step of barbarism, to conclusion of the present century. Their society is known.” He might be ignorant of the dissolution of carry him back to the old chivalrous times when every 80 delightful, that evenings spent in their company parliament which took place last week ; but he would man avenged himself by the sword. He can speak of might be cut up into minutes, and each of these found be quite certain that the transaction called Ainslie's such things with tenderness for the sufferer, but not a morsel of pleasure. With the sloughs and imbeci. Supper, at which Bothwell got the sanction of the with indignation for the culprit. “It was certainly a lities of passing time cast beneath their feet, their nobility for his marriage to the queen, took place on dreadful thing,” said he to me one day, “that assassi. heads rise into the clear heaven of the future, and the twentieth of April 1567, and not the nineteenth, nation of poor Percival.” “Yes,” said I, “particu. already radiate with the dawn of inchoate human ex. as has been stated by some historians. Whenever Ilarly as he leaves such a large family.” “Family !" cellences. A few weeks ago, I spent a very pleasant feel myself overheated by the speculations of my friend replied my friend,“ the poor lad was only nineteen years day about the year 1890, with one whose mortal frame of date 1890, I have it in my power to cool myself at of age.” We then mutually discovered that he had for the present inhabits a country-house a few miles once by a forenoon interview with a middle-aged been alluding to Robert Percival, who was killed in from town. This individual is a good average speci. gentleman of the reign of Charles II., who lives the Strand in 1677, while I was referring to the prime men of the class. There may be one or two who live nearly opposite to my own house in town. Were I minister shot in the House of Commons in the preceding some twenty or thirty years ahead of him; but there romancing, I should describe this gentleman as dress. month. After this interruption, he went on in his usual are more who linger as far behind. Easy in his cir. ing in antique guise, and residing in an old-fashioned way, speaking as familiarly of the circumstances of cumstances, benevolent, and contemplative, he realises house. Being in sober earnest, I am bound to say this long forgotten affair, as if it had really been that the rural peace and happiness of the poets. He may that be is rather punctilious about being in the fa- of which the echo had scarcely as yet died away in occasionally glance at the controversial topics which shion, and has just removed to a square of the most the newspapers. “A sad tragedy truly,” said he, fill the newspapers, or at the local squabbles which go recent erection. He, as well as my other friends of “and very mysterious. Percival was a gay young on around him, but it is only to contrast them with a remote date, whether in advance or in arrear, is student in Lincoln's Inn, had been much in bad com. state of things which will know nothing of such ig- obliged to conform externally to existing modes; and pany, and, at the time of his death, had fought as many noble matters. War, religious and political rancour, indeed this is regarded by them all as a matter of duels as he numbered years. Whether it was through blind national jealousies and self-seekings, he speaks comparative indifference. The distinction chiefly lies a drunken and excited imagination, or that he had reaof mildly, as things proper only to the childhood of in the residence, mode, and occupation of the mind, son to fear his approaching end, I know not ; but a few mankind, and which must pass away in the course of or at most in a few external circumstances which do nights before his murder, he came in great agitation nature, even as the rudeness and recklessness of the not come glaringly before the world.

to his uncle, Sir Robert Southwell, saying that an ap. boy are changed for the soft manners and generous Charles-Second friend has his dining-room hung pearance of himself, all bloody and ghastly, had walked sentiments of youth. How can mankind,” says he, with portraits of his favourite epoch-a Duchess of into his chamber, and afterwards vanished down stairs. “ be expected to be otherwise, at this day, than what Cleveland by Lely, one or two breast-plated generals In the evening of his death, as he walked from tavern they are ?—for want of a sanctioned or intelligible with long bair, capricoling in front of besieged to tavern, he observed a man dogging him, but yet, system of philosophy, they do not as yet know the towns, and a very grotesque Sir Jeffrey Hudson. as by a fatality, would not allow any one to accomconstituent elements of their own nature, and of course in his lobby is a buhl clock, which is said to have ori. pany him. He had one encounter with his enemies act entirely at random : from an ignorance of the ginally figured in Versailles ; besides the wreck of a before the fatal one, and entered a tavern, to wipe his laws of physical nature, they expose themselves to in cabinet—the cabinet itself wanting, but two gilt Cu. sword and bind up a wound he had received in his numerable miseries which might easily be avoided. pids still anxiously and strainingly endeavouring to leg. But yet he persisted in going home alone. Early The causes now at work must in time produce very support it. Things of this sort have necessarily ga next morning, he was found dead near the Maypole different results." There may be something of what thered about him, simply in consequence of his pecu- in the Strand, with a deep wound in his left breast, the world calls enthusiasm in my friend's calculations, liar taste : his library, for the same reason, abounds and his sword lying all bloody by his side, together but the insanity is an amiable one ; and it is impos- in first editions of Roscommon and Butler, in various with a stranger's hat with a bunch of ribbons in it. sible to help being affected, at least for the time, by illustrated sets of Grammont, French and English, No such affair could then take place without some the sweet hopes and moralisings in which he indulges. and in various other books either produced in that supernatural accompaniments. One servant of the Upon the whole, I find a few days of the twentieth reign or referring to it. St Evremond is his favourite family dreamed that another came to her for a sheet century, now and then, a great treat.

wit, and Clarendon his most esteemed historian. He to wind Mr Robert in, who had been killed ; and, im. Others of my friends, regardless of the future, and not knows no French book equal to Voltaire's Age of mediately after she awoke, that person did come in caring much about the present, are nearly altogether Louis XIV.—for it is a curious part of his whim, that with that very demand. His elder brother some years given up to the past. Like Lady Margaret Bellen. foreign things contemporary with the merry monarch after, having returned from his travels, and being inden, who never could get over the morning on which have also a preference in his eyes. I cannot trace tent on discovering the murderers, encountered, in a the king breakfasted with her, each has a particular this predilection to any serious approbation of any street in Dublin, a gentleman whom he had never date at which he fixes himself, or to which, though thing connected with the reign of Charles II. If taken before seen, but whom he immedia:ely attacked with he should occasionally sally from it, he is always ready pointedly to task, he would be found to condemn the his sword, through an intuitive conviction that he was to fly back. The Stuart insurrections, the civil and profligacy of the time as heartily as any body. But one of those who had been guilty. They were sepa. religious broils of the seventeenth century, and the there is something in the form of things—the style— rated by the crowd, and the assailed party slipped off, Reformation, are points at which great numbers stick. the fashion of that reign, which has a charm for him. and was seen no more. It was generally supposed, There is a regularly constituted class of persons in No women, in his opinion, can match the Windsor however, that Beau Fielding was the principal, if not Beotlandit woald not be decorous to say of what | beauties, with their gorgeous fulness of form, their I the only assassin, as the Beau had not long before had

Thus my

a quarrel with Percival at play.” With such tales as for the small-pox, till that practice was rendered gene- nials, frantic personal abuse, and insane predictions this will my friend beguile the time, never once stop. ral by the improved method introduced by the Sut- of worse diseases accruing from it. The treatment of ping to give a collateral note, but evidently presuming tons: so that the working people in the dairies were the small-pox had been so lucrative a portion of medi. that his hearers should know such heroes as Percival seldom put to the test of the preventive powers of the cal practice, as to become a regular matter of dispute and Fielding as well as himself. And yet the chief cow-pox.”

between the physicians and the surgeons; the phy. charm which these matters have for him as evidently Upon inquiry among the medical practitioners in the sician claiming it as a contagious fever, while the lies in their difference from the matters of the present country, Dr Jenner then tells us he was at first mor- surgeon, as the inoculator, thought he had a right to day. Were the Strand, for instance, still liable to be tified to find that they all agreed in holding, that all the subsequent treatment. Jenner's discovery was the scene of such transactions—did gentlemen of cow-pox was not to be relied on as a certain preven. a touchstone, to detect what proportion of seltshness Lincoln's Inn still wander from tavern to tavern, tive of small-pox; and their report seemed to be cori alloyed the human heart. It was calculated to make keeping up a kind of running fight with sword-armed firmed by the actual occurrence of small-pox in several known, whether the scenes of misery which medical bravoes--he would regard this tale of Charles II.'s persons who were said to have had the cow-pox. Dr men are compelled to witness, blunt their feelings. time with indifference. A part of the pleasure may Jenner, however, was not willing to abandon the The result certainly reflected honour on the faculty ; also be presumed to lie in that very oblivion or obsolete. pleasing prospect that had opened to him, and resolved for the plan to exterminate the small-pox was zeal. ness which makes the present generation little likely to inquire into the matter more carefully than any ously adopted, over the whole world, by all except a to be acquainted with them.

one seemed previously to have thought of doing. The few prejudiced and narrow-spirited practitioners. Johnson observes very truly, that “whatever with. first discovery he made was, that the cow was subject Dr Jenner had at the very first held forth an ad. draws us from the power of our senses, and makes to a variety of distinct eruptions upon her teats, all of mirable example of humanity and generosity, by the the past, the distant, and the future, predominate which were capable of producing ulceration on the way in which he had brought forward his discovery. over the present, advances us in the scale of thinking hands of the milkers, and passed in the dairies by the Had he kept the secret to himself, and surrounded beings.” It may only be observed, that he who derives indiscriminate appellation of cow-pox. After a short the practice of it with a little mystery, it is unqueshis ideal pleasures from a hopeful anticipation of a course of observation, he was easily able to distin. tionable that he would have realised a fortune beyond better future, is more apt to be serviceable to his guish the true cow.poxfrom other accidental eruptions, all professional precedent; for, by only an improvekind, than he who lingers amongst the romantic but and flattered himself that he had thus discovered the ment in the mode of inoculation forty years before, & still comparatively barbarous wonders of the past. true cause of the apparent uncertainty of a preventive, country practitioner named Sutton bad cleared siz The great mass, unfortunately, have little of them. the powers of which were universally admitted to a thousand guineas in one year. It was apparent that selves to give to either kind of meditation. Compelled certain extent. His hopes, however, were damped a the high and self-denying principles on which he bad to make the daily labour supply the daily bread, their second time, when he found that some persons who acted, entitled him, now that his discovery was in thoughts are almost entirely confined to the passing had been infected from the genuine cow-pox, had, full operation, to some public reward. The subject day. Or, exhausted in body by their exertions, they nevertheless, proved liable to variolous infection, and of vaccination was accordingly investigated in 1802 have little nervous energy to be expended in the shape that one was sometimes effectually protected, when by a committee of the House of Commons, and the of thought. The mind of the Baconian sort, keeping another infected from the same sore proved liable to

sum of ten thousand pounds was soon after voted to a look-out both in front and in rear, is only for the after-contagion. By diligent and continued observa. Dr Jenner; to which twenty thousand was added in master of the vessel: the bulk of the crew must con- tion, however, he was fortunately enabled to explain This illustrious benefactor of the human race died,

1806, upon additional proofs of efficacy being adduced. fine their attention to the oars whereto they are

this anomaly also. He ascertained, by repeated ex. chained. Contemplation, indeed, is not their de- periments, that when the matter was taken from the January 26, 1823, at his house at Berkeley, in the

74th year of his age. partment: all that kind of thing must be left to the ulcer or sore on the cow, after a certain stage of its

During the course of the thirty years which have regular thinker kept upon the premises. The divi. progress, it produced a sore in the human body of a since elapsed, some circumstances have taken place sion of labour, with all its boasted advantages, has at character altogether different from that which re. to prove that vaccination is not infallible as a preven. least this disadvantage, that it too much narrows the sulted from an earlier infection, and that it was only tive of small-pox, though, in the few cases where it minds of individuals, each to the little field of its own the disorder communicated in the earlier stages of the has failed, there may have been some peculiarities in

the matter employed, or in the mode of its communi. ordinary exertions, and prevents the developement of case, and before the matter originally secreted had cation, or in the constitution of the patient, to induce those salient powers which, in other scenes, fit men undergone any change or decomposition, that had the that result. In the spring of 1817, an epidemic small. for various contingencies, and render them a check to power of shielding the patient from the infection of pox occurred at Cupar in Fifeshire, where Dr Dewar each other. small.pox.

of Edinburgh examined or received accounts of seventy Having brought his observations so far to maturity, said to have gone through the vaccine disease, of

patients, and found that no fewer than fifty-four were it occurred to him to try the experiment of propagating whom one died, while, of the remaining unvaccined VACCINATION.

the disease by inoculation, first from the animal, and sixteen, the deaths were six. The excellent physician In a previous article entitled Inoculation, it was shown afterwards from one human creature to another. In here mentioned published an account of this epidemic

, that, though that method of preventing the more dan. the year 1796, he accordingly inoculated a young man

and drew the conclusion, that, allowing the liability gerous form of the small-pox was effectual in almost from the hand of a milker, who had the distinctive exemption from it for a great part, if not the whole

of the vaccined to small-pox, they at least gained an all who tried it, nevertheless, in consequence of the symptoms of the genuine cow-pox, and had the pleas of life, and, at the worst, had it in a very mild form. infectious nature of the inoculated disease, the disco

sure of finding, that, when inoculated for the small. In the ensuing year, epidemic small-pox prevailed at very upon the whole increased the number of deaths from small-pox to a considerable degree, and left resisted the contagion. The experiment was after. Dr Monro, of the Edinburgh University:-1. If the pox, at the distance of some months, he completely Perth, Lanark, Edinburgh, and in the northern parts

of Ireland, when the following facts were elicited by mankind at large rather worse than it had found wards enlarged; and after inoculating some hundred matter taken from a person labouring under the them. We have now to advert to a later discovery, children, and putting them, at different intervals, to small-pox be applied beneath the skin of another who by which it was proposed to prevent the small-pox by the test of a subsequent inoculation for small-pox never had the disease, the disease is communicated in inoculating with a somewhat similar but milder dis- without effect, he ventured to communicate his dis. its genuine form; and the same happens if the poison. ease, named the cow-pox, which, not being fatal like

ous matter be taken in by respiration, or by simple covery to the world in a treatise published in 1798, the inoculated small-pox, contained within itself no

2. If the same matter be in a similar man. which was followed up the year after by a still longer ner applied to a person who has had the cow.pox, and obstacle to its general reception, but, even if that had list of experiments and observations. In these works, gone through it in a proper manner, in an immense not been the case, had the advantage of being non. Dr Jenner suggested that the disease itself probably majority of cases no result follows ; but in some cases, contagious, so that any number of persons might was not original in the animal from which it took its and especially where the small-pox is peculiarly active, enjoy the benefit of it without endangering others.

a moditied disease follows, which is either so mild as name, and that several circumstances led him to be.

to escape notice altogether, or else is very violent at The merit of this discovery, by which forty thou. lieve that it originated from the distemper called the first, but stops all at once, as if an impenetrable bare sand lives were annually saved upon the amount of grease in the heels of horses, and was communicated rier had been opposed to its farther progress, and goes the British population at the close of the eighteenth to the cow by being milked by persons employed in off rapidly without any ill consequences. 3. If the century, is due to Dr Edward Jenner, a surgeon dressing such horses. The cow.pox was uniformly | cinated persons, a similar mild disease is sometimes settled at Berkeley in Gloucestershire, where he was unknown in those dairies where the milking was per produced; but in a great majority of cases no result born in the year 1749. This gentleman, in 1802, formed by women; and in all the instances in which

follows. If, however, it be applied to others who have communicated to a committee of the Ilouse of Com. Dr Jenner could trace its introduction, he found that not gone through the small-pox or the cow-pox, it is mong an account of the discovery, which may be the milkers had been recently before in the habit of capable of producing in them genuine and fatal small.

pox of an infectious nature. It is a curious and here given in a condensed form. “ My inquiry into handling horses affected with the grease. This con.

remarkable fact, that it also produces a modified dise the nature of the cow-pox,” said he, "commenced jecture, it is said, has since been verified by inoculat

ease in those who have gone through small-pox before. upwards of twenty-five years ago. My attention ing the cow from the grease directly, which produced in the epidemic of 1818, six children in Edinburgh to this singular disease was first excited by observ. the genuine form of the cow.pox. *

were inoculated from a perfectly vaccinated child who ing, that among those whom in the country I was The process suggested by Dr Jenner, to which the had this modified disease ; in one a severe disease was frequently called upon to inoculate, many resisted name of vaccination was given (from vacca, Latin for produced, in two others it was less severe, and in the

remainder very mild. The disease spread by infection every effort to give them the small-pox. These pa. a cow), was brought under notice in so philosophical to three other children and four adults, who had either tients I found had undergone a disease they called a manner as insured it what must be considered, upon been in the room with or nursed the inoculated chil. the cow.pox, contracted by milking cows affected the whole, a favourable reception. In a very short dren. Of the adults, all of whom had had the smallwith a peculiar eruption on their teats. On inquiry, space of time, the most eminent physicians, satistied pox before, one had it mildly and the other three it appeared that it had been known among the of its virtue, gave it their sanction, and introduced it disease spread to a fifth adult, who had never had

severely; from one or other of these last cases, the dairies time immemorial, and that a vague opinion into their practice. It was only opposed by a few small.pox, and he died. prevailed that it was a preventive of the small-pox. persons, upon erroneous views of religion, and by a Notwithstanding these somewhat alarming facts, it This opinion I found was, comparatively, new among small and inglorious band of medical men, who, seems incontestible that the discovery of Jenner, if them; for all the older farmers declared they had no against all the experiments and philosophical conclu.

not all that was originally expected of it, is one of

vast benefit and importance to maukind. The merits such idea in their early days : a circumstance that sions of its advocates, could only bring clamorous de.

of vaccination may, in conclusion, be thus summed seemed easily to be accounted for, from my knowing

up: It is beyond all comparison milder than the that the common people were very rarely inoculated

• Edinburgh Review, ix, 37.

disease produced by inoculated small-pox. It is not

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contact.

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