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road through the breach, without giving the assault, | under the portico, and in the court itself. We come even Christian charity might enry the good Mussul. and thus, by art and labour, the strongest defences menced our examination. The most remarkable group mans. Several Turks purchased some old female frequently fall without any exertion of open force. consisted of some Abyssinian girls, about twelve or slaves who had been sent away from the harems of From this description it must be obvious that the fifteen in number. They were seated close together their masters on account of their age and infirmities
. most important object at a siege is to carry forward in a circle, and their faces were all turned to the spec. We asked them why they had purchased the poor old the covered road to the walls of the place; that all the
Most of them were remarkably beautiful.
• To please God,' replied the broker: and other operations are secondary to and in furtherance They had almond-shaped eyes, aquiline noses, thin | M. Morlach assured me that several Mussulmans of such an advance; and that hence the ethiciency of lips, a delicate oval contour of face, and long hair as were in the practice of sending to the markets to buy armies at sieges depends upon their ability to complete dark and glossy as the raven's wing. The pensive, me. poor infirm slaves of both sexes, and support them, for the road at a small expense of life. But in forining lancholy, and languishing expression of their coun. the sake of charity, in their houses. this covered road, different degrees of difficulty are ex. tenances, renders the Abyssinian females, in spite of The last rooms we entered were half closed, and perienced in proportion as it advances. At its com. their copper-coloured complexions, extremely lovely we were at first refused admittance. There was nols mencement, the work, owing to the distance from the end interesting. They are tall and slender as the one slave in each room, under the guard of a female. fortifications, which is usually about six hundred yards, palm-trees of their country, and their arms are re- These slaves were young and beautiful Circassian and not being straitened for space, can easily be per- markable for beauty of form and grace of motion. girls, newly arrived from their country. They were formed by the common soldiers. But when the road The girls whom I saw in the slave.bazaar had no dressed in white, and with a remarkable degree of or trench has arrived within a fair range of musketry, clothing but a long robe of coarse yellow, cloth. On elegance. Their fine features were expressive of or three hundred yards from the place, then particular their ankles they wore bracelets of blue glass beads. neither sorrow nor indignation, but disdainful indif. precautions are required ; yet the work at this stage They were seated motionless, with their heads rest. ference. The beautiful white slaves of Georgia ar is not so difficult as to prevent its being executed by ing on the palms of their hands, or on their knees. Circassia have become extremely rare since the Greek soldiers who have had a little previous training. At When thus gazed at, their meek and melancholy eyes females no longer people the seraglios, and since Riis. the last stage, when the approaches have been puslied were like those of the goat or the lamb whom the pea, sia has interdicted the traffic in women. Neverthe. close to the place ; when to be seen is to be killed ; sants lead with strings round their necks to be sold lese, many Georgian families still devote their daugh. when mine after mine blows up the head of the road, at our village fairs. Sometimes they whispered one ters to this odious traffic, and cargoes of there are with every officer and man on the spot; when the to another and smiled. One of them, who beld a from time to time carried away by contraband dealers space becomes so confined that little or no front of de- little child in her arms, was weeping because the mer. The price of these beautiful creatures varies from fence can be obtained; and when the enemy's grena. chant wanted to sell it separately to a dealer in chil. twelve to twenty thousand piastres (from three to five diers sally forth every moment to attack the work. dren. Not far from this group, there were seven or thousand francs-or from L.125 to L.208 sterling), men, and deal out destruction to all less courageous or eight little negro children, from eight to ten years of whilst black slaves of ordinary beauty do not seli for weaker than themselves ; then the work becomes truly age. They were tolerably well dressed, and appeared more than five or six hundred francs, and the most hazardous, and can only be performed by selected very healthy. They were amusing themselves at an beautiful at a thousand or twelve hundred. In Arabia brave men, called sappers, who have acquired the dif. oriental game, which is played with small pebbles, and in Syria, female slaves may be purchased for five ficult and dangerous art from wbich they derive their arranged in various ways in holes dug in the sand.
or six hundred piastres (from a bundred and fifty to name. An indispensable auxiliary to the sapper, how. Meanwhile the merchants and buyers took first one two hundred francs). One of the Georgian girls ever, is the miner, who, in the exercise of his art, re. and then another by the arm, examined them nar. whom we saw at the bazaar was of faultless beauty. quires even a greater degree of skill, conduct, and rowly from head to foot, patted them, made them Her features were delicate and intelligent, her eyes courage, than his principal. The duty of a miner at show their teeth, that they might judge of their age soft and pensive, and her skin dazzlingly white. She a siege is to accompany the sapper, to listen for and and state of health ; and the children, when released, was sold before our eyes for the harem of a young pe. discover the enemy's miner at work, and to prevent eagerly joined their playmates, and renewed their cha of Constantinople. We left the bazaar with feels his blowing up the head of the road, either by sinking game. I next went under the covered porticos, which ings of disgust at a scene which is renewed every day down and meeting him, in which case a subterranean were crowded with slaves and purchasers. The Turks and every hour in the cities of the East.” conflict ensues, or by running a gallery close to that engaged in this traffic were walking about among the To this account of De Lamartine ve can only apof his opponent, and forcing him to desist from work.groups superbly dressed in furred pelisses and with long pend the question-can nothing be done in this cous. ing by means of suffocating compositions, and various pipes in their bands, looking anxious and pre-occupied, try to assuage the traffic in slaves carried on betwist arts of chicanery, the knowledge of which he has ac. and casting a jealous glance at every stranger who | European Turkey and Asia and Africa_must our quired from experience. Without the aid of skilful peeped into the rooms in which they kept their bu. sympathies be confined entirely to slavery on the miners, sappers would be unable to execute that part man merchandise : but as they supposed us to be western side of the Atlantic ? of the covered road forming the descent into the ditch, Arabs or Egyptians, they did not venture to refuse us not to mention other portions in the formation of which admittance to any of the rooms. Itinerant dealers in the assistance of the miner is equally indispensable ; cakes and dried fruits were walking about the gallery, TRAVELLING A HUNDRED AND THIRTY YEARS and without their joint labours and steady co-opera- selling refreshments to the slaves. I slipped a few Aco.-The following is a copy from a handbill now sion, no besieger's approaches ever reached the walls piastres into the band of one of them, and directed hanging as a curiosity in the coffee-room of the Black of a fortress.
him to distribute the contents of his basket among the Swan at York:-“York four days stage-coach; te. But a siege, though it calls for great personal bra. uegro children, who eagerly devoured them. gins on Friday the 12th of April 1706. All that are very, unremitting exertion, and extraordinary labour I remarked a poor negress, about eighteen or twenty desirous to pass from London to York, or from York in all employed, yet, if scientifically, prosecuted or len and melancholy air. She was seated on a bench repair to the
Black Swan in Houlbourn
in London, years of age, remarkably handsome, but with a sul. to London, or any other place on that road, let them less skill and exertion in the
contending parties may in the gallery, richly dressed and with her face un. in some degree prolong or abridge its duration ; but reiled. Rouud her were about a dozen other negresses, At both which places they may be received in a stage. the sapper and the niner, when skilfully directed and dressed in rags, and exposed for sale at very low prices. coach every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, which adequately supported, will ultimately surmount every The negress above mentioned held in ber lap a tine performs the whole journey in four days (ir God per. obstacle."
little boy of three or four years of age, magniticently mits), and sets forth at tive in the morning, and re. dressed : her child, who was a mulatti, had a hand. turns from York to Stamford in two days, and from
some and noble countenance, a beautiful mouth, and Stamford by Huntington to London, 'in two day SLAVE-MARKET AT CONSTANTINOPLE. the finest eyes imaginable. I played with the boy, more; and the like stages on their return-allowing
(We have been much pleased with the porusal of a work which and gave bim some cakes and sweetmeats, which I had each passenger 14 lb. weight, and all above ld. a pound. has just issued from the press, written by a French gentleman, purchased at a neighbouring shop; but the mother Performed by Benjamin Kingman, Henry Harrison, positiunade do ane Hints and portion.com berieb incercatoria snatched them from his hands, and threw them on the Walter Baynet. Also, this gives notice that the Ner. the years 1832 and 1833.". The author appears to possess the vi- ground, with an expression of anger and offended castle stage.coach sets out from York every Monday
acity of his countrynen, along with a highly polished and poetic pride. She held down her face and wept. I imagined and Friday, and from Newcastle every Monday and a lively and happy manner, exceedingly suitable to the illustration
that she was afraid of being sold separately from her Friday."—In the present day, the journey from Lon. of oriental usages. of the Turks and Constantinople he presents child, and I requested M. Morlach, my obliging guide, don to York is performed in about twenty hours. soine original views, and these generally more favourable to the to purchase her together with the child for me. 1 character of the Mussulmans than have hitherto becn brought un.
PREVALENT CAUSES OF CRIME.-1. Deficient edu. would have brought up the interesting boy without cation, early loss of parents, and consequent neglect
. der observation. The following account of his visit to the slave. market will not fail to interest our readers.)
separating him from his mother. We addressed our. 2. Few convicts have ever learned a regular trade; “This morning I was taken by a young gentleman selves to a broker with whom M. Moilach was ac. and if they were bound to any apprenticeship, they of Constantinople to the slave.market
. After travers quainted. The broker spoke to the owner of the slave have abandoned it before their time had lawfully ex: ing the long streets of Stamboul parallel with the walls and her child.. He at first seemed inclined to accept pired. 3. School education is, with most convicth
, of the old seraglio, and passing sevei al splendid ba.
The poor woman wept bitterly, and the very deficient, or entirely wanting. 4. Intemperance, zaars crowded with merchants and purchasers, we boy threw his arms round his mother's neck. But
very often the consequence of loose education, is a ascended by a few narrow streets into a dirty square, the bargaining was all a pretence on the part of the most appalling source of crime. 5. By preventing on which opened the gate of another bazaar. We merchant; and when we agreed to give him the very intemperance, and by, promoting education, we are were indebted to the Turkish costume, in which we exorbitant price be set upon the slaves, he took the authorised to believe that we shall prevent crime in a were dressed, and to the perfection in which my guide broker aside, and told him that tho negress was not
considerable degree.-Report of Mr Wood, Warden spoke the language, for our admittance to this market for sale. He stated that she was the slave of a rich of the Eustern Penitentiary, Philadelphia. of human flesh. How many ages elapsed, and howTurk who was the father of the boy ; that she had
AN ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS.-Bring plenty of far. many appeals were made to the reason of man, before evinced too haughty and overbearing a spirit in the things, which go as far as halfpennies or penny pieces, he ceased to regard power as a right, and could be con. vinced that slavery is a crime and a blasphemy! What ter had sent her to the bazaar, under pretence of in each of these passing for a copper. You will find an advancement of intelligence !-and how much does tending to get rid of her, but with secret orders that
them very useful in purchasing milk or otber refresh. it promise! How many things there are wbich we she should not be sold. This mode of correction is
ments in coming up the river. Counsel for Emigrants, regard with indifference, but which may appear enor. frequently resorted to; and when a Turk is out of bu
Aberdeen, 1835. mous crimes in the eyes of our descendants! These mour with his female slaves, bis usual threat is that
French Bears.-dn Oxfordshire farmer has dis. were the reflections which occurred to my mind as he will send them to the bazaar. We accordingly covered and practises a new method of cultivating we entered the bazaar, where the life, the soul, the withdrew.
this excellent vegetable. In the autumn he cuts bis body, and the liberty of human beings, is sold as we We looked into a great number of rooms, each con.
beans off, leaving about four inches of the stalks sell oxen or horses, and where a man considers him. taining four or five women, almost all black and ugly, above ground; be then lays on a dressing of stable self the lawful possessor of what he thus purchases ! but having the appearance of good health. Most of dung, which he takes away when other people are
The slave-market is a vast uncovered court, sur. them appeared indifferent to their situation, and some sowing their seeds; and the consequence is, that bis rounded by a roofed portico or piazza. Under this even solicited purchasers. They talked and laughed production is more than double that by the ordinary
method.-Standard. portico, which on the side of the court has a wall rogether, and occasionally made critical remarks on about waist-high, there are doors opening into the the men who were bargaining for them. One or two chambers in which the merchants keep their slaves. wepi, and concealed themselves at the further end of LONDON: Published, with Permission of the Propriсtors, by OER These doors are thrown open, to enable the purchasers, the chamber, and did not without reluctance return
& SMITH. Paternoster Row; G. BERGER, Holywell Street
Strand : BANCKS & Co., Manchester; WRIGHTSON & Web: as they walk about, to see the slaves. The men and to the alcove where they had been seated when we Birmingham; WILLMER & SMITH, Liverpool; W. E. SOM KR women are kept in separate chambers, and the wo- looked in. Several walked away cheerfully with a SCALE, Leels; C. N. WRIGHT, Nottingham; M. Bisakax.
Bristol; S. STAINS, Bath; C. GAIN, Exeter; J. Purdox, Hull; men are unveiled. Besides the slaves in these lower Turk who had purchased them, taking with them
A. WHITAKER, Sheffield; H. BELLERBY, York; J. TAYLOR Chambers, a great number are grouped in a gallery their little bundle tied in a handkerchief, and cover. Brighton; and sold by all Booksellers, Newsmen, &c. in towa ing their faces with their while veils. Wewitnessed
Stereotype by A. Kirkwood, Edinburgh. • Bentley, London, i vols., 1825.
two or three acts of genuine humanity, for which Printed by Bradbury and Evans (late T. Davison). Whitefrias.
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM CHAMBERS, AUTHOR OF “ THE BOOK OF SCOTLAND,” &c., AND BY ROBERT CHAMBERS,
AUTHOR OF “ TRADITIONS OF EDINBURGH,” “PICTURE OF SCOTLAND,” &c.
PRICE Three HalFPENCE.
LITERARY REMUNERATIONS. musical society for whom it was composed. Tonson, incomes to the happy individuals who had bought In the earlier periods of English literature, there were though described as a worthy man in his professional them. The novel of Tom Jones was, to use a modern s0 few readers, that little or no profit ever accrued capacity, seems to have been a sordid reckoner with literary phrase, dragged through the trade, and in to an author from the sale of his works. Writing men of genius. He once complained to Dryden that danger of general rejection, when its merit was dis. was indeed pursued as a profession as early as the he had received fourteen hundred and forty-six lines of cerned by the wife of Millar the bookseller, who, reign of Elizabeth, but only, it would appear, by his translation of Ovid for his Miscellany for fifty upon her recommendation, offered three hundred men of mean character and genius. Authors might guineas, when he had calculated at the rate of fifteen pounds for it: ultimately the author realised seven
then receive habitual subsistence or occasional money. hundred and eighteen lines for forty guineas ; and hundred pounds by this work.+ When the London 126 gifts from the sovereign and from nobles ; but of pa. he mentioned that he deemed himself to have had a booksellers resolved to publish an uniform edition of by tronage from the booksellers—in other words, from better bargain with Juvenal," which is reckoned not the Poets, and applied to Dr Johnson for biographical ona the reading public, of whom the booksellers are merely so easy to translate as Ovid."* Dryden was provoked prefaces, two hundred guineas was the price put by
the representatives—there is hardly any trace before by these squabblings to satirise him in a coarse de himself upon his labour : Mr Malone observes, that the reign of Charles II.
scriptive verse; but Tonson seems to have also held the booksellers, in the course of twenty-five years, One of the earliest authenticated instances of a copy the poet in some terror by his powers of invective, have probably got five thousand. Miss Burney obiz money being given by previous agreement for an ori. though they were only exercised in plain prose. Lord tained only five pounds for her clever novel of Evetis ginal work, is the celebrated case of the Paradise Lost, Bolingbroke was sitting with Dryden, when another lina ; but such was the infuence of the reputation
which, in April 1667, was sold by the author to person was heard to enter the house. “This," said which she acquired by that and subsequent works, Samnel Symmons, printer, for five pounds in hand, Dryden, "is Tonson : you will take care not to depart that by one of her last novels she realised three and an additional sum of five pounds to be paid at the before he goes away; for I have not completed the thousand. I end of the sale of thirteen hundred copies of each sheet which I promised bim; and if you leave me un. Hume and Robertson, after becoming known, ob. impression, no impression to exceed fifteen hundred. protected, I shall suffer all the rudeness to which his tained what must appear as comparatively high prices Posterity, in its real or fictitious admiration of Milton, resentment can prompt his tongue.”+
for their works. The first portion of the History of oft has set down this bargain as in the highest degree Pope gained twelve hundred pounds by the Iliad, England, embracing the reigns of the Stuarts, and i disgraceful to Mr Symmons; but when we learn that and six hundred for that half of the Odyssey which filling two volumes in quarto, was sold for only two
the first impression of the poem does not seem to have be translated, besides all the copies for his subscribers, hundred pounds; but for the remainder five thousaud been fully sold off before the expiration of seven years, by which he must have gained a considerable addi.
were obtained. Robertson sold his first work, the nor till the bookseller had given it five new title-pages tional sum. His friends Browne and Fenton had History of Scotland, for six hundred pounds, and obby way of whets to the public appetite," the transac. respectively five hundred and three hundred pounds tained for his second four thousand five hundred, § tion will appear quite accordant with the natural for the portions of the latter poem which they trans supposed to be the largest sum which had up to that course of things at the period. The second five pounds lated under his superintendence. By means of the time been paid for the copyright of any single book. was received by Milton, and no further profit was re- profits of his works, added to his private fortune, this It must be remembered, however, that this latter alised by his family, except eight pounds, for which celebrated poet could latterly live at the rate of five work was Charles V., and cost the labour of nearly sum his widow, in 1680, resigned to Symmons the hundred a-year. It was proposed to give him a pen nine years. Gibbon had six thousand pounds for his full copyright. The Paradise Lost may therefore be sion of three hundred pounds, which would have en. Decline and Fall—the work of a lifetime, and which had said to have been sold to the trade † for eighteen abled him to add a carriage to his other comforts ; probably cost him more for the library which served as pounds. I but he declined the gift.
the materials. We must esteem the inferior labour of Though the plays of Dryden, with all their faults, Gay cleared four bundred pounds by bis Beggars' Smollett as better paid : that writer, for the first four were fashionable, he used only to obtain about ten Opera, and eleven or twelve hundred by the second quartos of his Complete History of England, com. pounds for the copyright of them from the booksellers, part, which is now forgotten. He was so negligent posed in fourteen months, received fifteen hundred and fifty pounds for the acting. Southerne, by some un- in the management of his purse, that his patron, the pounds, and for the remainder five hundred. || Blair explained good fortune, cleared seven hundred pounds Duke of Queensberry, with whom he lived for several sold the first volume of his sermons for a hundred by one of his plays; which being mentioned to Dryden, years, thought it necessary to take his money into pounds, which the publishers afterwards voluntarily the veteran dramatist remarked, that it was six hun. keeping, and only let him have what was necessary doubled; and the price which he received for the redred more than he had ever made by any such com out of it; by which means he died possessed of three mainder is stated to have been the highest ever given position. By his translation of Virgil
, partly through thousand pounds-certainly an enormous fortune for for a work of the kind, 9 though this is probably in. subscription.copies, and partly by the price of the a poet. Goldsmith died nearly the same sum in debt. ultimate copyright, Dryden cleared twelve hundred That delightful writer, but simple man, received sixty
• D'Israeli's Calamities. pounds, which must be considered as one of the first pounds for his Vicar of Wakefield, at a time when he | Scott's Life of Fielding.-- It is to be regretted that the follow. considerable sums gained in England by literary la. was little known as an author. On bis name becom. ing characteristie anecdote, which appears in the Gentleman's bour. He had occasion, however, to complain that ing more celebrated, he gained what would still be Magazine for 1786, has not found a place in this or any other bioTonson took advantage of him, by giving him clipped reckoned considerable sums by his writings. For staphy of Ficilding with which we are acquainted. Some parochial and counterfeit money, which seems to have then three various abridged histories of England, two of and so often applied for in vain, that the collector, who had an abounded. He bargained with this bookseller to fur. which continue to be used in schools, he received about esteem for him, at last gave him information that the payment
could no longer be procrastinated. Fielding, thus urged, took the nish ten thousand verses of imitations of Chaucer and eight hundred pounds. For a small and hastily com: sheets of an unfinished work to Tonson the bookseller, and raised Boccaccio (since called his Fables) for a miscellany piled selection of English poetry, with short critical ten or twelve guincas upon them, by way of mortgage. He was published by Tonson, at two hundred and fifty guineas, notices, he received two hundred pounds, and for his returning with the money in his pocket, when, just as he was ap. to be made up to three hundred pounds on the publi. History of the Earth and Animated Nature, eight proaching his own house, he met an old college friend, whom he cation of a second edition ; being rather less than six. hundred and fifty. In one year, towards the close of passed between them, and Fielding was soon informed that his pence per verse. In spring 1699, when grown old and his improvident life, Goldsmith received no less than friend had fallen into indigent circumstances He immediately
proposed that they should dine together in a neighbouring tavern, feeble through the over-study required for his sub. eighteen hundred pounds from the booksellers.
to which the other gratefully assented. The dinner and wines sistence, he had completed seven thousand five hun. Robinson Crusoe, Burn's Justice of the Peace, and
were excellent-the heart of the novelist grew still warmer under dred verses, or three-fourths of the task. He then Buchan's Domestic Medicine, are instances of books the influence of the good cheer-the conversation became delight
ful, or was but little saddened by the melancholy tale of the guest, had a quarrel with his publisher respecting the work, sold for small sums, and from which large ones were and found it necessary to satisfy the tradesman by made. The publisher of Defoe's admirable fiction, into whose pocket Fielding hesitated not a moment to empty his throwing his Ode for St Cecilia’s Day into the bargain who was said to be not a man of discernment, but of with the greatest anxiety, questioned him as to the cause of his for whicb, by the way, he received forty pounds from the a speculative turn, gained a thousand pounds by it, stay. Fielding began to relate the felicitous rencontre, when the
and the two remaining books produced large annual lady cut him short with the intelligence that the collector had called • Retrospective Review, xiv. 298.
twice during his absence. His reply was laconic, but only on that + The booksellers, having much commercial intercourse with • Calamities of Authors, i. 30. + Scott's Life of Dryden.
account the more memorable : “Friendship," said he, "has called each other, have acquired a habit of terming themselves the trade,
Spence's Anecdotes of Books and Men.
for the money, and had it-let the collector call again." A second n contradistinction to the public.
$ See the excellent Life of Goldsmith prefixed to the British application to Tonson furnished him with the means of pacifying Sir Walter Scott, in his Life of Dryden, remarks, that probably Library edition of his miscellaneous works. The same author, we
his creditor. he trade had no very good bargain. The copyright, however, af observe, has lately published (Fraser and Co. Edinburgh) a Life | Biographical Dictionary of Living Authors, London, 1816. erwards fell into the hands of Jacob Tonson, who, according to of Mungo Park, the traveller, distinguished by equal industry, $ Creech's Edinburgh Fugitive Pieces, p. 70. 'Israeli, rode in his carriage from the profits.
taste, and good feeling.
| Anderson's Life of Smollett. So stated by Mr Creech.
correct, as, at the close of the preceding century, Til. more we inquire into the case of literary men, the the sturdy beggars of the country, and all the noisy lotson's Sermons were sold by his widow, whose only more we shall be convinced that no regular system urchins of both. provision they were, for two thousand five hundred exists for affording them remunerations proportioned
Noise indeed is the prime characteristic of the Bel. to the value of their exertions. They cannot by any ford market. day-noise of every sort, from the heavy guineas.
device or exercise of prudence make sure of combin. rumbling of so many loaded waggons over the paved In our own times, the more eminent literary men
ing a high standard of service to mankind, with a re- market.place, to the crash of crockery.ware in the nar. have gained large sums by their writings. Lord By- gard for their own current means of subsistence. row passage of Prince's Street, as the stall is knocked ron received two thousand one hundred pounds for Mr D'Israeli, and the ingenious antbor quoted down by the impetus of a cart full of turnips, or the the Fourth Canto of Childe Harold, and fifteen thou
below, have eloquently questioned the justice of this squall of the passengers of the Southton caravan, upset
state of things, and certainly there cannot be many by the irresistible momentum of the Hadley-mill team sand for the whole of his poetry. Sir Walter Scott
cases more offensive to our conscientiousness than But the noisiest, and perhaps the prettiest places, received for the Lay of the Last Minstrel six hundred that which is so common in the annals of literature were the Piazza at the end of Saint Nicholas Church, pounds, for Marmion one thousand guineas, and a man of genius starving over the production of a appropriated by long usage to the female venders of three times that sum, it is said, for some of his later work which is to delight all his fellow.creatures for fruit and vegetables, where certain ołd women, as well poems. The sums which he gained—it can hardly be all time: To proposals for regularly succouring and known to the habitués of the market as the church said, realised_by his novels were very large ; and the pensioning men of talent, the objection constantly tower, were went to Ayle at each other, and at the
arises, that the possession of a competency would re- customers, with the genius for vituperation for which magnificence of his transactions with his publisher may duce them to idleness. But surely upon the minds ladies of their profession have long been celebrated; be inferred from the fact of his publisher, Mr Con aiming at the nobler kinds of exertion, such a cir- and a detached spot called the Butter-market, at the stable, having made him a present of a handsome cast
cumstance would have no effect. A more formidable back of the Market.place proper, where she more reiron verandah or walk skirting his house of Abbots objection lies in the difficulty
which would generally spectable basket-women, the daughters and wires de
be experienced in deciding upon the prospective value farmers, and the better order of the female peasantry, ford, at the expense of a thousand pounds. Mr of any man's exertions. "Are we to wait to give our used to bring eggs, butter, and poultry, for sale on Campbell was indebted, like Fielding, to female taste help till the long and severe task has been accom. Wednesdays and Saturdays. for the publication of his Pleasures of Hope. Messrs plished, and perhaps see the generous labourer sink A pretty and a diversified place was the Batter.
in his course ? Mundell were induced, by the approbation bestowed
Or are we rashly to take every man market; for besides the commodities, dead and alive, upon it by their sister, to publish it, and to allow the ductive imbeciles? Perhaps it might not be imposat his word, and perhaps pension a tribe of unpro- brought by the honest countrywomen, a few stails
were set out with straw hats, and caps and ribbons, author fifty copies, by way of compliment, rather than sible, without attempting any systematic arrangement, and other feminine gear, to tempt them in return; consideration of copyright. On the success of the for a judicious government not only to give rewards and here and there an urchin of the more careful sort work so greatly exceeding their expectations, they appropriate to past exertions, but occasionally, upon would bring his basket of tame rabbits, or wood. gave the poet a handsome present, and at the expira- proper representations, to afford succour to individuals pigeons, or young ferrets, or squeaking guinea-pigs, tion of the first fourteen years, a change having taken who, under the influence of the higher motives only, or a nest of downy owls or gaping jackdaws, or cages place in the laws of literary property, he sold his right but with inadequate means, re struggling to leave an of linnets and thrushes, to tempt the townsfolk. Nay, in the remaining period, or his lifetime, for a thousand inheritance to their kind. Some errors might attend in the season, some thoughtful little maid of eight of guineas. This admired poet received fifteen hundred
a practice of this kind, but the amount of good re- ten would bring nosegays of early primroses or steet guineas for his Gertrude, after it had been six years sult would be much greater; and we should be very violets, or wall flowers, or stocks, to add a few pence
much mistaken indeed if the nation were to grudge to the family store. published. The aggregate poems of Crabbe were pnr. ehased by Mr Murray in 1819 for three thousand such a direction of a small portion of its funds. A pleasant sight was the Butter-market, with its pounds; and Mr Moore has a salary of five hundred
comely country wives, its modest lasses, and neat 2-year for his Irish Melodies. During the last few
children-pleasant and cheerful, in spite of the din of years the continental booksellers have begun to imi. THE YOUNG MARKET.WOMAN. 80 many women, buyers and sellers, all talking toge tate the English in their munificence to literary men. (We present this as a specimen of one of the most delightful ther, and the noise of turkeys, geese, ducks, chickens, The works of Goëthe were purchased for thirty thou. books of a very delightful author-Belford-Regis, or Sketches of a
and guinea pigs; but the pleasantest sight there was sand crowns, those of Chateaubriand for half a mil- | Country Toron, by Miss Mitford-recently published in three a young damsel famous for eggs and poultry, and molion of francs.t
. Miss Mitford has been an author for fully twenty-five dest beauty, kuown by the name of « Pretty Bessy," We have thus brought together some of the most
years, for we remember her being treated rather sharply for a ju. but not a regular attendant of the market, her goods
venile volume of miscellaneous poetry in one of the earliest num. being in such request that she seldom bad occasion to remarkable anecdotes of literary remuneration, in or. bers of the Quarterly Review. More recently she has distinguished der to introduce a few observations on the destinies herself by several tragedies, which have proved successful in re
come so far, the families round, ourselves amongst and status of literary men. It must be evident, we presentation, and by a series of rustic sketches, finally extended the rest, dealing constantly with her. think, from these examples, that, though the gain of to five volumes, under the title of Our Village. The singularly Another of the persons with whom we had in our literary toil has sometimes been surprisingly high, playful, genial, and picturesque manner of the latter compositions, small way dealt longest, and whom we liked best, was there has never been, in this business, any such cer
inust already be familiar to our readers, as, under the influence of old Matthew, cbe matseller. As surely as February
a warm admiration, and respect for the personal character of the tainty of adequate remuneration as generally attends
came, would' Matthew present his bent person and author, we have heretofore done our best, by an occasional extract, most of the ordinary occupations. It is proved, in our to make them known on both, but particularly on this side of the
withered though still ruddy face at our door, with the opinion, that the pecuniary result of literary labour is Tweed, where, not many years ago, we remember the editor of a
three rush mats which he knew that our cottage Te entirely accidental, and may or may not depend on the newspaper complaining that not a single copy of any of Miss Mit quired ; and as surely did he receive fifteen shillingi, merit of the author and his work. The first and best ford's writings could be found in the shops of even the Edinburgh lawful money of Great Britain, in return for his com production may, like Evelina, bring only five pounds, and characters of a small country town (Reading is said to be the from some flippant housemaid or domineering cool,
booksellers. In her present work, she applies to the peculiarities modity, notwithstanding an occasional semonstrance and the last and perhaps worst, three thousand ; the original) the same free and lively pencil, and the same kindly and who would endeavour to send him off with an assur. bookseller possibly risking more in the one case than touching powers of sentiment, which she formerly devoted to her in the other. Or a small school-book, composed in a enchanting village of Aberleigh—with this difference, that in Bel
ance that his price was double that usually given, and month, may (as was the case with Vyse's Spelling. Ford- Regis the sketches are in general longer, and more frequently that no inat ever made with rushes was or could be Book) be sold at two thousand two hundred pounds, end in the character of tales. The abridged sketch here presented worth five shillings." His honour always deals wità with a life annuity of fifty pounds to the author;
is not selected on account of any presumption of its superiority to me," was Matthew's mild response, and an appeal to
the rest, but on account of its comparative briefness. Had our while a work of the greatest labour and value, like
the parlour never failed to settle matters to his entire space permitted, we should have greatly preferred the article enMr Tytler's History of Scotland, may languish in litled "Hester," by far the finest thing in point of feeling in the honestly worth the money; and we enjoyed in this
satisfaction. In point of fact, Matthew's mats were consequence of its hardly paying the expenses of pub- book, and worth any tragedy we ever read. We heartily recom. lication. A work of talent may be so small that no mend Belford-Regis to the attention of the two or three hundred
case the triple satisfaction of making a fair bargain, price calculated to remunerate the author can be put thousand individuals
, who, we suppose, will peruse this agreeable dealing with an old acquaintance, and relieving, in upon it, or so large that, to tempt the public to buy, specimen of it, and for the present take leave of the fair authoress, the best way—that of employment—the wants of age the least possible advance must be made upon the cost
with our warmest wishes for her welfare, and that of all her lite and of poverty; for although Matthew's apparel was of paper and print. It may appeal to so narrow a class, BELFORD is so populous a place, and the country cheek as hale and ruddy as a summer apple, yet the rary undertakings.]
accurately clean and tidy, and his thin wrinkled that the sale, instead of remunerating, leaves a loss ; while a book of little labour or merit may be so well round so thickly inhabited, that the Saturday's mar. countless patches on his various garments, and the adapted to popular taste as to sell extensively, and be ket is almost as well attended as an ordinary fair. spare trembling figure bent almost double, and crippled very productive. Such are the difficulties which be. So early as three or four, o'clock in the morning, the with rheumatism, told
too legible story of infirmity set those who propose to benefit mankind by original heavy waggons (one with a capital set of bells) begin and penury. Except on his annual visit with big researches and effusions, by works of genius and la
to pass our house, and increase in number—to say merchandise, we never saw the good old matmaker ; bour; and the consequence is, that the world obtains nothing of the admixture of other vehicles, from the nor did I even know where he resided, until the vant the services of such men, not by any steady system of humble donkey.cart to the smart gig, and hosts of of an additional mat for my greenhouse, towards the remuneration-though that, no doubt, is often given horsemen and footpeople--until nine or ten; when end of last April, induced me to make inquiry con-but through the enthusiasm of self-devoting and there is some pause in the affluence of market folk till cerning
bis habitation. unreflecting minds, or the aid of private fortunes and about one, when the lightened wains, laden, not with
I had no difficulty in obtaining a direction to his common professional pursuits.
corn, but with rosy cheeked country lasses, begin to dwelling ; and found that, for a poor old matmaker, Among the professional pursuits to which the high. show signs of travelling homeward, and continue pass. Matthew was a person of more consideration and note est class of men talent resort for bread, while prose- ing at no very distant intervals until twilight. There in our little world than I could have expected, being cuting or wishing to prosecute their favourite labours, than on all the other days of the week put together. dustrious men in the neighbourhood.
is more traffic on our road in one single Saturday in a word, one of the honestest, soberest, and most in. is that of literature itself. "oblige' the world with productions of distinguished And if we feel the stirring movement of “ market- He lived, I found, in Barkham Dingle, a deep and permanent excellence, are compelled to “ narrow day” so strongly in the country, it may be imagined woodland
, communicating with a large tract of their mind," and, as newspaper writing occupies not how much it must enliven the town.
unenclosed moors and commons in the next parish, a few, we may as well add the remainder of the quo Belford, which in general has the fault, not uncom rushes
of which his mats were constructed, as well as Saturday at noon is indeed the very time to see convenient doubtless to Matthew, as affording the tation, “ to party give up what was meant for man. kind." The incomes realised by writing for the
mon in provincial towns, of wanting bustle. The old heath for brooms, of which he was said to bare lately
market-place, always picturesque from its shape (an established a manufacture, and which were almost In the department which may be called the
modifica unequal triangle), its size, the diversified outline and equally celebrated for durability and excellence with tion of knowledge, are in numerous instances sufiirregular
architecture of the houses, and the beautiful the articles that he had made for so many years. In cient
to support a man on a level with the middle Gothic church by which it is terminated, is then all Barkham Dingle lived old Matthew, with a grandclass of tradesmen ; but too often tbe labour is of an
alive with the busy hum of traffic, the agricultural daughter, who was, I found, also renowned for is. oppressive and exhausting kind, calculated to embitter wealth and the agricultural population of the district. dustry and good humour; and one fine afternoon and shorten the life of its votary, and rarely allowing From the
with his load of corn, up to the towards the end of April, 1 set forth in my little any application to the higher tasks originally, and in rich meal man and the great proprietor, all the “ landed pony-phaeton, driven by that model of all youthful most cases 60 fundly contemplated. In short, the interest” is there, mixed with jobbers and chapmen serving-men, our boy John, to make my purchase.
of every description, cattle-dealers, millers, brewers, Although the country immediately round was un.
maltsters, justices going to the Bench, constables and enclosed, as had been fully proved by the last half The miseries which beset this class are depicted with vigour,
overseers following to be sworn, carriers, carters, mile of undulating common, interspersed by old shaggy though
perhaps in a somewhat exaggerated manner, in a work errand-boys, tradesmen, shopmen, apprentices, gen. trees and patches (islets, as it were) of tangled under entitled Exposition of the False Medium and Barriers exclud. tlemen's servants, and gentlemen in their own per. wood, as well as by a few rough ponies and small dow ing Men of Genius from the Public, London, Ethingham Wil
suns, mixed with all the riff-raff of the town, and all I belonging to the country people; yet the lanes leading
Miss Seward's Letters.
German Conversations Lexicon,
to it had been intersected by frequent gates, from the I had a carriage waiting, that I particularly wished it that should not say it; and Bessy's a 'dustrious last of wbich a pretty, little, rosy, smiling girl, to to get home, and so forth.
girl; and, in my mind, there's nothing beats 'dustry whom I had tossed a penny for opening it, had sprung My excuses were, however, altogether useless. in high or in low." across the common, like a fawn, to be ready with her Bessy would not hear of my departure ; Farmer And with this axiom from the old matmaker, Dash services at that leading into the Dingle, down wbich White, my fellow-visitor, assured me that the rain and I took our leave of four as happy people—for by a rude cart-track, seldom used unless for the convey. was coming down harder than ever; and the old mat- this time Jem had joined the party-as could well be ance of faggots or brushwood, led by a picturesque maker declared, that, so far from my being in the found under the sun. but by no means easy descent.
way, all the world was welcome to hear what he bad Leaving chaise, and steed, and driver, to wait our to say, and he had just been wishing for some discreet return at the gate, Dash and I pursued our way by a body to judge of the farmer's behaviour. And the far.
BIOGRAPHIC SKETCHES. winding, yet still precipitous path, to the bottom of mer professing himself willing that I should be made the dell. Nothing could be more beautiful than the acquainted with the matter, and perfectly ready to scene. On every side, steep shelving banks, clothed abide by my opinion, provided it coincided with his exertions in the cause of useful education ought to be
EMANUEL von FELLENBERG, whose philanthropio with magnificent oaks and beeches, the growth of own, I resumed my seat opposite to Matthew, whilst known in all parts of the civilised world, was born in centuries, descended gradually, like some vast amphi. poor Bessy, blushing and ashamed, placed herself on theatre, to a clear deep piece of water, lying like a à low stool in a corner of the little room, and began Switzerland in the year 1771. His father was a man mirror in the midst of the dark woods, and letting making friends with Dash.
of patrician rank at Berne, and his mother was the light and sunshine into the picture. I soon came in “The long and the short of the matter is, ma'am,” grandaughter of the celebrated Dutch admiral Van
aight of the place of my destination, a low-browed quoth old Matthew," that Jem White-1 dare say Tromp. She was distinguished no less for her enthatched cottage, perched like a wild duck's nest at the very edge of the pool, and surrounded by a little and my Bessy there and she's a good girl and a larged benevolence than for sincere piety, and with an garden redeemed from the forest—a small clearing, 'dustrious too, thof I say it that should not say it-unshrinking devotedness she exerted herself in the wbere cultivated Aowers, and beds of berry.busbes, have been keeping company, like, for these two years mental and moral cultivation of her son, so as to influ. and pear and cherry trees, in full blossom, contrasted past ; and now, just as I thought they were going to
ence his character to virtue and usefulness. strangely yet pleasantly with the wild scenery around. marry and settle in the world, down comes his father, The cottage was very small, yet it had the air of the farmer there, and wants him to marry another
The impressions formed on the mind of Fellenberg snugness and comfort which one loves to associate wench, and be false-hearted to my girl.”
by his excellent mother, led him, while not more than with the dwellings of the industrious peasantry. A "I never knew that he courted her, ma'am, till last sixteen years of age, to reflect on the means which goodly faggot-pile, a donkey-shed, and a pigsty, evi- night," interrupted the farmer.
might be adopted for improving the degraded condi. dently inhabited, confirmed this impression; and * And who does he want Jem to marry ?” pursued tion of his countrymen. Sbunning the frivolities of geese and ducks swimming in the water, and chickens the old man, warming as he went on. straying about the door, added to the cheerfulness of Farmer Brookes's fine daughter 'Gusta-Miss Gusta the society which surrounded him, he for several the picture.
as they call her—who's just come back from Belford | years occupied a considerable portion of his time in As I approached, I recognised an old acquaintance boarding school, and goes about the country in her travelling through Switzerland. He usually journeyed in a young girl, who, with a straw basket in her hand, silks and her satins, with her veils and her fine worked was engaged in feeding the cocks and bens-no less bags—who but she ! as if she was a lady born, like the villages and farm-houses, mingling in the labours
on foot, with his knapsack on his back, residing in a person than pretty Bessy, the young market-woman, madam there! Now, my Bessy " of whom I have before spoken, celebrated for rearing "1 have not a word to say against Bessy,” again and occupations, and partaking of the rude lodging the earliest ducks and the fattest and whitest chickens interrupted the farmer ; "she's a good girl, and a and fare of the peasants and mechanics, and often ex. ever seen in these parts. Any Wednesday or Satur. pretty girl, and an industrious girl. I have not a tending his wanderings to surrounding countries. In day morning, during the spring or summer, might word to say against Bessy., But the fact is, that I 1790 he proceeded to the University of Tubingen, to Bessy be seen on the road to Belford, tripping along have had an offer of the Holm Farm for Jem, and complete bis studies; and in 1795, immediately after by the side of her little cart, hardly larger than a therefore wheelbarrow, drawn by a sedate and venerable don. “And a fine farmer's wife 'Gusta Brookes will
the fall of Robespierre, he visited Paris. Here he of. key, and laden with coops full of cackling or babbling make!" quoth the matmaker, interrupting Master
ten attended the sessions of the committee of instruc. inmates, together with baskets of fresh eggs-for White in his turn. “A pretty farmer's wife! She tion, and had his interest in the subject still farther Bessy's commodities were as much prized at the break that can do nothing on earth but jabber French, and excited by the noble spirit of Grégoire and other phi. fast as at the dinner table. She meant, as I have read story-books, and thump on the music! Now, said, to keep the market; but, soinehow or other, she there's my girl can milk, and churn, and bake, and lanthropic members of the committee, who seemed like seldom reached it; the quality of her merchandise brew, and cook, and wash, and make, and mend, and beacons in the midst of an ocean of tumult and corrupbeing held in such estimation by the families around, rear poultry--there are not such ducks and chickens tion. During his residence in Paris, he perceived the that her chops and baskets were generally emptied be. as Bessy's for ten miles round. Ask madam—she al political storm which was impending over Switzer. fore they gained their place of destination.
ways deals with Bessy, and so do all the gentlefolks | land, from the schemes of the French republicans, Perhaps the popularity of the vender had some- between here and Belford.” thing to do with the rapid sale of her poultry-ware. “I am not saying a word against Bessy,” replied and returned to warn his countrymen against it. He Never did any one more completely realise the beau Farmer White ; “ she's a good girl, and a pretty girl, urged the sacrifice of some of the oppressive claims idéal of a young, happy, innocent, country girl, than as I said before ; and I am very sorry for the whole and exclusive privileges of the Swiss aristocracy as the Matthew's grandaughter. Fresh and fair, her rosy affair. But the Holm Farm is a largish concern, and only means of averting the danger ; but his predictions cheeks mantling with blushes, and her cherry lips will take a good sum of money to stock it-more money and warnings were completely disregarded. When breaking into smiles, she was the very milkmaid of than I can command ; and Augusta Brookes, besides Isaac Walton; and there was an sold-fashioned neat. what her father can do for her at his death, has four the hour of strife arrived, he still exerted himself to ness and simplicity, a complete absence of all finery, hundred pounds of her own, left her by her grand save his country. At the approach of the French in her attire, together with a modest sweetness in mother, which, with what I can spare, will be about troops, in 1798, to overthrow the government of Swit. ber round young voice, a rustic grace in her little enough for the purpose ; and that made me think of zerland, he was active in raising and leading on the Gurtsey, and, above all, a total unconsciousness of her the match, though the matter is still quite unsettled. people to resist them. But what was a handful of sharms, which not only heightened the effect, but You know, Master Matthew, one can't expect that Swiss to those formidable republican armies which deepened and strengthened the impression. No one Bessy, good girl as she is, should have any money." that ever had seen them could forget Bessy's innocent “Oh, that's it !” exclaimed the old man of the swept over Europe from almost one end to the other, smiles.
" You don't object to the wench, then, nor to leaving hardly a vestige of the old system of things in At present, however, the poor girl was evidently in her old grandfather, if 'twas not for the money ?"
their course ? Berne was taken the cause lost 80 smiling mood ; and as I was thridding with care “Not in the least,” replied the farmer; "she's a
and Fellenberg was proscribed, with a price put on his and labour the labyrinths of an oak newly felled and good girl, and a pretty girl. I like her full as well head. From Germany, in which he took refuge, he partly barked, which lay across the path, to the great as Augusta Brookes, and I am afraid that Jem likes was soon recalled to Switzerland, and sent on a mis. improvement of its picturesqueness (there are few ob- her much better. And, as for yourself, Master Dlat- sion to Paris to remonstrate against the rapacious and jeets that so much enhance the beauty of woodland thew, why, I've known you these fifty years, and never oppressive conduct of the agents of the French repubscenery) and the equal augmentation of its difficulty, heard man, woman, or child speak a misword of you
lic. By this and some subsequent transactions in I could not help observing how agitated and preoccur in my life. I respect you, man! And I am heartily pied the little damsel seemed. Her cheek had lost its sorry to vex you, and that good little girl yonder which he was employed, he became thoroughly discolour, her step was faltering, and the trembling Don't cry so, Bessy ; pray don't cry !" And the gusted with political life, and he resolved to abandon hand with which she was distributing the corn from good-natured farmer well nigh cried for company.
it entirely, until a better day should dawn on his her basket could hardly perform its task. Her head “No, don't cry, Bessy, because there's no need,” country. was turned anxiously towards the door, as if some. rejoined her grandfather. “I thought, mayhap, it It is from this period that the life of Fellenberg be. thing important were going forward within the house ; was out of pride that Farmer White would not suffer comes interesting. His early disappointment in his and it was not until I was actually by her side, and Jem to marry my little girl. But, since it's only the examination of society, his investigations of the state called her by name, that she perceived me.
money,” continued the old man, fumbling amidst a of the common people, his intercourse with public men, The afternoon, although bright and pleasant for vast variety of well-patched garments, until from the and the tremendous convulsions he had witnessed, had the season, was one of those in which the sun some pocket of some under-jacket he produced a greasy all conspired to impress on his mind the same convic. times amuses himself by playing at bopeep. The sky brown leather book_since 'tis only Miss 'Gusta's tion—that the only resource for meliorating the state had become overcast shortly after I entered the Din. money that's wanted to stock the Holm, why that's of his own and other countries, and for preventing a gle, and by the time I had surmounted the last tall but reasonable ; and we'll see whether your four hun. repetition of the borrors which he had witnessed, was jutting bare bough of the oak, some of the branches dred won't go as far as hers. Look at them dirty bits to be found in EARLY EDUCATION ; and he resolved of which I was fain to scramble over and some to of paper, farmer; they're of the right sort, an't they ?" henceforth to devote himself to this, as the object of creep through, and had fairly reached the cottage cried' Matthew, with a chuckle.“ I called 'em in, his life. He was appointed a member of the council door, a sudden shower was whistling through the trees because I thought they'd be wanted for her portion, of education of Berne, but was soon convinced that with such violence as to render both Dash and my. like; and when the old matmaker dies, there'll be a nothing adequate could be accomplished on this subself very glad to accept Bessy's embarrassed invita hundred or two more into the bargain. Take the ject, through the medium of legislative commissions ; tion, and get under shelter from the pelting of the money, man, can't ye? and don't look so 'stounded, and having come into the possession of an ample forstorm.
It's honestly come by, I promise you; all 'dustry and tune, be resolved to devote this to his great object, My entrance occasioned an immediate and some. 'conomy, like. Her father, he was 'dustrious, and he and to form on his own estate, and on an independent what awkward pause in a discussion that had been left ber a bit; and her mother, she was ’dustrious too, basis, a model institution, in which it should be proved carried on, apparently with considerable warmth, be- and she left her a bit ; and I, chof I should not say it, what education could accomplish for the benefit of hu. tween my good old boat, Matthew, who, with a half. have been 'dustrious all my life; and she, poor thing, manity. About this time he married a Bernese lady, finished mat in his hand, was sitting in a low wicker is more 'dustrious than any of us. Ay, that's right. who bore him nine children, six of whom, as well as abair on one side of the hearth, and a visitor, also of Give her a hearty kiss, man; and call in Jem-In their mother, are devoted coadjutors in his plan of bemy acquaintance, who was standing against the win- warrant he's not far off—and we'll fix the wedding: nevolence. In pursuance of his great design, he soon dow; and with the natural feeling of repugnance to day over a jug of home-brewed. And madam there," after purchased the estate called Hoffwyl, and his life such an intrusion, I had hardly taken the seat offered pursued the happy old man, as with most sincere con- henceforward forms an important page in the records me by Bersy, and given my commission to her grand, gratulations and good wishes I rose to depart, “madam of benevolent enterprise. His great object was to father, before I proposed to go away, saying that I there, who looks so pleased and speaks so kindly, may elevate all classes of society, by fitting them better for saw they were busy, that the rain was nothing, that be sure of her mat. I'm a 'dustrious man, thof I say I their respective stations, and to render them happy
and united, without destroying the respective ranks structing his pupils, but conveys information in every to reclaim the numerous outcasts who have been re. into which society seems naturally to divide itself. possible way; during their work in the fields, at their ceived into the agricultural institution. He believed it important to collect in one institution meals, and at play, in which he never fails to teach The views of the philanthropic Fellenberg, after az the poor and the rich, each with their appropriate them something useful.
experience of five-and-twenty years, have proved in means of improvement, and thus to establish proper Every Sunday, public worship is performed in the every respect eminently successful. His schemes bave and friendly relations between them. He considered great hall of M. de Fellenberg, where the children of given birth to a number of agricultural schools in it of high importance to make agriculture the basis of the labouring classes assemble with the pupils of the Switzerland and Germany, directed by his pupils, such an institution. He regarded it as the employ. upper school, consisting, it may be, of the sons of which are affording similar blessings to the poor and ment best of all adapted to invigorate the body, but nobles and other distinguished persons who have been other classes of society. May we be permitted to bope he also believed that, by elevating agriculture from a entrusted to the care of this excellent man.
that bis example will not be lost on the wealthy and mere handicraft to an art founded upon scientific prin. It seems proper to observe, that though Vehrli, the enterprising of our own country, where ample room ciples, and leading directly to the operations of the assistant, appears in the most conspicuous light, his is afforded for the establishment of institutions such great First Cause, it would become a pursuit pecu- station was entirely subordinate to bis employer, as those by which Fellenberg has so greatly benefited liarly fitted to elevate and purify the mind, and serve whose active eye surveyed the minutest transactions. Switzerland. as the basis of improvement to the labouring classes, Fellenberg issued the daily orders for business, which and to society at large. He selected Hoffwyl on ac- Vebrli executed. In suinmer the clothing of the boys
A LEAN CHAPTER ON FAT MEN. count of its situation; so insulated as to secure it chiefly consists of coarse cotton, and in winter of from the influence of bad examples, yet surrounded woollen garments. They wear no covering to the There is something very imposing, very impressive, by villages which would furnish labourers, and only head, nor are shoes or stockings used, except occa- very agreeable, in the presence of a jolly, fat gentle six miles from the city of Berne. It was an estate of sionally, when work in the fields renders it necessary. man in a light waistcoat; black is rather sombre, and, about two hundred acres, under poor cultivation, lying Their food is plain, but wholesome, and without stint, I think, scarcely does justice to the portly front on in a hill filled with springs. The plans pursued to consisting of bread, milk, potatoes, vegetable soups; which it is distended. The light waistcoat, on the drain and improve the lands need not be detailed; it or pottage; in summer, they have fruit with bread for is sufficient to state that, at the end of four years supper; they are allowed tlesh meat only on Sundays. other hand, has the effect of bringing out the full (1814), the estate yielded four times its former
pro. This extraordinary establishment early excited a breadth and capacity of the person to the verge of its duce, and was in excellent condition. Additions were lively and general interest among the friends of man. farthest amplitude. afterwards made, increasing the dimensions to about | kind in different parts of the world. Men from dis. six hundred acres.
Fat men, and women too, are really something is Within this domain arose not tant countries eagerly repaired to it, to make themselves only a school of theoretical and practical agricultural acquainted with a system of agricultural education that creation. There's bulk, solidity, and tangibility education, but a normal school, or seminary for the promised so much moral good to society, not only to about them. They are obvious, palpable, striking ab. instruction of teachers, which, notwithstanding the the labouring class, but to others concerned in the cul. jects. They stand out in conspicuous and full relief opposition of the rulers of Berne, was numerously
ture of the soil
. Among the visitors, were princes, on the face of nature, and command respect, and atattended, and became the engine by which the schools potentates, nobles, philosophers, philanthropists, men of Switzerland were to be regenerated. of science, eminent agriculturists, and others; who,
tract notice, from the space they occupy. They are The agricultural school opened with twenty-three after a due examination of the principles and plan of proverbially good-natured. Every lineament of their boys, mostly of the poorest description, and in a miser- the institution, bestowed on its benevolent founder that jovial countenances bespeaks amenity, and a mind st able plight; but the number was afterwards increased meed of praise to which he was justly entitled. In They are no cynics. On the contrary, they to thirty, and the whole were put under the charge of the year 1814, Alexander, late Emperor of Russia,
seem to be delighted with the world, and all that's in Thomas Vehrli, who had been a village schoolinaster, visited the agricultural school at Hoffwyl, and was so and was well fitted for the duty. The boys were em- struck with its admirable system, that he commanded it. Indeed, it would seem like a contradiction in ns. ployed mostly in the fields, the lesser boys in weeding Count Capo d'Istria minutely to examine the details ture, an anomaly, were they otherwise. The imaand transplanting in the garden, cleaning the walks, of the plan, which proved entirely satisfactory to the gination cannot conceive such a thing as a discontented, gathering stones, or in the gleaning of corn during emperor, who, on his return home, did Fellenberg the snarling, moralising, fat man ; yet I have known such the harvest; while the stronger ones drove the horses honour of writing a most kind letter to him, with his
a rarity in my time, though I allow he was an er. at the plough, or carted manure in carts drawn by own hand, expressive of his esteem and approbation donkeys; in some of these operations they performed of his labours, which he considered highly beneficial ception to the rule. It should also be remarked, that the work of men. When the weather was unfavour. to mankind. And as a further mark of his regard to for fat men to be good-natured they must be well to able for work out of doors, the boys were variously the beneficent founder, the emperor created bim a do in the world. This is absolutely necessary. They employed in binding fagots, sawing or splitting of knight of the order of St Waldimer, the decorations wood, making baskets, platting straw or rushes into of which he transmitted under bis own princely hand. both internally and externally, and of this the last
must have ample means to keep up the tabernacle, mats or chair-bottoms, in the dressing of Hax, or in From political changes, the patronage of Russia was sorting of wool. Some of the stronger boys worked afterwards withdrawn, a matter of little moinent, so
of nature would seem to have kindly taken cognis. as carpenters and wheelwrights, in making or repairing far as regarded the success of the establishment, which A shabby fallen-off fat man is doubly a victim. tools and implements of husbandry. But it was in the is still flourishing and extending in its usefulness. Of Poor make-shift apparel has a most dismal appearancs open fields where the principal part of their time was late, great additions have been made to the institution. on a person in a state of collapse. There is not a bad most beneficially and agreeably passed ; the grand Hoffwyl now comprises, 1. The extensive experimental point about it but is strongly brought out, and the scene of activity and business, where the book of and model farm, which supplies the wants of its popu.
want of the calyx of white cambric round the nos nature and of providence was 'visibly displayed ; af. lation, amounting to about three hundred persons ; lanky gills has an effect truly distressing. Scudding fording the teacher constant opportunities of impart. 2. Workshops for the fabrication and improvement under bare poles with a threadbare stock may answer ing to his pupils suitable instruction on rational and of agricultural implements, scientitic apparatus, and moral subjects, adapted to their understandings. Thus, clothing for the establishment ; 3. A lithographic the dapper young gentleman, but is on no account while their bodies were invigorated by useful labour, press, at which music and other things useful to the suitable to the once jolly countenance of the man their feelings were interested by a variety of objects institution are printed ; 4. A scientific institution, for who had ever any pretensions to a "presence.” that excited their curiosity, and developed their mental the education of the higher classes ; 5. A practical It is, I think, undeniable that fatness is frequently faculties; in fact, improvement continually went on institution, for those who are destined to a life of exceedingly advantageous in helping a man to fortube, under every circumstance, whether of business or business, or whose circumstances are limited ; 6. An seeing that it usually meets with a wonderful degree
agricultural institution, for the education of the la- of general respect. But if leanness has no chance of Vehrli was present with the boys on all occasions ; bouring classes, with two distinct buildings for boys success when placed in competition with obesity, the he directed and assisted them in their labours, partook and girls ; 7. A normal school, or seminary for teach case is sadly reversed when fatness is reduced to a con. of their plain fare at their meals, and slept in the same
At the distance of six miles is the colony of dition allied to poverty. A victim of eight stones in apartment, on their beds of straw, or straw mattrasses; Meykirch, an interesting branch of the institution, weight may recover his station in society, but one yet he cheerfully submitted to every privation. His consisting of eight or ten boys, who are placed, much weighing fifteen or sixteen is done for ever. Let kind affectionate behaviour greatly endeared him to like the new settlers in America, on an uncultivated him say what he likes, he meets with no sympathy. the boys. As the boys were variously employed on spot, to acquire their gubsistence by their own labour. " What! such a big well-fed man to be ill off; it different parts of the farm, the teacher contrived ge. In this, as in the agricultural institution, the pupils is impossible.” Thus he has not even the consonerally to be with the largest party. No opportunity receive from three to five hours' instruction daily, lation of being pitied. I would recommend all fat was lost for imparting instruction concerning things while they are assisted by a small capital, supplied men to be very careful of their means. If they al. rational or useful, as well during the hours of labour, by Fellenberg, in addition to their own earnings. low themselves to deteriorate in circumstances, they at their meals, and even in times of amusement. The By the ordinary run of mankind, Fellenberg may may depend on seeing the world most resolutely boys are treated as rational beings, and allowed to ask be reckoned a visionary enthusiast, but those who say turning its back upon them. I imagine that fat questions, for information, with becoming modesty, 80 entirely misapprehend his character. He has not, men are perfectly aware of this fact, for it is sel.
In summer the boys rise at five o'clock, and in like some opulent enthusiasts, endeavoured to remodel dom that we find such individuals in a strait. In winter at six ; after washing themselves, they go to society, or subvert religious opinion. His great aim the course of my lifo I have met with just two in. prayer, and then receive instruction in the school one has been to preserve the established organisation of stances of decided victimisation of persons of this
class, hour; after which they breakfast, and work until society, and to inculcate sound religious belief in con.
both of course arising out of some kind of indiscretion half-past eleven, when they are allowed half an hour nection with moral and intellectual improvement. He When I first fell into the habit of remarking these for their dinner. After this they receive instruction has been more desirous to produce intelligent men two unfortunate men, they were in splendid bodily in the school one hour, and then repair to their work than mere scholars. In his establishment, great care cor:dition, and carried a noble head on the flag stones; until six o'clock, when they go to supper, after which is taken to provide for the invigoration of the body, talked loud, laughed louder, and were always in ad they are further instructed in the school; the busi- and the preservation of the health, by the size and mirable spirits. "But in about seven years thereafter, ness concludes with prayer, and they go to bed be airiness of the buildings, by providing extensive play, oh! wbat a change! My very heart bled within me tween eight and nine o'clock. The division of time, grounds, garden.spots, and workshops, and aseigning at the sight. Their clothes had become shabby, too ; however, varies according to the seasons. In winter regular hours for exercise ; by frequent cold-bathing, and the waistcoat, which in fatter times had been filled they are taught in the school one or two hours before and the careful regulation of food and sleep.. A large even to bursting, now bung at least six inches too supper. In summer the instruction in the school lasts number of professors are now employed in every too wide. It was truly pitiable to behold. Their only three hours, but in winter it occupies five or six branch, to meet the intellectual wants of the pupils, shoulders, also, had lost all that breadth and massivehours daily. The boys are taught reading and writing, and to provide for the separate instruction of those ness which had many a time and oft excited my wonthe latter on slates, except on Saturdays, when pens and whose capacity or previous education might at any der and admiration as they strode on a pace or two paper are allowed to the elder boys ; drawing in a time prevent their entering regular classes. The ut before me in the streets. In short, their whole dress, simple manner, singing, calculation, or arithmetic ; most watchfulness is used in moral and religious edu. now threadbare and dilapidated-additional source of also grammar, geography, and geometry, on a small cation, not merely in removing as much as possible painful feeling to the tender-bearted observerbung scale; the daily phenomena and productions of nature the influence of bad example, but by the constant about them in truly distressing superflaity, and most are explained to them occasionally, and they are made supervision and parental care of the children of Fel. affecting, because unnecessary, amplitude, showing but acquainted with the situation and parts of their own lenberg and a chosen set of coadjutors, formed in the too plainly the grievous abstraction of material that country, its mountains, valleys, lakes, &c. &c. They establishment, who exercise the office of educators, had taken place in consequence of their privations draw chiefly on slates with chalk, to enable them to and attend the pupils, as friends and monitors, in their One of these unfortunate gentlemen, in particular, describe their tools and other implements ; as well as studies, their chambers, and their amusements. The seemed to feel most keenly the sadness of the change the construction of buildings, and various other ob- base stimulus of rewards, distinctions, and corporal that had taken place ; but it always appeared to the jects. The intelligent teacher does not confine him. punishments, is never employed ; and the most nild self to the ordinary routine of school business for in. I and paternal system of government has been sufficient
• Encyclopædia Americana; Labourens' Friend Magazine.