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will loubtless be removed by time, labour, and perse. The possession of so large a portion of the Himalaya warrior. The females of the station determined to verance. The establishment of large bodies in the
seems so extraordinary, that we can scarcely credit supply it with water from this very spring! But Himalaya would, at the present period, speedily ex. the possibility of our having become masters of a ter- how? Woman's wit never devised a bolder expedi. haust the supplies. The whole of the land brought ritory, which, half a century ago, nobody dreamed of ent-woman's fortitude never carried one more ha. under cultivation is not more than sufficient for the ever reaching ; but having established ourselves in zardous into successful execution. They reasoned support of the inhabitants, and from the nature of the these bills, we may indulge in the hope of obtaining thus : The water must be had. The women are in country it will not be easy to extend the toils of the
a permanent footing in a still more desirable region. the habit of going for it every morning. If armed husbandman in any very considerable degree. The Kanour, or Kunawur, a province stretching between men now take that duty upon them, the Indians will valleys, where water is readily procurable, are ex- the snowy range and Chinese Tartary, is the most think that their ambuscade is discovered, and instantly tremely narrow, and the sides of the hills too steep to delightful place which the pen of the traveller has commence their assault. If the women draw the wae admit of cultivation, except by means of terraces le- ever attempted to describe. The climate is the finest ter as usual, the Indians will not unmask their con. velled with great labour, and supported by walls of in the world, being beyond the reach of the periodical cealed force, but still persevere in attempting to decoy solid masonry
These terraces, rising one above an. rains, and subjected only to such gentle and refreshing the defenders of the station without its pickets. The other, have a very singular effect, especially when the showers as are necessary for the cultivation of the leint succeeded; the random-shots of the decoy party splendid Rowers which distinguish some of the crops land. The fruits and flowers of all countries in the were returned with a quick fire from one side of the are in full bloom. The yellow and red bhattoo are world flourish in this happy soil; those of Europe are fort, while the women issued from the other, as if they particularly beautiful, being the Amaranthus anard. indigenous, and come to perfection with little care apprehended no enemy in that quarter. Could aught hana of the English garden, and grow to an amazing The grape, especially, grows in the most luxuriant be more appalling than the task before them? But height; in favourable situations the stems will reach abundance, and it is from this province that the whole they shrink not from it; they move carelessly from to ten feet. The harvest is usually exceedingly plenti. of India might be supplied with wine. Honey also is the gate-they advance with composure in a body to ful, and as these terraces may be carried to the very exceedingly plentisul, and both form great temptations the spring—they are within point-blank shot of five summics of the hills, a spirit of enterprise and industry to marauding bears. These animals are very destruc- hundred warriors. The slightest trepidation will be will in time, no doubt, render the Himalaya a coun. tive to the vineyards and the hives, and the natives tray them--the least apparent consciousness of their try of corn, as well as of oil; wine also may easily tell strange stories of the cunning with which they thrilling situation, and their doom is inevitable. But be added, and it is delightful to contemplate the grow. | contrive to possess themselves of the luscious treasures their nerves do not shrink; they wait calmly for each ing prosperity of a place, which the hand of nature of the bees, even breaking into the houses in pursuit other until each fills her bucket in succession. The has so bountifully endowed, but whose very existence of their favourite food.
Indians are completely deceived, and not a shot is was scarcely known thirty years ago.
The European The tourists of the Himalaya are both surprised fired. The band of heroines retrace their steps with residents have introduced the potato into the hills, and delighted by the beauty of the temples which are steady feet their movement soon becomes more agi. and the mountaineers, though at first objecting to its scattered throughout the wildest regions, and are tated--it is at last precipitate. But tradition says use, have overcome their prejudices, and now culti. much superior in their architecture and embellish. that the only water spilt was as their buckets crowded vate it as an article of food : it thrives abundantly, ments to the houses. They are under the care of the together in passing the gate. A sheet of living fire and is in much esteem all over India.
Brahmins, who have lands upon the condition of from the garrison, and the screams of the wounded Of the three European stations which have arisen keeping them in good repair. The axe and the chisel | Indians around the spring told that they were safe, on the hills, Simlah appears to be the greatest fa. are the only implements for carving which the moun. and spoke the triumph of their friends. Insane with vourite. Many Anglo-Indians have built houses, in taineers possess, but ingenuity makes up for the ab. wrath to be thus outwitted, the foe rushed from his
Il which they either reside in themselves during the sence of proper tools. There are two couchant bullocks covert, and advanced with desperation upon the rifles oot weather, or let at a very fair profit to visitors. of black marble, as large as life, at the temple of of the pioneers. But who could conquer the fathers The nature of the country will not allow of much re. Lakha Mundul, which are very creditable specimens and brothers of such women ? The Indians were gularity in the buildings, which at Simlah lie along of art. These, however, are said to be very ancient, foiled ; they withdrew their forces ; but on counting a rather narrow ridge, every bit of table-land or gen- the modern deities in use in the pagodas being chiefly the number of their slain, they burned with vengeance, tle slope being eagerly seized upon for the site of a brass busts, oddly enough furnished with petticoats. and rallied once more to the fight. They were again dwelling-bouse. Architectural beauty has not yet The hill people have not quite the same objection to and again repulsed. Succour at last came to the been mnch considered, but the houses are constructed the sale of their gods, as that which they manifest pioneers, and the savages were compelled to retreat to upon scientific principles by able engineers, and they when urged to part with articles of more utility; and their wild-wood haunts once more.” are solid enough to withstand the snows and tem- there is one superfluity which they are exceedingly The author afterwards, in travelling through West. pests of the wintry season. The materials are stone, willing to get rid of at a moderate price-namely, ern Virginia, had occasion to become acqnainted with joined together without inortar, and strengthened by their women. It is no uncommon circumstance for a a story of a much more tragical nature, illustrative of beams of pine wood, placed horizontally at about two European, who asks for grain, to be offered a daughter, the former condition of the country. '“ Some ten or feet distant from each other, and neatly dove-tailed at females being of no value and no account in these twelve miles from the Tunnel (says he), I stopped to the angles : the roofs are sometimes of shingles, and regions."
dine with a cottager, whose establishment and recepat others of slate, or a well-tempered clay of a deep
tion were both marked by that union of poverty and red colour, which, when sufficiently beaten, is not
STORIES OF THE NORTH AMERICAN
politeness which characterises the lower classes of Westliable to be penetrated by the rain, or cracked by ex
ern Virginians. He had nothing, he said, for me to
INDIANS. posure to a hot sun. The interiors have not yet at.
eat, but I was welcome to what he had, if I could dine tained any great degree of elegance, but this will come “EMERGING soon from the beautiful environs of Lex. in a room with half-a-dozen sick children. in time. The visitants were at first but too happy to ington, Kentucky (says Hoffman, in his work already * Bacon and greens,' as usual, was the dinner; and obtain a shelter from the elements, to trouble them. quoted), we rode for an hour or two through narrow my host poured me out a good cup of coffee, while his selves about very superior accommodation, and in the roads, where the moist rich soil was fetlock-deep for wife was stilling the cries of an infant in her arms, crowded state of this desirable refuge, many were glad our horses. But the enclosures, which were generally and ministering to the wants of several little sufferers, to obtain possession of a single chamber in the attic shut in by a worm-fence on either side, were exceed- on a trundle-bed, in one corner of the apartments story, in a which a wooden ladder served the purpose ingly beautiful; and the woodland and arable were so The good man told me that this was the only illness of a stair, and which was shared by strong bodies of rats, intermixed, that the tall and taper trees of the former, with which his household had ever been visited ; and animals always showing a predilection to domesticate now ranging in open avenues along a hill-side, and as these are the only relations I have,' he added, 'I with the human race. The tirse specimens of taste which now disposed in clumps upon the meadows, as if set feel some concern to get them all upon their feet again ; appeared at Simlah were exhibited in the formation of there by the eye of taste, produced the impression of rid- for I want to raise the whole of them.' gardens; and though cabbages, and other useful ra. ing through a magnificent park, whose verdant swells In further conversation I found that the illness with ther than ornamental vegetables were admitted, they and embowered glades had been only here and there which this family was afflicted was the scarlet fever, were surrounded by parterres of fowers, the latter invaded and marred by the formal fences drawn which, with the measles and other similar complaints, being raised from seeds brought from the plains, or through them.
seems to make up the brief list of diseases that find reclaimed from their wild state, in which they grow Sunset found us upon the banks of the Elk horn, their way into this healthy region. The father of my in the greatest abundance. Their beauty has been and we crossed the stream near 'Bryant's Station,' host, as I was informed, who was a middle-aged man, much improved by cultivation; and their removal to one of the most celebrated spots in the annals of the had been among the early settlers of this mountain more favourable aspects, and similar care taken with Dark and Bloody Ground. The stockade fort that region ; and the fact of his being now without any the fruit trees, which are equally abundant, would once stood here was frequently a refuge from the sa- blood relations, except those collected around his own greatly increase the gratification of those persons who vages in the early settlement of the adjacent country; hearth, arose from all his kindred having perished in love to indulge in the luxuries of the orchard. and its gallant defence by a handful of pioneers against different border frays, many years since. His father's
The scattered bungalows of Simlah, with their con. the allied Indians of Ohio, led on by the white rene family had been cut off at a blow, while he was yet a stant accompaniments of native bazaars, are perched gadoes Girty and M‘Kee, was one of the most despe-child; and the story of their fate was to this effect : upon dizzy heights, looking down upon deep vallies rate affairs in the Indian wars of the west. The It was the season for gathering peaches, and drying darkly clothed with pine; the natives choose more enemy banded together at the forks of the Scioto, and them for winter use; and some of the early dwellers sheltered situations for their huts, many of which re- planned their attack in the deep forests, a hundred in these fertile vallies had already spread the sliced semble the chalets of Switzerland. The roads are miles away from the scene where it was made. The fruit on the sheds of their outhouses, to be acted upon very steep and narrow, and not at all suited to wheel pioneers had not the slightest idea of their approach, by the declining but still ardent sun of summer. A carriages, none of which have yet found their way to when, sudden as the grove of spears that sprung from clump of trees, richly laden with peaches, stood upon this alpine region. The usual mode of conveyance the dragon's teeth in classic land, a thousand rifles a knoll rear the edge of the forest, and within a few is on horseback, the mountain ponies being the most gleamed in the corn-fields one summer's night. That hundred yards of the cabin of a settler. The owner trustworthy steeds, or in a tonjaun; but as there are very evening the garrison had chanced to gather un. of the cabin was away from home, and his eldest son not more than five miles of passable road, and the der arms to march to the relief of another station' had been sent over the hills upon some distant errand; climate renders walking exercise very desirable, both that was similarly invested. It was a fearful moment: while the mother of the family, with another son and horses and vehicles may be easily dispensed with. an hour earlier, and the pioneers would have been a daughter, were left to the care of an uncle of the
It is impossible to do justice to the beauty and cut off—an hour later, and their defenceless wives and children. They were all, one quiet August evening, splendour of the scenery; and the effect produced by daughters must have been butchered or carried into collected around the hillock already mentioned ; some the pure cold air upon the minds of those who have captivity, while their natural protectors were hurry- were employed in stripping the trees of their prolific suffered from the exhaustion of the plains, is inde- | ing to the rescue of others. The Indians saw at a burtben, and some in filling their baskets with the scribable. The presence of European vegetation adds glance that the moment was not propitious to them; balmy fruit, as it lay scattered upon the ground. The considerably to the charm which nature has thrown and having failed in surprising the Kentuckians, they little girl had partly climbed a tree, and was engaged around these sublime solitudes ; the daisy and prim. attempted to decoy them from their fastness, by pre- in handing the peaches within reach to her mother ; rose enamelling the ground, the rich rhododendron senting themselves in small parties before it. The the boy stood thrashing the drooping boughs by the mingling with oaks and firs, and the dog-rose spread. wbites were too wise to risk a battle, but they knew side of his parent; but the uncle was separated from ing its bushes over the valleys, or hanging its garlands not how to stand a siege. The fort,' which was the group, while filling his basket from the ground on upon every bough, bring the liveliest recollections of merely a collection of log-cabins arranged in a hollow the other side of the knoll. As he stooped to pick up home to those whose lot has been cast upon a foreign square, was unhappily not supplied with water. They the fruit, a shot, a scream, and a bullet whistling over shore. The indulgence of a passion for prospects has, were aware that the attacking party knew this; they his head, told him, in a moment, that the dreaded however, in one or two instances, been attended with were aware, too, that their real force lay in ambush savages were upon them. He looked, and the girl fatal consequences ; several narrow escapes have been near a neighbouring spring, with the hope of cutting had tumbled from the tree, like a bird from a bough, recorded, and some serious accidents have arisen from off those who should come to remedy the deficiency. upon the bosom of her mother. The sight of his the precipitous nature of the coads: the grass-rope But the sagacity of a back woodsman is sometimes agonised sister struck horror to the beart of the bridges of the Himalaya are also rather dangerous, more than a match for the cunning of an Indian, and pioneer ; but his experience of such scenes suggested, and are not always to be passed with impunity. the heroism of a woman may baffle the address of a that, all unarmed as he was, he must abandon her to
her fate, and seek revenge hereafter, or be butchered, the ryhme at the end. We conclude by expressing To ladies particularly, and to the young of both in vain resistance, upon the spot. Another scream an earnest hope that the importance of establishing sexes, the study of botany is a most agreeable exercise from the frenzied mother, and he saw the batchet of 80 interesting a fact in the biography of Sbakspeare and amusement. Flowering plants always claim the an Indian buried in the brain of the terrified boy, will induce any one possessing information on the regard of the young, of refined minds; and none are who clung to her for protection, as the demoniac subject, to bring it forward, either by transmitting more enthusiastic lovers of fine plants than the aged figure leaped, with uplifted arm, from a neighbouring it to us, or publishing it in any other work.
botanist. For the pencil of the female artist, where thicket. Had he looked again, he might have seen
can such elegance of form and delicacy of colour be the red hand of a savage twined in the locks of his IMPROVEMENT FROM BOTANICAL embellish the dwellings of the rich, or cottages of the
found for imitation as in the parterre? or what can unhappy sister; but horror bad shut his heart upon
PURSUITS. her. He looked not, he waited not, till, shriek on
poor, more than the floral products of the garden ? sbriek, her cries rang in his ears, each more piercing Nothing is perhaps so indicative of the improving Many are lovers of Howers who are not at the same than the last. He knew that the hillock, on whose tastes of society as the constant issue from the press time botanists. This feeling is as innocent as it is side he was standing, had hitherto screened his form of works illustrative of the several departments of rational ; it is a source of pleasure, but only in a subfrom the keen eyes of the Indiang ; that his position Natural History, and particularly of the science of ordinate degree to that enjored by those who to their gave him a chance of escape-a start in the death. Botany. Such a circumstance is the best evidence love of flowers add scientific knowledge; who not face ; and he seized it with the eagerness of despera that could be obtained to prove that pursuits connected only know the name, but can tell to what class or tien. Fear lent him wings, and he had gained the with the animal propensities are happily on the de. tribe the plant belongs-.vhether native or foreigncover of the wood before the savages had finished cline, and that amusement and editication are now whether sanatory or noxious. No portion of human binding their captive, and scalpi the children before more dependent on subjects yielding enduring grati. lore in natural phenomena yields more gratification the eyes of their motber; but her horrid cry echoed tication to the mind. Botany, one of the most useful to the well-constituted mind than a scientific know. upon his brain like a death-peal long afterwards : and and most extensive departments of human knowledge, | ledge of plants. when, upon returning with his neighbours to the fatal or, as it may be termed, the science of Beauty-the To be a practical or professional botanist requires scene of the catastrophe, her body could not be found science which developes the wonders of the vegetable a long lifetime of close application and study. To beside those of ber children, and her doom as a pri- creation, and, at the same time, affords the most de store in memory nearly one hundred thousand names soner had been confirmed by other evidence, he dis- lightful exercise to the perceptions, is every day be requires a power of retention enjoyed by few; and to appeared from the country, and, like the unbappy coming a more attractive study, and gaining a greater nomenclature must be added a knowledge of the his. woman herself, was never heard of more. The father number of admirers from both sexes--a circumstance tory of plants-their natural habitat as well as their of the family learned, at a distance, of the desolation which must be gratifying to the philanthropic ob- culture : without an intimate acquaintance with these which had fallen upon his household, and wandering server. To the many excellent, though generally things no one can be a practical botanist. to some remote spot on the border, he never returned elaborate treatises on this interesting science, a valus In fine, in this improving age we have every regto his ruined home; while the last of the family, able addition bas just been made, purposely suited son to believe that no obstruction to the acquirement growing up to man's estate, now enjoyed the little for the initiation of students. The author is a Mr of pure botanical science will long remain in the way patrimony of which I found him in possession, and of James Main, a well-known writer on vegetable phy- to impede the progress of the careful student. Every which these disastrous events had made him the only siology and rural subjects, who, we believe, resides approach will be rendered open and every path made heir."
near London; and his little work appears under the easy and inviting by those inasters who are now 80 modest title of POPULAR BOTANY. From what we deservedly at the head of the science. It may be
have read of the production, it appears to consist of added, that those who have no intention of aspiring to WAS SHAKSPEARE EVER IN SCOTLAND ? an admirable digest of the several branches of botany, be scientific botanists, may yet devote their leisure The minute and exact knowledge of Scottish topo- physiological and systematic, and is so liberally inter- hours to a kind of botanising with great advant-ge graphy and scenery which Shakspeare displays indull scholar indeed who remains ignorant of the sub
and pleasure to themselves, if they have ever so small
a piece of ground; or if wanting that, a herbarium, Macbeth, and the fact of an English company of ject after bestowing upon it an ordinary degree of requiring only a few sheets of brown paper, will players having been sent by Queen Elizabeth to enter. attention. The study of the structure and physiology supply an endless source of amusement and ina tain King James at Edinburgh, have led to a suppo. of plants is the most pleasing department of botanical struction. By tilling this receptacle with the com. sition, which natives of Scotland would fain believe science ; the acquisition of a knowledge of systematic monest flowers, they may gain a very clear insight
arrangement, according to Linnæus, is much more into systematic botany by merely putting together true, that the illustrious dramatist visited that coun.
difficult and tiresome, but is, nevertheless, absolutely every fower they meet with, whether the names try. There is, however, no decisive evidence of such essential, and therefore must be attained. The.fol. be known or not, according to its general character. a fact, unless the document we are about to introduce lowing observations of Mr Main, we hope, will not be For instance, collect all the bell-shaped flowers (cam. to notice should prove to be so.
without their effect in inducing the young to commence panula) and place them together; do the same with
a course of botanical study :In September 1830, the conductor of an Edinburgh
the funnel-shaped (bindweed), the masked (snap-dra. newspaper received a communication, signed" J, Do- the number of useful vegetables, useful to man, is lock), the rose-shaped (poppy), the lily-like (datfudil),
“The improvement of the quality, and increase of gon), the lipped (dead nettle), the cross-shaped (char. naldson,” and dated from “ Allonhill;” in which ad. the end or purpose of the study of botany. But the the butterfly-shaped (broom), the compound (daisys, vice was asked respecting the disposal of a quantity of way to that end is long, and embraces much of in and so forth. Even such an attempt as this would old papers, chiefly letters, represented as having been terest, not only as regards the structure and economy be a pleasing and rational employment; a valuable left by a Mr Hardie, writer in Edinburgh, and enclos. of plants themselves, but as regards the circumstances first step to å better and more retined knowledge of ing one of these as a specimen, with permission to
of place and time under which they appear, and in plants ; which might be exercised in every walk into publish it. The enclosure being the copy of a letter consequence of which they put on those differences the garden, or in every ramble in the fields."
of appearance, which make this kingdom of nature apparently written by Ben Jonson during his Scottish so exceedingly diversified. There must, however, be tour, and in which an allusion was made to Shakspeare a beginning; and as the acquiring of knowledge which THE DEEPEST MINE IN GREAT BRITAIN. having acted in Edinburgh, the editor thought it his already exists, and wbich has been put into a scien. From experiments made by geologists, there is every duty, among his notices to correspondents, to ask for original discovery of this knowledge, the student na
reason to suppose that the internal parts of the globe
are in a state of extreme heat, if not fluid ignicion, some voucher of its authenticity, with the view of pre- turally begins where those who formed the science and that this arises from the combination of oxygen senting it to the world. In the course of a few days ended; that is, he begins with the classification, which gas with the metals which form the bases of the earths he received a second letter from Mr Donaldson, re- being a shortened index to the different species of and alkalis. To no other cause can be traced the ferring him for a guarantee of his honour to a proses much more easily and speedily acquired than if the other remarkable phenomena connected with the body
plants, renders a general knowledge of the whole existence of volcanic fires, hot-water springs, and sional gentleman resident in Bathgate, with whom student were to begin with a single plant, and endea of the earth. The internal heat of the globe increases the editor was acquainted. On inquiry, however,
vour to find out what the circumstances are to which in intensity according to the depth we penetrate from this gentleman could not remember any such individual its distinguishing characters are owing.
the surface, also the nature of the strata through as was described to him, and, from that time to the Systematic botany has no very alluring aspect to a which the perforations are made. In illustration or present, the matter has remained in a state of dubiety. beginner. The great number of titles of the classes this interesting subject of geological inquiry, the DurThe fact in question is nevertheless of so much im. and orders, to say nothing of the generic and specific ham Advertiser newspaper, some months ago, preportance, that, happening to possess a copy of the let. names, is a bar to commencing the study of the science.
sented the following account of the shafts of certain ter ascribed to Jonson, we have resolved to publish it But when set about in earnest, the first difficulties collieries in the north of England, and the experi. in this place, with the hope of its attracting the at- quired before such a knowledge of it can be acquired rious depths in the mines.
quickly vanish ; still much attention and time is re- ments made to determine the degrees of heat at væ. tention of Mr Donaldson, if there be such a person, or as to yield real pleasure to the student.
“ The shaft at present sinking at Monk wearmouth any other who may be able to throw light upon it. It Initiation into this, as into all other sciences, is la colliery, near Sunderland, has attained a considerately is as follows :
borious ; stepping over the threshold is a kind of men. greater depth than any mine in Great Britain (or, es. “ Master vill,
tal drudgery, and is in fact the most irksome part of the timating its depth from the level of the sea, than any quhen we were drinking at my undertaking; but when the student is fairly within mine in the world). Pearce's shaft, at the Consolidated Lordis on Sonday, you promised yat you would gett the pale, the different avenues into the interior and mine in Cornwall, was till lately the deepest in the for me my Lordis coppie he lent you of my Lord more occult regions of the science are opened up; | island, being about 1470 feet in perpendicular depili, Sempill his interlude callit philotas, and quhích vill those thick clouds of difficulty which timidity or in. of which 1150 feet are below the surface of the sea. Shakspeare told me be actit in edinburt, quhen he wes dolence had formed, are soon dispersed, and the stu. The bottom of Woolf's shaft (also at the Consol dated yair wit the players, to his gret contentinent and de- dent finds himself in an open expanse-in a new mines) is 1230 feet below the sea ; but its total depth lighte. My man waits your answer ;
world, where he finds a thousand new objects which he is less than that of Pearce's shaft. The bottom of the So give him the play,
can name at first sight. When this much is attained, Monkwearmouth shaft is already vipwards of 1500 feet And lette him awaye
the study becomes every day more and more interest. below high-water mark, and 1600 feet below the sur. To your assured friend ing; every new plant is sought and examined with face of the ground. It was commenced in May 1826. and loving servand,
avidity: research is no longer toil; on the contrary, The upper part of the shaft passes through the lower Ben Jonson.
such investigation becomes delightful exercise, yield magnesian limestone strata which overlap the south. From my lodging in the canongait,
ing positive pleasure ; while every accession to the eastern district of the great Newcastle coal-field, and Nrch the twelft, 1619.
previous stock of knowledge is attended by fresh gra- which, including a stratum of 'freestone sand,' at (Endorsed) tification.
the bottom of the limestone, extended at Monk wear. To my very good friend,
The amateur botanist proceeding in this way soon mouth to the thickness of three hundred and thirty the lairde of Hawthorn-den-Yese." acquires a competent knowledge of this pleasing feet, and discharged, towards the bottom of the strata, The individual to whom the letter appears to have science; he gradually becomes cognisant of the greater the prodigious quantity of 3000 gallons of water per been addressed was the celebrated Drummond of Haw. features, and gains such an insight into the details minute-for the raising of which into an off-take drift, thornden, to visit whom was the chief object of Jon. as dispels every obscurity which he thought he saw a double-acting steam-engine, working with a power son's pilgrimage to Scotland, and with whom he spent before him on his first entrance on the study. And of from 180 to 200 horses, was found necessary. The some time at Hawthornden. The interlude of Phi. when this much is accomplished, he enjoys every sa first unequivocal stratum of the coal formation, viz. & Jotas was produced some time before Shakspeare's sup- tisfaction that can arise from the knowledge of one of bed of coal I finches thick, was not reached till August posed visit, but its author has hitherto been unknown the most interesting branches of natural history, and 1831 (being about 344 leet below the surface), alter to Scottish antiquaries. It may be added, that the which, moreover, is a necessary accomplishment of which the tren endous influx of water which had so diction of the letter appears characteristic, particularly I every well.educated miud.
long impeded the sinking operations, was stopped
back' by a cylindrical metal tubing' or casting, fit. of their materials, furnishing admission of air and and pips, any thing hereinbefore, or hereinafter, or in ted (in a series of small portions) to the shaft, and water to innumerable fragments of shale, coal, and any other deed or deeds, instrument or instruments, extending from below the above bed of coal to within pyrites-circumstances which are abundantly calcu. of what nature or kind soever, to the contrary in any twenty-six yards of the surface. The sinking now lated to occasion an increase of temperature, both wise, notwithstanding;' with much more to the same proceeded with spirit still no valuable bed of coal by mechanical compression and chemical decomposi. effect. Such is the language of lawyers; and it is was reached, although the shaft had passed consider. tion, although wholly inadequate, as we conceive, to very gravely held by the most learned men among ably above 600 feet into the coal measures, and much the generation of the temperature recorded above; them, that by the omission of any of these words, the deeper than had hitherto been found requisite for and the presence and the lights of the pitmen right to the said orange would not pass to the person reaching some of the known seams. It became evi. were obviously inoperative in producing the effects for whose use the same was intended." dent that the miners were in unknown ground. A remarked. Other experiments, however, in the pronew feeder of water' was encountered at the great secution of these inquiries, are, with the obliging
HOW TO KEEP A COW AND PIG UPON AX ACRE OF depth of 1000 feet, requiring fresh pumps and a fresh permission of the owners, contemplated at Monk. outlay of money. The prospects of the owners be- wearmouth colliery; and amongst the minor advan.
1. Never let the cow out of the cow-house. 2. came unpromising in the eyes of moet men, and were tages arising froin their magnificent undertaking, will denounced as hopeless by many of the coal-viewers. doubtless be the solution of any remaining doubts of Carry her food and water to her. 3. Do not keep one Coal-viewing, bowever, had as yet been limited to the existence of considerable subterranean heat at ac.
foot of land in pasture. 4. Dig your land instead of some 200 or 220 fathoms ; and the views of the cessible depths beneath the surface of the earth.”
ploughing it. 5. Never throw away any thing that
can be turned into manure. Messrs Pemberton (the enterprising owners of this
6. Keep your land well colliery) were not to be bounded by such ordinary
weeded, and collect a large dunghill. depths ; they considered rightly that the thickness of
SCOTTISH COMIC SONGS,
A small cow, which is best for a cottager, will the coal formation might be vastly greater where pro.
eat from seventy to eighty pounds of .good moist food
SUPPOSED TO BE HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED. tected by the superincumbent limestone, than where
of the following kinds in a day: Lucern or clover, exposed to those denudations which in the neighbour.
and the leaves of yellow beet or matigel wurzel, from
THE ANCIENT MAIDEN. hood of the rise' collieries had probably swept away
the beginning of spring to the end of autumn; and
Tune-Wooed and Married and a'. the strata through which their own shaft had hitherto
the roots of yellow beet or mangel wurzel, Swedish been sunk; that they were, therefore, justified in an.
[We have been assured, by competent authority, that this song, turnips, potatoes, and straw, from the end of autumn
intensely humorous as it is, was the production of a young clergy till the beginning of spring. ticipating the larger and known seams at greater
man of one of the dissenting persuasions.] depths; and that, in case the larger seams had (as
If the cow is curried once a-day, it will increase the
Oh dear, I am now thirty-six, was intimated) been split into smaller strata, the same
quantity of milk.
Though some rather mair wad me ca'; causes which in other places had produced their sub
To procure the abovementioned crops, you must
And ane just sae auld to get married, division, might, at Monk wearinouth, have effected
have plenty of manure, which you will obtain by care
Has little or nae chance ava. their junction. They continued, therefore, their sink.
And when I think upon this,
ful management. Rushes, potato-stalks, and weeds ing, and in Octoler last reached a seam of consider
Lang sighs frae my bosom I draw;
before they seed, should be industriously collected for able value and thickness, at the depth of 1578 feet Oh, is it not awfu’ to think
the cow's litter. below the surface; and presuming that this newly l'ın no to be married ava?
LUCERN requires a good and deep soil. The ground discovered seam was identified with the Bensham
No to be married ava,
for it should be well dug, two spics deep, and the ma. seam of the Tyne (or Maudlin seam of the Wear),
No to be married ava;
nure deposited at one spit deep. It must be sown they are rapidly deepening their shast, in anticipation
Oh, is it not awsu' to think,
very early in the spring, in drills nine inches apart. of reaching the Hutton or most valuable seam at no
I'in no to be married ava.
The quantity of seed, one ounce and a quarter to the distant period; but which (if their anticipations are For ilka young lass that can boast,
perch. It must be kept carefully free from weeds, well founded) will be found at a depth approaching
'That she has a lover or twa,
and watered with the liquid manure from time to 300 fathoms from the surface! In the mean time,
Will haud out.her finger, and say,
tiine; asbes also are a good manure for it. It some. however, workings have very recently commenced in
That body has got nane ava.
times admits of four cuttings in the summer, and the supposed Bensham seam.
And then when they a' get married,
with attention to the foregoing rules will continue
Their husbands will let them gang braw, A party of scientific gentlemen descended into these
productive for ten or twelve years. It will not do well workings, and, aided by every facility and assistance
While they laugh at auld maids like mysell,
upon shallow or boggy land, in which case red clover which could be asforded to them by the Messrs Pem.
For no getting married ava.
will be the substitute.
No to be inarried, &c. berton, made several barometric and thermometric
Swedish Turnips. Prepare the land as if for observations, the detail of which will be deeply inte.
Some wives that are wasters o' men,
drilling potatoes, open the drills about twenty inches resting to many of our readers. A barometer at the Wear dune naething less than their twa;
distant, the deeper the better; fill them with manure, top of the shafi (87 feet above high-water mark) stood
But this I wad baud as a crime,
cover them with four or five inches of earth, make che
That ought to be punished by law. at 30.518, its attached thermometer (Fahrenheit)
top smooth and level, then with a dibble make holes being 53. On being carried down to the new work. For are they vo muckle to blame,
two inches in depth, and about twelve inches apart,
When thus to themsells they tak a'? ing (1584 feet below the top) ic stood at 32.280, and
and drop a seed into every l:ole. Keep them free
Ne'er thinking o'mony an auld maid, in all probability higher than ever before seen by hu
That's no to be married ava.
from weeds. Threequarters of a pound of seed will man eye ; the attached thermometer being 58. Four
No to be married, &c.
BOW twenty perches. The time for sowing is in May. workings or drifts had been commenced in the coal;
MANGEL WURZEL, OR YELLOW BEET.-The the longest of them, being that 'to the dip,' 22 yards
But as for the men that get married-
ground to be prepared the same way as for Swedish in length and nearly 2 in breadth-to the end of which the current of fresh air for ventilating the mine was
I think they should aye be respeckit
turnips; from the 20th to the end of April is the best For helping sae mony awa.
time for sowing; hali a pound of seed will sow trenty diverted (and from which the pitmen employed in its
But as for the auld bach'lor bodies,
perches. In August and September pull the leaves excavation had just departed)-was selected for the
Their necks every ane I could thraw,
for the cow; these will last till you take up and store following thermometric observations. Temperature of For nocht is the use o' their lives,
the roots, which should be done before the frost the current of air near the entrance of the drist, 62 No to be married ava.
sets in. (Fahrenheit); near the end of the drift, 63; close to
No to be married, &c.
RED CLOVER (to be used only where lucern will 1206 the face or extremity of the drist and beyond the cur.
Oli, gin I could get but a husband,
suit the soil) will afford a large quantity of green food rent of air, C8. A piece of coal was hewn from the
Although he were never sae sna',
as well as liay from ten square perches. It will last face; and two thermometers, placed in the spot just be.
Oh, be what he like, I wad tak him,
from two or three years on the same ground; one fore occupied by the coal (their bulbs being instantly
Though scarce like a mannie ava.
ounce and a quarter of seed is suflicient for a perch. covered with coal dust), rose to 71. A small pool of Come souter, come tailor, come tinkler,
The ground should be well and deeply dug, and made water was standing at the end of the drist. Tempera.
Oh come but and tak me awa!
as fine as possible. The time of sowing is from leture of this water at 11 o'clock, 70; three hours later, Oh gi'e me a bode ne'er sac little,
bruary till pril. The secd put in immediately af. 69. A register thermometer was buried 18 inches
Ill tak it and never say na.
ter you have sown your oats half an inch deep in deep below the floor, and about 10 yards from the en.
No to be married, &c.
clavey soils, and one inch on loose soils; a coat of ma. trance of the drist; forty minutes afterwards its maxi. Come deaf, or come dumb, or come cripple, nure sliould be put on in spring and autumn. It may mum temperature was 67. Another register thermo. Wi' ae leg, or nae leg ava,
be cut two or three times in the season, and should not meter was similarly buried near the end of the drist, Or como ye wi' ae ee, or nae ee,
be given to the cow till it has been cut some hours, or and after a similar period indicated a maximuin tem
I'll tak yo as ready's wi’ twa.
she would be in danger of bursting. perature of 70. It was then placed in a deeper hole Come youag, or come auld, or come doited,
Some dry food should be given with the roots. The and covered with emall coal; some water oozed out of Oh come ony ane o' ye a';
daily supply for a cow for the winter (about 160 days) the side of this bole to the depth of six or eight inches
Far better be married to something,
may be as follows :-30 lbs. of mangel wurzel, or yel. above the thermometer, which, upon being examined
Than no to be married ava.
low beet-30 lbs. of Swedish turnips-14 lbs. of straw. after a sufficient interval of timo, indicated a tempera.
No to be married, &c.
-Labourers' Friend Magazine.--[We have not room ture of 714. A stream of gas bubbles (igniting with Now, lada, an there's ony amang ye,
to insert the diagrams which follow, pointing out the the tlame of a candle) issued through the water col. War like just upon me to ca',
rotation of crops to accomplish the above purposes. lected in this hole: the bulbs of two very sensible
Ye'll find me no ill to be courted, thermometers were immersed under water in this
For shyness I hae put awa.
It may, however, be sufficient to state, that, supposing
the land of the peasant to consist of four roods, in the stream of gas, and indicated a temperature constantly
And if ye should want a bit wisie, varying between 71.5 and 72.6. A thermometer was
Ye'll ken to what quarter to draw;
first year he devotes a rood for oats, a second rood to And e'en should we no mak a bargaix,
potatoes, a third to lucern, and a fourth to beet and lowered to the bottom of a hole drilled to the depth
We'll aje get a kissie or twa.
Swedish turnips ; in the second year lie puts potatoes of 2 feet on the floor of another of the workings,
No to be married, &c.
on the first rood, beet and turnips on the second, lu. and the atmospheric air excluded from it by a tight
cern on the tbird, and oats on the fourth ; in the stopping of clay; the thermometer being raised, after
third year be puts beet and turnips on the Grst, oats a lapse of forty-eight hours, stood at 71.2.
LEGAL PHRASEOLOGY.--The following happy pa. on the second, lucern on the third, and potatoes on The above observations will accord with the pre- rody on the verboseness of legal phraseology, occurs the fourth. By this means he effects a proper rots. vailing (and certainly well.grounded) opinion, that in a work just published, entitled " The Mechanics of tion of cropping, advantageous in keeping his land in the temperature of the earth increases with the depth Law.Making:"_“If a man would, according to law, heart. It will be easy for him to devote spare burders from the surface. It must not, bowever, be forgotten give to another an orange, instead of saying, "I give to the raising of onions and seeds. ] that causes may be assigned for an increase of tem. you that orange,' which one should think would be perature in this and other coal mines, independently what is called, in legal phraseology, 'an absolute con. LONDON: Published, with Permission of the Proprietors, by ORS of the presumed subterranean heat. Those who are veyance of all right and title therein,' the phrase
& SMITH, Patemoster Row; and sold by G. BERGER, "Holy.
well Street, Strand : BANCKS & Co., Manchester: WRIGHTSON familiar with coal mines must have frequently wit-would run thusI give you all and singular my & WEBB, Birmingham: WILLMER & SMITH, Liverpool: W. nessed the effects of the enormous pressure of the estate and interest, right, title, claim, and advantage
E. SOMERSCALE, Leeds; C. N. WRIGHT, Nottingham; M.
BINGHAM, Bristol : S. SIMMS, Bath ; C. GAIN, Exeter: J. PURsuperincumbent strata ; and a weight of 25,000 or of and in that orange, with all its rind, skin, juice,
DON, Hull; A. WWTTAKER, Sheffield; H. BRLLERBY, York; 30,000 tons, which had lately reposed upon the coal pulp, and pips, and all right and advantage therein, J. TAYLOR, Brighton : GEOROR YOUNG, Dublin; and all other hitherto occupying the drift above described, had sud- with full power to bite, eut, suck, and otherwise eat
Booksellers and Newsmen in Great Britain and Ireland, Canada,
Nova Scotia, and United States of America. denly been transferred to the coal situate on the sides the same, or give the same away, as fully and effectu.
0 Complete sets of the work from its commencement, or numof this drift. Hence those constant indications of ally as I, the said A. B., am now entitled to bite, cut, bers to complete sets, may at all times be obtained from the Pubtremendous pressure the cracking of the sides and suck, or otherwise eat the same orange, or give the
lishers or their Agents.
Stereotyped by A. Kirkwood, Edinburgh. cool, the 'heaving of the floor,' and the crumbling I same away, with or without its rind, skin, juice, pulp, Printed by Bradbury and Evans (late T. Davison), Whitefriars
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM CHAMBERS, AUTHOR OF “ THE BOOK OF SCOTLAND," &c., AND BY ROBERT CHAMBERS,
AUTHOR OF “ TRADITIONS OF EDINBURGH," “ PICTURE OF SCOTLAND,” &c.
PRICE THREE HALFPENCE.
ous substance, is divided into many sets, which a This partiality in the distribution of our affections In visiting the houses of friends, whether at noon nearer view detaches from each other, and shows to is certainly liable to some degree of correction. It may or dewy eve, whether by general or particular invita. be in a state of constant hostility and mutual reproach. be said that the concentration and even selfishness of tion, the repetition of the same company is an almost The consciousness of belonging to one set, which is love is natural, and that any effort to produce a different unfailing subject of remark. At each particular house closed to other men and women, the fretting desire of effect would therefore be vain. But just as surely is it you are sure to meet individuals whom you never see stepping up into a higher, and the contempt which is consistent with nature to spread abroad, as to limit our any where else, and who, from their being always unavoidably felt for all which are lower, constitute affections. All that is required for this purpose is a more there when you happen to be there, you would sup. much of the sentimental pleasures and pains of those effectual training of the sentiment of benevolence, and pose to be constant inmates of the establishment, if a classes who have had what is called the best educa- mental power and light to see the far-extending and ul. litele reflection did not inform you, that, from your tion, and are blessed by fortune with the largest Early education, unfortunately, reconciles the most of
timately profitable consequences of diffusive kindness. being always there when they are there, they must be means of refining their own natures, and aiding in us to the details of atrocious wars, swears us like Han. apt to make the very same remark respecting your the improvement of their kind. A member of a Lon. nibal into the most criminal national antipathies, and self. Are you a youth not yet disentangled from don set or club has a specific idea of the existence of trains us to look upon an immense portion of our fel. albums, kid gloves, and quadrilles, and occasionally the few hundreds of individuals who belong to it and low.creatures as so lost in speculative error as not only asked to hand kettles and cake, to be followed up by to its superiors ; but all the rest of the world is to him to be beyond the pale of all sympathy, but to be worthy a dance, at the house of your good kind friends the no better than the inhabitants of unknown countries of unrelenting hatred and contempt. In advanced Thomsons ? _there do you for certain meet the Mister were to the early geographers. Amidst this wilderness years, we come into a sphere where we find all these Blairs, and the Miss Oliphants, and cheerful old of low and selfish feeling, a late foreign philosopher of ruthless partialities in full operation, and even held uncle John, and worthy Mrs Somerville, who never high moral temperament, who had visited it for the up by poets and legislators as the themes of highest tires of playing the piano to the young people. Are first time, was asked how he felt: the emphatic answer praise, and the means by which all good is to be at." you a solid bachelor, and occasionally help to demolish was—“In solitude.” Throughout every other detained. How, under such circumstances, can we ex. a "jigot" at your friend Beatson's ?-there for cer. partment of society, we find, if not the same unworthy pect men to be generally inspired by other feelings izin do you find his dull “confessor” Andrews, a pursuits
, at least the same concentration of sympa. Let the cause, however, cease, and then we shall see
than those of malice, hatred, and uncharitableness ? fellow who has no recommendation in your eyes be. thies. Instead of that cosmopolitan spirit, which whether man is for ever to be what we have described sides that of an appearance of good humour, and to esteems all mankind as one family, and is as much him. Already, we can perceive, he is beginning to whom accordingly you are surprised to find Beatson concerned for the happiness of the negroes of Guinea be convinced of the besotting and impoverishing efso much devoted. Are you a married man, and go as for that of the most kindred races, the generality fects of war. Already he begins to doubt the abso. out with your lady to perform at the solemn dinner. of men seem to act upon the principle of extending lute necessity of his cherishing an antipathy against parties of your friends ?—with the Smiths are you not their sympathies as little way beyond themselves as neighbouring nations. Already he suspects that force sure to find the Smithsons ?-at the Clerks', don't you possible. They cannot help loving their children ; and bate are not the best means of bringing those for ever meet the Beauclerks ?-with the Kirks, don't they find it convenient to have at least two or three whom he supposes to be in error within the brotherly you invariably encounter the Kirkhams and the Kirk- friends, and to belong to a set : but they suffer not pale of his own opinions, or of inducing them to comans ? Nay, with hardly an exception, is not the a particle of their affections to extend beyond the line operate for common advantage. Surely, if the people company now assembled just the same as it was last at which it would cease to minister directly to their have acquired these views, not only without the aid of year, and the year before, and all the previous years, own pleasure.
education, but in despite of it, a different kind of ever since you began to take parts in the ceremonial ? We sometimes amuse ourselves by tracing the ope. teaching could not fail materially to accelerate the
This system, however irksome and ridiculous, may ration of sets in the literary world. Two or three desired end. That such will in time be universally be in some measure a necessary result of circumstances authors, of high merit, and perhaps little connected established, and that mankind will, under its influ.
ence, become but one large and affectionate family, is with which no fault can be found ; but it is associated with political parties, bave the good fortune to be no.
therefore not only our wish and hope, but our confi. 'in our mind with one of the most unfortunate pecu- ticed and praised by all; but for the great majority, dent expectation. liarities of the present state of society. Our world, including no small portion of the talent of the coun. it would appear, little as it looks when compared with try, there is no panegyric, perhaps not even notice, the innumerable masses pervading space, is so big in from any except the party or set to which they belong. CANALS IN THE UNITED STATES. respect of the human faculties, that single minds are These, however, give it so liberally, that, if density [A work, entitled “ A Statistical View of the United States, by unable to grasp it. We have therefore bad to break could in all cases make up for want of extent, there Timothy Pitkin” (1 vol. 8vo., Newhaven, Connecticut, 1835), has it down into districts, each of which is peopled by a would be little cause of complaint. Almost every pe- just been sent to us from America ; and with the view of present
ing our readers with some correct information on an extremely peculiar race, very anxious for its own interest, andriodical work which admits of criticisms, has its fa. interesting subject, namely, the extent to which the establishmerit considerably disposed to fall by the ears with its neigh-vourites, whom it is always extolling, or at least of canals and inland navigation has been carried in the United bours on questions of honour and profit. Nations alluding to ; while others, the favourites of rival or States, we have condensed the elaborate details of the author on
that important statistical topic into the following article:-) again are in some cases subdivided into what are called different works, are almost entirely overlooked. The "Interests," all of which are alike set upon their own fact generally is, that the persons frequently praised The internal improvement of the United States, by exclusive advantage ; or into Ranks, which perhaps are either contributors to the work, or in some other vanced with a rapidity surpassing that of any other
means of canals and railways, has, since 1815, adconfine themselves to a hearty contempt for each other; way fall peculiarly under the view of the editor or
nation. Most of the canals on the continent of Europe or into Sects or Factions, which indulge in presum.chief writers. It is not merit which decides the mat.
have been constructed at the expense of governments ing of each other all the evil they can respectively ter: no work can possibly keep thie merits of all the in England, chiefly at the expense of individuals or imagine. But even this extent of dividing and sub. meritorious at its finger-ends : accident comes in to joint stock companies and in the United States they dividirig does not satisfy mankind. National sympa decide a choice—personal friendship, connection in have been made by states and by individuals. In es. thies, party sympathies, and commercial sympathies, literary labour, or the local importance of the indivi. tablishing canals in the States, iwo principal objects are all of them a world too wide for the hearts of dual—and the result is, that, if a stranger to British have been kept in view-one to make a safer water most men, as hearts are at present constituted ; and literature were to take up any one of our critical or inland communication along the Atlantic border, in a necessity has been found for still narrower circles, other periodicals, he would assume, as our chiefs, per. case of a war with any nation whose maritime force in which to indulge our sentiments of attachment and sons whom the British public perhaps regards as only might exceed that of the States; another and very benevolence. We accordingly concrete into Sels
a few non-commissioned officers. The class of meric important object has been to connect the waters of little parcels of people, bounded by locality, age, equa. which chiefly experiences the partialities of the system, the west with those of the east, and thereby facilitate lity of condition, community of opinion on
is that which may be said to rank second or third in the intercourse between these two distant sections of leading subject, or by all of these together. Society, public esteem, embracing a vast number of useful and the country. thus composed, may be likened to that curious chain becoine almost necessarily the protegés of certain sets, even in some degree brilliart writers. Such persons The western country, as it is called, includes the
states of Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Indiana, Illi. of eccentric and converging circles which we some. times see running round the cornices of a room. Each may find themselves basking under a constant sun. and are just as carefully neglected by others. They nois, Miysouri, the territory of Michigan, and the
portions of Pennsylvania and Virginia, which lie be. has some point of adhesion to its neighbour, but for shine of praise in one direction, while in another and yond the Alleghany Mountaine. In 1790, the whole the most part stands distinct from the rest. The me. perhaps inferior quarter they might as reasonably population of this country was only 237,000, and in tropolitan fashionable world, which, like a nebula in hope to become princes and peers, as to meet a single 1830 it had increased to 3,264.000 ; at present it is the beavens, appears to inferior eyes as a homogene- straggling ray of favour,
calculated to be between 4,000,000 and 5,000,000.
This population extends over a vast region, unrivalled borders : the population of Albany rose from 15,000 wheat, 147,766 bushels of corn, 507,374 lbs. of butter in the extent and magnitude of its navigable waters to 24,000, Utica from 5000 to 8000, and Rochester and cheese, 10,428 lbs. of beef and pork, 200,508 lbs. (the principal of which is the Mississippi), as well as from 5000 to 3000, betwixt 1825 and 1830, while that of lard and tallow, 351,212 bushels of salt (made at
salt springs in the interior), 4,017,362 lbs. of provi. the fertility of its soil. The exports of the surplus of Buffalo, from 1825 to 1834, rose from 2600 to 12,500. sions, 2,411,969 lbs. of wool, 217,255 lbs. of cotton, produce of the western country consist of cotton, to. Such are a few of the wonderful results of this stu- | 646,460 gallons of whisky, 8,667,412 lbs. of tobacco, bacco, four, wheat, pork, beef, hams, live cattle, iron, pendous undertaking.
17,681,540 lbs. of iron (Pittsburgh being an iron dis. glass, candles, beer, whisky, cordage, bagging, and Other canals of minor importance have also been trict), 291,281 feet of timber, and 4,403,443 feet of many other commodities. An idea of the amount of constructed at the expense of the state.
gawed deals or lumber, besides other commodities.
Pennsylvania now possesses several canals of lesser these exports may be gathered, when we mention, that, the Oswego Canal, extending from Salina to Lake On.
note: the principal are the Unión Canal, connecting in 1832, those of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio, tario, connecting that lake with Lake Erie, a dis- the Schuylkill and the Susquehana, a distance of so were to the value of nearly D.22,000,000 (dollars). tance of 38 miles; expense of construction D.525,115. miles; and the Lehigh Canal, extending from Easton
on the Delaware, to the celebrated coal mines at Mauch (The exports of the town of Cincinnati alone, in 1833, Cayuga and Seneca Canal, from Geneva on the Seneca
Chunk, a distance of 46 miles. The whole extent of were valued at D.5,000,000.) Altogether, the value Lake, to Montezuma on the Erie Canal, a distance canal navigation in this state in 1834 was estimated at of the exports of the western country was, in 1834, of 20 miles; expense D.214,000. Chemung Canal, from 861 miles, and the cost of the same at D. 23,000,000. computed to be from D.28,000,000 to D.30,000,000; the head waters of the Seneca Lake to Tioga Point, The transportation of coal has been a primary obbeing one-half more than the whole exports of the 18 miles, with a feeder of 18 miles, making together ject with most of the companies ; 592,210 tons of this United States in 1790. In order to give facilities to 36 miles ; expense D.335,849. Crooked Lake Canal, material were dug and brought to market in 1833.
The coal fields of Pennsylvania may be termed inexthe export of this growing surplus of produce, and to from the lake of that name to Seneca Lake, 7 miles ; | haustible, for it is ascertained that they embrace an offer a channel for the introduction of foreign luxuries expense D.136,101. The Erie and Champlain Canals, area of 21,000 square miles, or 13,400,000 acres. in return, as well as for the accommodation of travel with navigable feeders, 8 miles. And the Chenango In New Jersey, the Morris Canal was completed in lers, steam-boats have been placed on the navigable Canal, extending from Utica to Binghampton, a dis. 1831, extending from the Delaware to Newark, 90 rivers, and canals and railways opened. The number tance of about 80 miles, to be finished in 1836, at an
iniles, at an expense of 1.2,000,000. During the
year 1834 the Delaware and Raritan Rivers have been of steam-boats on the Mississippi, Ohio, and other expense of D.1,800,000. In 1823, the legislature of
connected by a canal, extending 30 miles ; it is calcu. western rivers, on the 1st of January 1834, was 230, the state of New York incorporated a private com. lated for sloop navigation, and cost about D.2,500,000. measuring 39,000 tons. Of these vessels, there were pany to construct a canal from the Hudson to the De- The Delaware is likewise now connected with the seven plying between Nashville and New Orleans, four laware, to be connected with a canal and railroad in Chesapeake, by a canal for sloop navigation, of about between Florence and New Orleans, four in the St Pennsylvania to the coal mines in Luzerne county: grand canal, extending a length of 341
miles, from the
16 miles in length ; expense, D.2,201,864. In 1828, a Louis trade, seven in the cotton trade, 57 not in es. Including 16 miles of railroad, the whole line of this
tide waters on the Potomac to Pittsburgh, was com. tablished trades, and 120 in miscellaneous traffic. The extensive undertaking proceeds a distance of 125 miles, menced ; in 1834, it bad proceeded a distance of 109 number of Aat bottom and keel boats has been calcu. and the expense of its construction was D.2,305,599. miles, at an expense of D.3,707,262. The funds of lated at 4000, with a burden of 100,000 tons. In the
It was finished in 1828. Its principal object is the the company have been exhausted before the canal has autumn of 1834, the number of steam-boats on Lake supplying of New York with coal from the rich coal reached the extensive coal and iron region, situated on
or near the sources of the Potomac, and from which, Erie was 31, whose average tonnage was about 343 tons fields of Pennsylvania. In 1833, the quantity of coals principally, the revenues of the canal are to be expected. each; the number of schooners 234, averaging 80 tons brought down by it was 111,777 tong. The state at There can be little doubt that capital will soon be each ; and three brigs, with an average tonnage of present contemplates a ship canal round the Falls of found to complete this useful line of communication. 215—making the whole tonnage of the west, exclusive Niagara, and also from Oswego to Utica. It may be swamp Canal, connecting the waters of the Chesapeake
In passing south, we next meet with the Dismal of that of canal-boats, about 230,000. On the Mis- known that there is already a ship canal, called the with those of Albemarle Sound, extending from Nor. sissippi, and twenty-two of its tributary streams, more Welland Canal, round these falls, but it is on the folk in Virginia into North Carolina, a distance of 28 than 8000 miles are traversed by boats propelled by British side. This canal joins Lakes Erie and On miles. The expense of this canal up to the close of tario, and has been among the most successful spe.
1833 was D.700,000, and in that year the tolls Pennsylvania, it is believed, first formed and com. culations within the Canadian boundary. Up till bacon, and flour, were the chief articles of transport.
amounted to D.33,290. Cotton, timber, tobacco, corn, menced a plan for uniting the western and eastern | January 1835, it cost L.411,079, and its tolls in 1834
In Virginia, a number of canals and short cuts have waters, by an inland water communication ; but it amounted to L.4300. To show its utility, we have been made to improve navigation. The greatest im. failed in its object, and the first completion of a canal only to mention, that during 1834 there passed through provement has been made in James' River, at and was accomplished by the state of New York. This it 570 schooners, 334 boats and scows, and 66 rafts, above the city of Richmond, called the James' River
Canal, comprising a distance of from 30 to 40 miles. successful undertaking was that of the great Erie the amount of tonnage being 37,917. Among the
The tolls which were yielded by this canal in its dif. Canal, connecting the Hudson River with Lake Erie. articles transported on this canal, for the first time in ferent sections, in 1833, amounted to fully D.97,000. This is the longest canal in the world, and, for one of 1834, was 400 tons of coal for Upper Canada. In South Carolina, the Santee and Cooper Rivers its dimensions, constructed in the shortest period. No The great and successful exertions of the state of bave been united by a canal of 22 miles in length, at canal in China, unconnected with rivers, it is believed, New York, in order to secure the trade of the west, at
an expense of D.650,667. In Georgia, the Savannah,
Ogeechee, and Altamala Canal, has been completed, is of equal extent. That of Languedoc in France is last aroused the attention of Pennsylvania again, to
being in length 66 miles. only 148 miles long, and was fourteen years in form the same subject. In 1825, a convention was held at
The spirit of canal and railroad improvements bas ing; while the Erie Canal is, in length, 368 miles, Harrisburgh, for the purpose of taking into considera crossed the Alleghany, and the canals of the state of and was constructed in about eight years. The width | tion the general subject of internal improvements. An Ohio may well claim the attention of the economist, of the canal at the surface of the water is forty, extensive system of internal communication, either by as well as the traveller. Nearly 400 miles of artificial and at the bottom twenty-eight feet, with a depth of canals or railroads, and so as to accommodate and benefit country, which, little more than forty years ago, was four feet; the number of locks is eighty.four, and almost every section of the state, was agreed upon, and a perfect wilderness. The Ohio Canal unites Lake the rise and fall is estimated at 698 feet. This ex- | afterwards adopted by the state legislature. In 1826, Erie with the Ohio River, extending from Cleveland tensive artificial line of water communication was the excavation commenced of one of the most exten. to Portsmouth, and, including its feeder, is 324 miles
in length: it is by this canal that Upper Canada sends completed in 1825, at an expense of 1.9,027,456. sive lines of inland communication ever undertaken Gouverneur Morris was its projector, and the merit by any country. This was no less than the connec
its emigrants down into the valley of the Mississippi,
to the states of Illinois, Kentucky, Indiana, &c. The of its execution is due to De Witt Clinton, who, in tion of the river Delaware with Lake Erie, by way Miami Canal, situate in the western part of the state conjunction with bis able and patriotic colleagues, of Pittsburgh. The line consists of a railroad from of Ohio, extends from the town of Dayton to Cincin. persevered against a powerful opposition arising from Philadelphia to Columbia, on the Susquehana; from nati, a distance of about 65 miles, and has been conparty politics as well as from prejudice and ignorance. thence by a canal to the mouth of the Juniata, and up nected with the River Obio. A canal has lately been Its success as a commercial undertaking has been as that river to Hollidaysburgh, at the eastern base of authorised, and is already commenced, beginning on extraordinary as its public utility has been conspicu. the Alleghany Mountains, a distance of 171 miles- the Ohio Canal at Bolivar, to meet the great Penn
sylvania Canal about 30 miles below Pittsburgh, a ous: in 1833, it yielded a toll duty of D.1,290,136. thence by a railroad across the Alleghany, 36 miles to The value of the produce it carried from the interior Johnstown, on the river Conemaugh, and from Johns. that round the Falls of the Chio, called a Louisville
town, at the western base of the Alleg bany, by several during the same year, amounted to D.13,000,000, or
and Portland Canal,” though only about two miles in rivers, to Pittsburgh, 105 miles ; making the distance length, ought not to pass unnoticed. It is calculated about a fifth part of the total exports of the States : offrom Philadelphia to Pittsburgh 394 miles. Leav. to admit the passage of the largest steam-boats on the barrels of flour alone, the number brought down was ing Pittsburgh, the line consists of the Ohio River,
western waters, and cost D.940,000. In 1833, 875 923,261, and of bushels of wheat 921,507. The tons downwards a distance of 28 miles, to the Big Beaver, steam-boats, and 710 flats and keel boats, passed of merchandise, &c. which went up the canal and its then up this river to Newcastle, 24 miles ; thence, by
through it, having an aggregate burden of 169,885 tributary canals, was about 107,000. If the reader the summit of Conneaut Lake, to the town of Erie,
tons ; the tolls in the same year amounted to D.60,736.
It would be impossible to present an account of the should not be surprised at the extent and value of the on Lake Erie, about 78 miles : making the whole dis- lesser canals in various parts of the Union, as tbey internal commerce which these facts disclose, we think tance from Philadelphia to Lake Erie, by this route, are very numerous, and have been established for he cannot fail to be so, when he is informed, that the 324 miles, of which 118 is by railroads. This grand local purposes, chiefly with the view of connecting actual number of boats on these canals is 2328, giving line of communication bas produced subsidiary lines rivers and rounding shoals and falls. “ From the employment to about 11,000 men and boys ; being or branches, which shoot off to particular places on the best estimate we have been able to make (says Mr but little less than one-sixth of the whole number emway. The names of these minor canals we do not
Pitkin) the number of miles of canal in the United
States, completed on the 1st of January 1835, and ployed in the foreign and coasting trade of the United know: there is one 91} miles long, another 264, a
which would not be long in being completed, is about States in 1830. Of the immense quantity of inland third 221, and a fourth 594. Altogether, since 1826,
2867, and their cost about D.64 573,099. This ex. produce now brought down by these canals, it is 1184 miles of railroad, at an expense of D.20,142,726.
Pennsylvania has established 601 miles of canals, and penditure for canals has been made principally within reckoned, that but for such channels of communica. The whole distance from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh
the last fifteen years. The whole amount expended
for canals, in Great Britain and Ireland, from 1760 tion, extremely little would have been raised or pre
was not opened for transportation till 1834, during till 1824, a period of sixty-four years (and little has pared for market. This extensive water communication which year there was yielded a toll duty of D.323,535.
been expended for canals since), has been estimated has placed farms in the western country nearly upon To give an idea of the traffic carried on both up and
at L.31,000,000 or D.148,800,000; and the number an equality with those of the east, in the vicinity of down, it may be stated, that, in 1834, 38,000 tons of
of miles of canal constructed, during the same period, the great market towns and cities. Indeed, it has merchandise were carried up, and there were brought canals of Britain have, proportionally, been made at
was also estimated to be 2750;" in other words, the created large towns and cities at the west, along its | down 132,822 barrels of flour, 193,240 bushels of an expense of more than double the outlay in America