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164 Trip from New York to Philadel.
18 | Reading
95 Turning, Improvements in the Art
133 Remarks upon Moral Education 351 Use and Abuse of Classical Edu-
26 Himalaya Mountains
295 Varieties of Colour among Man-
63 Vegetable and Mineral Poisons 50
Mason, Adventure of the
383 Vicissitudes in the Life of a Princess 290
155 Viz., Little Master
189 Whales in the Mediterranean
253 Scattered Observations about What Good Roads accomplish 340
365 Whist, Mrs Battle on
22 Wine Merchant and Cobbler 358
45 | Words, Observations on
ANECDOTES & PARAGRAPHS.
386 Scottish Songs
356 Advice to Unmarried Ladies
Mutiny of the Bounty
Affairs of Honour
94 All Truths useful
351 | American Advertisernent
199 American President's Drawing-
Ancient Writers, respect for 64
322 Apsley House:
Siege of Blair
310 Atlantic and Mediterranean, the 48
128 Authors and their Writings 280
269 Sketch of the Cagots
77 Sketches from the Seasons
10 Social State
69 Society in Glasgow
126 Building a Pyramid
118 Soldier, Recollections of å
10 Songs, English
320 Carlyle, Anecdote of Dr
206 Cats, Exhibition of
37 Causes for the Thriving of Towns 400
Pleasures of a Bad Day
288 Civilisation, Possibilities of greater 160
135 | Coincidences in the Lives of a Mar.
351 Trosachs' and Loch Katrine 243 Stories of North American Indians 198 Comparison of Man to a Book 400
51 Compliment to the Ladies
Conversation between a Weather.
glass and a Weather-cock 312
To Suckling, Sir John
166 | Convicts in New South Wales 72
74 Superstitious Practices
292 Crossing a River in South America 415
276 Cultivation, Effects of
396 That we should lie down with the Density of Bodies at Different
77 Design in Dogs
Vegetable and Mineral
135 Three Brothers of Galloway 62 Doctor's Advice to a Patient 400
69 Thrilling Incidents
333 Doze of two Ages
2 Duration of Wisdom
121 Early Rising
344 | Travelling Thirty Years Ago 47 | Elegant Highland Epitaph 80
ANALYSIS OF ARTICLES IN VOLUME IV.
FIFTY-ONE Familiar Sketches and Moral Essays ; Two HUNDRED Miscellaneous Articles of Instruction and Entertainment; THIRTY-91x Stories, or Tales;
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF " CHAMBERS'S HISTORICAL NEWSPAPER.”
PRICE THREE HALFPENCE.
CHAMBERS'S EDINBURGH JOURNAL. circuinstance in the highest degree creditable to the to have acquired increased powers of both instruction In addressing our readers at the commencement of public itself. It is our habitual impression and con- and entertainment, with views, almost new to us, of a new volume, we are rather complying with a custom viction, from all we have ever learned of the details of the social relations of our race. Unskilled as we which we appear to ourselves to have established, than our circulation, that a few delinquencies in the ethics may yet be in many departments of knowledge, we acting under any immediate desire of communicating of the Journal, or even a few transgressions of the find ourselves to be constantly advancing from less with the public. Our way is now so smooth—the bounds of good taste, not to speak of a partizanship in to greater things, and at the same time receiving a success of our lictle miscellany is so completely ascer politics, would instantly prove its ruin. We feel that deeper and deeper sense of the importance of using tained—and so little ever occurs to disturb the happy we stand only by our devotion to what is good, and these to the advantage of our fellow.creatures. We relation which seems to subsist between it and its our hostility to what is bad, in ordinary conduct; and therefore venture a humble but earnest hope that this readers, that we might perhaps have intermitted this if no other consideration made us the friends of vir. miscellany, through the improving faculties of both task for a year, without either disadvantage to our. tue, the commercial quality of prudence would come its writers and its readers, will be enabled to go on selves, or disappointment to the public. The occa. to our aid, and erase the peccant word, paragraph, or freshening and strengthening, and yet adopt higher sion, however, has occurred, and we have been tempted article. Many of our readers, while satisfied of the purposes and reach more splendid triumphs than any to seize it, if only for the purpose of conveying some purity of our general intentions, may be ignorant of yet contemplated. assurance of the continued prosperity of our work, the pains which are necessary in order to preserve a All that remains for us to do, is to advert to the and, consequently, of inspiring in those who approve quality of such importance. We can declare that InforMATION FOR THE People, which is now of its object, renewed hopes of the beneficial influence numberless topics and expressions which the conduct. concluded in fifty sheets similar to the numbers of which so copious and so constant an effusion of moral ors of hardly any other periodical work would think the Journal, each in general containing some parliterature may be expected to have upon society. objectionable, are avoided by us, and that we hardly ticular department of knowledge, created in a po! The success, then, of this Journal continues to be ever receive a contribution from the most practised | pular manner. Of this work, eighteen thousand proved, not only by an undiminished, or rather, we writers, which does not require purification before we copies at least bave been issued of each successive may say, an increasing circulation, but by innumer- deem it fit for insertion. Nor is it only in regard to number, and this success we deem in some measure able circumstances which, coming by chance under matters of moral decency that we tind it necessary to
even more agreeable than that of the more widely our notice, manifest to us the strong hold which it maintain a vigilant guard : we deem it only in a less diffused Journal, as the advantage of a miscellane. has taken of the public mind. It still penetrates into degree essential to exclude every thing that tends to
ous and entertaining character was here entirely every remote nook of the country; still travels from keep alive the recollection of the superstitions, savagery, wanting. When we mention that each of the sheets hand to hand over pastoral wastes—the fiery cross of and darker vices of the past—even the details of contains exactly the same quantity of literary matter knowledge-conveying pictures of life, and snatches ordinary warfare, and the drolleries of ordinary baccha- as a number of the Library of Useful Knowledge, the of science, and lessons of morality, where scarcely any nalian fellowship, we regard as in some measure objec. public may conceive what an important addition has such things were ever received before ; still visits, tionable, as tending to foster only the lower propensi- thus been made to the amount of reading produced and we would hope cheers, the labour-worn artizan, ties of our nature. In whatever degree, we are per by the moderately priced publications. The Infor. and animates to the struggle of the world the rousing suaded, a departure might be made from these rules,
MATION FOR THE PEOPLE, in its new character as a boy. As a single fact illustrative of its extensive re- would the circulation of this work decline from the volume, will be comparatively the cheapest work in ception among the working classes, we have been in universality which it has attained, and in so far would existence that bears the character of a collection of formed that, in a single cotton-work near Glasgow, it forfeit that reputation which, against every disad- treatises. At the price of an ordinary duodecimo, it no fewer than eighty-four copies are regularly pur. vantage of form and price, its right-forward good aims presents a series of between forty and fifty volumes** chased, notwithstanding that in such places a single have procured for it. The public, indeed, have this --for so they may be styled_each constructed with copy of a newspaper or other periodical work generally matter entirely in their own hands, and we consider it the utmost care, and with the advantage of the most serves a dozen readers. But it is not alone among impossible that our work should ever be less pure and
recent discoveries, and all of them very immediately the inferior orders of society that the Journal is cir- innocuous than it now is, unless the community shall bearing upon the necessities and uses of the people. culated. We have been given to understand that it suddenly become thoroughly vicious, or the light of
Note.-Our efforts in the diffusion of cheap litera. reaches the drawing-rooms of the most exalted per. reason be withdrawn from ourselves. We think it
ture baving been followed by the establishment of sons in the country, and the libraries of the most the more necessary to make this avowal, as it serves
various similarly moderate-priced publications, it may learned ; that, in the large towns, a vast proportion to meet the arguments of those who, taking upon sys. I perhaps have been anticipated that the circulation of the mercantile and professional persons of every
tem every degrading view of their species, allege that of CHAMBERS's Journal would therefore have been rank and order are its regular purchasers ; and that
, the bulk of the people of even this enlightened land in some degree lessened ; we are happy to say that in short, it pervades the whole of society. Let it not deliberately prefer an immoral and grovelling litera. this has not been in any respect the case, the world be imagined that we relate these circumstances in a spirit of personal boasting: unconscious as we are of But it is not only by such negative qualities—it is being seemingly wide enongh for the exertions of all. having ever anticipated them, they surprise ourselves not only by our continuing to think and write in the From the period of a few months after the commence.
ment of the Journal, when the work had become ge. as much as they can surprise others, and, so far as we spirit which it is no more than our duty as individual are not tempted to speak of them by a mere sense of citizens to cherish that we are to expect this publica has continued to be remarkably uniform ; the sale of
nerally known, till the present time, the circulation wonder, we are prompted to do so by that disin- tion to be supported. Great efforts, we are sensible
, each number, within a short period after its publication, terested feeling of philanthropic gratulation which must also be made to maintain that humble literary re. they can hardly fail to excite in every generous bo. putation which is also to be considered as an element in som. Is it possible—we would say, and say in all its success. In reference to this point, we can state with • The subjects of the INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLx may be
enumerated in the following systeinatic arrangemont :- Astronomy humility—to over-estimate the social blessings that a reasonable expectation of being credited, that vic
- Physical and Political Geography--Geology-Botany-History may be expected to flow from a work which is thus tory, so far as gained, has never lulled us for a mo.
of Mankind-- Account of the Human Body- Natural Theologyqualified to re-unite the sympathies of the most oppo. ment into security or indifference. We have not site and remote orders of the people—which can tell only been induced, by the approbation which the pub. Moral Philosophy-Duties of Life-History and Present State of
Education - Manufactures and Commerce of the World - Political the great about the humble, and the humble about the lic was pleased to bestow upon our trivial labours, to great, and promote a spirit of natural human kind. devote ourselves to them more and more unsparingly, Economy- Natural Philosophy—Mechanics-Electricity and Gal
vanism-Hydrostatics and Hydraulics-Pneumatics, Acoustics, ness amongst all-which serves, it may be said, as but we have used the results of success in no niggard
and Aëronautics - Optics - Architecture - Chemistry-Chemistry an universal instructor and monitor, chastening the spirit in purchasing literary aid. While vigorously proud, chastising the vicious, guiding the ignorant to resolving to continue the exertions of every kind applied to the Aris-Printing - The Steam-Engine–Domestic Eco
nomy and Cookery-Preservation of Health-History of the British correct views of society, and creating a diversion which have been already made, we must also confess
Empire-Resources of the British Empire-General Account of the every where from harmful indulgences to those that we look chiefly for the means of maintaining our
United States of America-Palestine-China-The East Indies thoughts which advance all who cherish them in the ground, to our own improvement and progressive ac
The West Indies-South America-Egypl— The Collon, Woollen, scale of being ? quirements. At the time when the Journal was
Sill, and Linen Manfuctures-Ilistory of the French Revolution While referring to this universality of circulation, commenced, our experience in literature was compa. - History of the American Revolution-Life of Benjamin Franklin it may be worth while to mention, that, to whatever ratively slight, and our studies had referred to a li- -Emigration to Canada, the United States, Nova Scotia and New causes the public may attribute it
, we have all along mited and in many respects useless range of knowledge. Brunswick, Van Diemen's Land, and New South Wales –Tr· Dog seen reason to ascribe, at least its continuance, to a With the progress of the work, we conceive ourselves | The Horsc.
No. 1, Vol. IV.
come more common.
being 50,000, while the subsequent or after demand, ercise oi genius arnong themselves; in the present day, where they are made by thousands. Among French as we have found, has been to the extent of not less this is a question which it is impossible to settle sa- watchmakers, Berthoud, Breguet, Chevalier, Cour.
voisier, Preud'homme, and others, are distinguished. than 5000 additional, making a total average circulatisfactorily.
In the fourteenth century, traces of clock work be- England and France bave been active in perfecting tion of 55,000 copies. Latterly, the demand for sets
Dante, the Italian poet, parti. the art of horology. The elegant Parisian pendulum of the work from the commencement has been very cularly mentions clocks. Richard, abbot of St Alban's clocks are well known, in which the art of the sculptor considerable, particularly from some of the British in England, made a clock, in 1326, such as had never is combined with that of the machinist. Elegance, colonies, to which not fewer than two hundred thou- been heard of till then. It not only indicated the course however, is their principal recommendation. It is sand numbers have been sent during the last twelve of the sun and moon, but also the ebb and flow of the much to be regretted that the present watches, even months. It is likewise gratifying for us to learn that made use of in the fourteenth century. It is thought durability to those of former times. tide. Large clocks on steeples, likewise, were first the inest, have not the finish which gave such great
This is particuCHAMBERS'S JOURNAL is now regularly reprinted in that one Jacob Dondi, in Padua, was the first who larly the case with French watches. We speak now New York; though this forms a branch of circulation made one of this kind ; at least his family was called of the better sort of watches; the ordinary ones are over which we of course can exercise no control. It after him dello Orologio. A German, Ilenry de Wyck, hardly worth the trifling sum which they cost: The
was celebrated in the same century for a large clock English watches are generally much more substantial was formerly stated that the quantity of paper used for
which he placed in a tower built by the command of and accurate in their workmanship than those of these sheets annually, amounted to 5416 reains; upon Charles V. king of France. This clock was preserved France or Geneva ; but it must be allowed that a great a calculation now made, we find that during the last till 1737. Watches are a much later invention, al. depreciation is taking place in this department of our three years we have consumed, reckoning the English i though it has been alleged that they were known in manufactures. Perfect accuracy in going, is now a and Scotch editions of our works, fully 20,000 reams,
the tourteenth century. The more general belief is, rare quality in a new made watch, unless it be of the
that they were contrived in 1510 by a person named most expensive kind. The most accurate of all time or the astonishing number of nine million six hundred Peter Hele. Reckoning back from the present era, measurers are chronometers, which are of a peculiar thousand sheets, which, by the heavy duty of 3d. per it may reasonably be concluded that clocks were in construction, and are much employed by navigators pound weight on the paper, have yielded a clear vented about seven hundred, and watches from three in determining the longitude at sea. In general, chro. revenue to government of L.6000.
to four hundred years ago, which is a very moderate nometers are much larger than common watches, and antiquity.
are hung in gimbals, in boxes six or eight incbes
The earliest made clocks wanted many of the con- square; but there are also many pocket chronometers POPULAR INFORMATION ON SCIENCE. trivances which now distinguish these valuable in. which, externally, have all the appearance of the bet.
struments. The first great improvement was the ter sort of pocket watches, and internally differ from In ancient times there were neither clocks nor watches Huygens in 1656, and which is of use in regulating balance and hair-spring are the principal agents in
addition of the pendulum, which was invented by these only in the construction of the balance. The by which time might be measured. The only instru- the motion of the wheelwork. The doctrine of the regulating the rate of going in a common watch, being ment in use calculated to be of service in this respect pendulum, which belongs to dynamics, or the science to this what the pendulum is to a common clock; was the sun-dial, which appears to have been known of bodies in motion, is one of great importance. A and this spring in the former, like the pendulum in
the latter, is subject to expansions and contractions in very early times. It was most likely invented by pendulum once put in motion would never cease to the Egyptians, from whom its use spread among the oscillate, or swing, were it not for the friction at the under different degrees of heat and cold, which of
point of suspension, and the resistance of the air. course affect the speed or rate of the machine; and Chaldeans and Jews, or Hebrews; it being mentioned Neither of these circumstances can ever be avoided the methods of correcting this inaccuracy mark the in the Old Testament, in the book of Isaiah, chapter entirely, and bave to be provided against by certain difference between the watch and chronometer. These xxxviii. verse 8., “Behold I will bring again the arrangements: The times of the vibrations of the
are very numerous. With British and American na. shadow of the degrees, whereby it is gone down in rendukun chiefly depend on three circumstances, rigatorí, chronometers are more common than with
the angle by which the heavy body of the penduluun those of any other nation. the dial of Abaz by the sun,” and so forth, by which is removed from the vertical line ; second, the length Wooden clorks are made chiefly in the Schwarz. we may learn that the sun.dial was the instrument in of the pendulum; and, third, the accelerating power wald, or Black Forest, in South Germany, and furnisla use for measuring time at that remote period.
of gravity. The principal thing to be attended to is an important object of manufacture for this mountain. The Greeks became acquainted with the sun.dial the length. A short pendulum oscillates quickly, a ous and barren country. It is said that 70,000 of such from the Jews, and from the Greeks it was derived arranging the length must keep in view the situation long penduluın more slowly. But the clockmaker in clocks are made there annually; and.great numbers
are sent to North and South America, and all over by the Romans, who were the means of introducing on the earth's surface where the clock is to be placed ; | Europe. it into the western nations of Europe. The Romans for the pendulum which will suit at one degree of lacame to a knowledge of the use of dials in a remark. titude will not answer at another. The reason for
TIE USES OF ADVERSITY, able way. In one of their warlike excursions, they this is, that the power of gravity, that is, the unseen
A STORY. saw one, and carried it off as a part of their spoil, power which attracts all things to the earth's sur. and placed it in the forum of Rome; but it being face, acts more strongly at one part than another, from At the age of twenty.one, the young, gay, and volup. constructed for a place four degrees different, they the discilla:ions of the pendulúin in such a manner
the peculiar shape of the globe, and this power atiects tuous Earl of Glenthorn succeeded to the vast pos. found that it could not indicate the true time—a cir- that the pendulum of a clock must be made somewhat
sessions of his family; an event to which he had cumstance they had not anticipated, as in these times shorter at the equator than towards the poles. The anxiously looked forward during the, to bim, tedious little or nothing was known of degrees of latitude or oscillations of the pendulum have hence served as
years of minority. But this consummation of his Jongitude. It is probable that they soon rectified the data whereupon to draw conclusions regarding the hopes and prospects did not relieve the young noble. dial to the situation of Rome. Before they thus be. power of gravity in different parts of the world. The man from that dreadful malady to which those are came acquainted with sin.dials, they measured tiine honour of being the inventor of the balance-spring subject, and to which lie was already a prey, who are by means of a thing called a clepsydra—a word sign in watches was contested by liuygens and the Eng. in possession of all that there is to desire on earth, nifying in Greek, I steal water, the time being rec- list philosopher Hooke. in order to prevent frickuned by the dropping of water; and it was the duty vion, Lacio, a Genevan, invented the method of bor.
who have nothing to employ them, and nothing to of a slave to attend and make a sound at the recur. ing hules in diamonds or rubies for the pivots to re.
fear or to hope; where every wish lias only to be ex. rence of every certain number of drops. Clepsydra volve in, which was found a great improveinent. Thus pressed to be gratified, and where every command were long used in both Greek and Roman courts and chronometers had their origin, in which the English has only to be issued to be obeyed. This malady, for assemblies, and, like our sand-glasses, they deter- have a tained great perfection. This nation also in which we have no English name, is entitled by the mined the time which members were permitted to vented repeaters. An individual of the name of Barlow | French ennui-a terin now naturalised among t us. speak.
tirst made ore, in 1670, for Charles II ; and Grahain As sun-dials were available only while the sun was the inventor of the compensation-pendulamin 1715. cunning and dishonest guardian in every desire, how.
While yet a boy, the earl, who was indulged by a shone, the invention of some kind of instrument which This was perfected by Harrison, who torined the pen.
ever wayward or foolish, which his imagination could could measure time both during darkness and sun. dulum of nine round roils, five of which were of iron shine, became a matter of anxious research to many and four of brass. With the e pendulurns the astro.
suggest, and which wealth could gratify, was rendered reflective persons ; but this appears to have been a nomical clocks are still provided, and perfect depen. less life. The busile and excitation consequent on his
miserable liy this oppressive vacuity of mind and aime matter of extraordinary difficulty. Sun-dials for the dence may be placed in the regularity of their action. accession to the entire control of his large possessions, day, and clepsydra for the night or cloudy weather, Amongst the important inventions of the 18th cen
subdued for a time that feeling of apathy and listless. were in use for many centuries after the destruction tury, the astronomical clocks of the clergyman Hiahn,
ness which in the midst of every luxury and enjoyment of the Roman empire and the establishment of Chris. in Echterdingen, Wurtemburg, deserve to be particu
was rendering his life miserable. It was, however, tianity. It is related in an ancient chronicle that larly named. lle formed the idea of measuring time Charlemaglie, king of France, received a present of in its while externt.
but for a time that it had this effect. No sooner had The principal hand in his in
the novelty of his situation worn off, than the demon a clock from the caliph Haroun Alraschid in the year strument is that of universal history. This turns on 809, but on the best investigations it is found that this a table, and indicates the piincipal epochs of history, rendered him more wretched than ever.
of ennui seized again upon the unhappy earl, and
In vain he was only a species of clepsydra, and not a clock with according to the chronology of the Old Testament, had recourse to all the usual expedients with which wheels and other mechanisin. According to the best and the great events of future times, according to the fashion and fully endeavour to relieve themselves of authenticated accounts, it appears that we are indebted calculations of Bengel, founded on the Apocalypse. the burden of time. He associated himself with de. to the monks of the middle ages for the invention of Its revolution embraces a period of nearly eight thou: bauchees, and in their society indulged himself in clocks or time-keepers. These men, who formed the sand years. Another hand on this table marks the only learned classes of their time, enjoyed consider. year of the century, and makes its circuit in one hun horse-racers, and finally took to gambling, at which,
every species of excess. He mingled with boxers and able seclusion, free from the necessity of providing for dred years. Still more remarkable is the representa immensely wealthy as he was, he soon lost stich suins, their support; and when not engaged in devotional | tion of the motions of the planets known at the time exercises, they often practiseth various arts now en.
as, together with the robberies of his stewards and of the inventor, and of the systems of Ptolemy and tirely committed to the hands of the artizan and Copernicus. They and their satellites perform their servants, whose duings he was too indoient to check, tradesman. At what precise period cocks were first revolutions in exactly the same time as they actually him, and compelled him to look out for such a matri. made by the monks, is not known; but it is ascer- do in the heavens; and these automata not only have monial alliance as shvuld relieve him from his difti. tained from old chronicles, that such instruments, the central motion, but their course is also eccentrical culties. In this he succeeded. He married a lady put in motion by wheels, were made use of in the and elliptic, like that of the heavenly orbs, and the of large fortune ; but as money had been the object of inonasteries in the twelfth century, and that they an- motion is sometimes slower, sometimes quicker, and
the one, and a title that of the other, neither added nounced the termination of every hour by strokes on even retrograde. This instrument must have been the
to their happiness by the connection, which was finally a bell. The hand for marking the time is likewise fruit of deep knowledge, indefatigable research, and
dissolved by the almost inevitable result of such ill. mentioned in these old records. In the thirteenth the calculations of years. It is much to be regret. assorted matches. Lady Glenthoru, shortly after their century, there is mention made of a clock, given by ted that the limited means of the artist prevented marriage, eloped with a Captain Crawley, a sort of sultan Saladin to the emperor Frederic II., and which his machine from being better finished, and that he fac-t tuin of the earl's one of those hangers-on who was put in motion by wheels. It not only marked was not acquainted with clock-making in its present the hours, but also the course of the sun, of the moon, advanced state, and with the excellent instruments
. This story has been condensed from one of Miss Edgeworth's the planets, in the zodiac. Some have concluded that which have been invented since his time.
best tales depicting fashionable life, entitled " Ennui.” Our obthe Saracens must have learned the art of clock-inak. The country where wütches are manufactured in
ject in giving it in this form and place is to point out the wretched ing from the recluses in Eastern monasteries ; but the greatest numbeis is French Switzerland, particue resuits of idioness, and the value of compulsory industry in inthey may have acquired their knowledge for the ex. ! larly at Gerlevd, La-Chaux-de Fonds, Lucle, &c., I proving the anind.