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I wish the poor wench had left that name unspoken, 'Father !' cried I, 'your gun! Madelaine, up to (and, in sooth, the very walls bore with them a host sir, for it called up tumults into my heart which had the granary and lock yourself in without light. And of painful recollections !) and with the amount of my long been tranquillised. Ay, said 1, "and drank taking what weapons I could collect, I made off to the father's savings and my own, purchased the cot that our life.blood in return. But there is a GoD above village, and in twenty minutes gathered together a had once been tenanted by Bertin, wherein Madelaine all; and theirs will pay for it.'

troop of hardy young fellows, my fellow.labourers, was born, and wherein I still abide ; a poor place, you And so, being obstinate, I would pass the Place, for who, for the honour of the pays, would do much tó will say, but my own; a home for me, and a home it was a fine, bright, sunshiny day; and the old defend the Chateau de Luzières. But by the time for Madelaine when I shall be no more. And there groves in the adjoining gardens of the Tuilleries were we reached the avenue, the old mansion was sending it was that Albert grew up upon our knees. gay with their chestnut blossoms, and the air was up in two places a dense smoke, which soon burst out It was not till he was about ten years old, sir, that sweet with lilies. But just as we reached opposite into flames; and all that now remained was to save I began to regret I had not the means of giving him the street leading to the Boulevards, there came a the lives of those who might be within. The villains as much book-learning as became the blood that was sight that made the very gardens themselves look were ransacking the house in all directions; but our in his veins. By that time the hero of the nation gloomy; however, no sooner was its coming perceived, beart was good. We had a dreadful struggle had grown tired of being a hero, and got himself than the people gathered forward in all directions, so deadly struggle. I can scarce talk of it now, sir; anointed emperor; and many emigrants had leave to that, for my life, I could not have dragged off Made. for at the close my poor old father lay dead at the en. return, and among the rest, one who called himself laine through the crowd. Believe me or no, sir, but trance of the marchioness's apartments; and though heir to the last Marquis of St Aignan. To hear this from the moment I heard the charioteer flogging on the Jacobins were driven off the field, it was not till made Madelaine and me jealous in our minds. We his horses at a distance, and saw the commissaries there was nothing left to save. The flames had had taught the boy all we knew it was not muchwith their staves, bound with tri.coloured ribbons, gained the mastery ; and as to the woman, the woman crayfish-catching and basket-weaving were not for the making way among the people, I felt as sure as of a whose obstinacy had caused my father's death, don't like of him; and we had even gone poorly clad, and judgment day, that Alphonse St Aignan was in the ask me, sir, to tell you all that befel her, or what poorly fed, that Monsieur le Curé (the very curés cart! And there, indeed, he sat, with an old grey manner of death she died. Her fate was fearful, fear. were back again !) might add to the amount of his headed priest on the one side, and a fair.faced woman ful! May it procure her the mercy and pardon of knowledge. Even that, I fancy, was not much ; and on the other, with bis own face white as ashes, and the Almighty !

one day when we went to fetch Albert home, as usual, his eyes hollow and dim, as though half dead already. It was the dead of the night, sir, before I got back the curé, who, from his office in the Confessional, His lips quivered too, but whether from fear, or that to the farm; and I had to press through a crowd of knew what was the real parentage of the child, told he were muttering an Ave Maria to keep himself in the villagers collected to look upon the fire. There's us we had no right to trifle with Albert's claims, and heart, I cannot say. But just as they came where Pierre,' said the women as I passed ; 'don't speak to that we must take him to Paris, and reveal all to his Madelaine and I were standing, in our holiday gear, him-don't question him-he has lost his father ! family. It was a sore day for us to make up our with the gay sunshine streaming upon us, the care i But, thank God, our men have pursued the mur- mind! Madelaine cried and sobbed, as I had not was taking to support and cheer the poor girl, whose derers down into the river, and it will go hard if any seen her cry since my father's death; for we loved bead was drooping on my shoulder, attracted his no. one of them escape.' 'But why was not Pierre with the boy so dearly, that we fancied every one else must tice, and I saw him cast a glance downwards on us; them, why did he remain behind up at the chateau ?' love him as we did, and be mad-eager to take him and there was a bitterness in the look which dwelt in said one woman. 'Hush, imbécélle,' cried another ; | from us ! my mind for years. Black must be the pang that can't you guess that he was removing his father's Not a bit! For all we could do, or all we could can add to the bitterness of such a death as his ! body?

swear, the great lord to whom we addressed ourselves Well, well, there is justice for all men, here or But they guessed only half the truth. As soon persisted that it was proved, by the proces verbal of above. And so, sir, Madelaine and I were soon as I crossed the threshold of the farm, I drew bolt the burning of the Chateau de Imzières, the mar. among the fields again ; and cheerful as you may and bar, and instead of replying to Madelaine's em. chioness and her infant had perished in the conflagra. think the glades of Etiolles to-day, I warrant you braces and inquiries after my father-Into bed with tion; and instead of providing for Albert's education, they looked brighter and happier to us, who had you,' I exclaimed ; 'take this poor orphan into your as we expected, he ordered us all three to be thrust tasted so much affliction since we left the village. Old bosom; and should the troop return and force the out of his botel' into the street, as impostors! It was Gabriel was gone, but father still sat in his chimney doors, swear that it is your own.' Then giving into the happiest evening I ever spent, that on which we corner, and right glad was he to have us with him her arms, still covered with its mother's blood, and got back to Etiolles after this fruitless attempt! We again. Still there was an uneasy thought in his stunned with the blow that finished her, the babe, the had done our duty to the lad, and the repulse we had mind.

last of the St Aignans, whom I had withdrawn, poor met with seemed to render him our own for ever. * Pierre, my lad,' said be one day soon after my re. helpless innocent, from its mother's side at the close After rejecting his cousin in the face of his whole es. turn, thou knowest that the old marquis is dead and of the massacre, I again secured the house, and darted tablishment, the head of the family could not claim gone, and the young count dead and gone ; and if | off after the assassins.

him from us; and never did I see Madelaine caress they were unlawfully removed, heaven forgive those Well, sir, to cut short the history, for to you, who his curly head so fondly, or call him her own so ten. that removed them. But thou art to learn that the are not of the pays, it may appear tedious, we adopted | derly as then. Countess Alphonse, who is marchioness now that is the orphan boy for our own. At that time, to be the • We must content ourselves with less for him,' Citoyenne (mercy me, that I can never bring myself child of a ci-devant, was a bad certificate ; and though said she. “If Albert do not grow up so learned as to remember all these changes), the Citoyenne St Aig. it went to my soul to call the babe ours-for we had the clerk of the peace at Corbeil, he will know more nan has a young child-a son born since her father been but four months married, and my wife's good than we knew before him; yet we are better respected was condemned; and instead of quitting Luzières, as name was dear to me to all who were bold enough in the village than even was his father the marquis !! any reasonable soul would do, and making the best to say, ' Pierre, is the child thine ?" I answered, 'the With this reasoning I was forced to content myself, of her way to her relations in England and Germany child is mine.' And so," continued the crayfish and one must have been difficult indeed not to have (for here, as she well knows, they are under the sur catcher, passing his hand across his eyes, “my father's been contented with Albert! He was so handsome, veillance of the revolutionary tribunal, whose severi.old chair was removed from beside the hearth, and I so frank, so humane, so laborious, 80 gay! And what ties are getting fast from bad to worse, and may soon wove a wicker-cradle for the orphan to supply its I loved best in him was, that, though be was well acreach from worse to worst), nothing will serve her place. To be sure, many in the village must have quainted with his origin (for how could Madelaine but to talk of the young heir of the house of Luzières, known that the babe was none of ours; but it was keep such a secret from our nursling ?) be never and the allegiance of the tenants, in a touch-me.who- given out that all had perished in the flames at Lu. seemed to desire that the mystery should be cleared up. dare sort of style, for which the day is past. Twice zières, and I doubt whether any at Etiolles guessed • My family have cast me off,' he would say; 'I -thrice-I cannot count the times—have I been up whence we had the infant ; more especially when, have henceforth none-no family, no friends, no be. to the chateau, and ventured to tell her truths she lit. year after year, as little Albert grew up among us, nefactors, but you. Love me still, and Albert will tle liked to hear. Only two days ago I presumed to they saw us working for bim as our own, and loving be happy; but strive to cause my recognition by the say, that since she would not quit the country, she him as our own; for we did love him. Parents could proud man who is willing to take the livery and wages might at least conceal herself here at the farm till the not have loved him better !"

of one whom he holds to be an usurper, and I shall dark days of the times were past. My son, I did not Were you ever a father, Pierre, that you venture fancy you are tired of your burden, and grudge me know with whom I had to deal. You should have to say thai?' inquired I.

my prospect of tending you, and labouring for you in heard the clamour of indignation with which she ac. liem! no! and I sometimes thank God for it: your old age, as you have tended and laboured for me cused me of ingulting her, by inviting her to rest under ay ! even now that we are left alone in our old age ; in my childhood !' such a roof as mine! She, a widow, whose husband's for with children of my own, I should have had no There was no answering him! I loved him too keadless trunk is lying yonder under the quicklime right to do all I did for Albert. You should have dearly to attempt it! of the Madelaine ! she, a mother, who might preserve seen him, sir ; what a noble young creature it grew I would fain linger in my story now, sir; for those her child by so small a coucession !'.

under Madelaine's rearing! At six years old, not a were the happiest years of my life! There was sun. Don't trouble yourself further about her, father,'lad in the village could hold head against Albert ! shine under our roof, there was joy, there was pro. said I, for I was stung to the quick by his account of When I saw the ruins of the Chateau de Luzières mise. But though I grudge not my time in the the woman's gracelessness. Her life is not worth sold as national property, and the fine avenues cut telling, your patience must be wasting. On, there. the preserving'

down, and the gardens made grazing ground, and the fore, on to the end ! 'Nay,' replied the good old man, “but her father fishpond dried up, and the woods destroyed, I own I You may be sure, that, loving Albert as we did, and mine fought together at Fontenoy; and I have could not help sometimes grieving that the little fel. something was laid by, after the half-yearly payment eaten these people's bread; and for all that is come low should be deprived of what, after all, was his of our contributions to the state, to make up a reand gone, I will yet do my best for the family.' birthright. And many's the time I have had him demption-fee for our boy, when he, too, should be

Alas ! the time of trial was quickly coming. The kneel down and pray beside me, on a green nook claimed for its service. This sum did we, for security, period which the book men call the Reign of Terror, among the plantain trees, where I had taken up my sake, lodge in the hands of a great notary at Corbeil. was at its worst at Paris; and every now and then, pick, a day or two after the fire, and laid all that I Security ere the day arrived when Albert under. bands of ravagers, who were little other than thieves could make out as the remains of my father and the went the fate I had borne before him, of falling to the and banditti, burst out into the provinces, on pretences poor foolish marchioness. I dug but one grave for conscription, the guardian of our deposit had made a of domiciliary visits and what not; but, in reality, to them, sir ! Think what would have been her rage, fraudulent bankruptcy; and because he saw fit to lay hands on all and every thing within their reach ; had any one whispered to her, during her living days, take himself off in his carriage to Havre, and embark burning, murdering, destroying—and without hazard that her last resting-place would be beside that of for America, the lad was fain to march off for the of punishment. One evening, sir, we were all sitting Pierre of Luzières.

army of Germany! Poor Madelaine was like to break quietly at the farm (it was in autumn, and the vin. Well, better times were coming! The mad and her heart; so young as he was to leave us, and for tage was just over); there was my father with his the bad were slain in their turn. The blood-thirsty such a service! For all this chanced not till victory pipe between his lips, and Madelaine with her knitting became at length satiated, and at last every man's had grown weary of hovering over the eagles of France. needles, and I busy in a corner with my osiers, weav- thoughts seemed to turn upon repairing the mischief Albert, in spite of his struggle to disguise his joy, ing a basket for my wife_when, all of a sudden, old that had been done. Ere the waters of the deluge for fear of giving us pain, was full of glee at his openCastor, the house-dog, that lay before the fire, started subsided, a mighty name was floating upon their ing prospects of distinction, for still

there lived the ap and began to yelp like a thing in purgatory; and troubled surface. It was that of a great hero-and we saying among the people, that every French conscript, As soon as we could still the beast, which was no easy became a martial nation! Had it been that of a great on quitting his village, bore in his knapsack the trun. natter, a trampling of many feet was audible, and, statesman, we might perhaps have become a commer- cheon of a field-marshal! And so, by way of cheeror a moment, we thought it even the vintagers com. cial one; for, in truth, we were inclined to follow any ing up Madelaine's heart on the eve of his departure, ng home from eating their soupe de vendanges. But one who was inclined to lead, with promises of guid. I sang our old canteen songs, and told our old bivonac ooking out, I saw a troop of some ten or twelve illing us to happier times. We had wars and battles, stories of Versailles ; and related all I had learned of soking dogs, armed with scythes, and bearing torches; ay! and victories, faster than I could count them the glories of Marengo and Austerlitz and how the ad in a moment the thought struck me they were But I had other work on hand. We quitted the farm dying grenadier's last moments on the field of battle oing up to the chateau !

of Luzières when it became a stranger's property | bad been cheered by receiving the cloak of le petit C'a

ALEXANDER SELKIRK.

poral to form his shroud. My blood was warm with called upon him by name, as I tottered onwards through twenty-six and sixteen guns ; and Selkirk, who was wine, and the sort of desperateness that wrings one's the snow. I had nothing more to learn from his sic probably recommended by experience in the same breast into noise at parting with something loved; and lence !

kind of employment, was appointed sailing-master when Albert whispered to me as I waved my old That night, sir, I scooped away the snow, and dug of the smaller ship. The terms on which both bonnet de police to the cry of 'Vive l'Empereur'- my boy a grave on the outskirts of the village where officers and men entered this expedition were very (The rich manufacturer of Essonne has offered three we bivouacked for the night. 'Twas a rude place, simple : they were to have no wages beyond a certain hundred Napoleons for a substitute for his son--the but still 'ewas within reach of a Christian bell. í share of their prizes. Such, however, had been the money would make a rare dowry for our dear Made- knew it was ; for all night I lay upon the grave, the success of many previous expeditions of the same laine !' I could not help replying, Nom d'une bombe ! striking of the church clock warning me, from hour kind, that no doubt was entertained by any one on I should like to show the Corsican's men how the to hour, that the precious minutes were passing I board, that they would each return with an immense vieux moustaches of Louis XVI. were put through the might remain with him! The word of command, load of Spanish gold. The two vessels sailed in Sep. movements! Albert! my boy, I will bear thee com. when daylight came, sounded hoarse as the cry of a tember 1703, but were too late for the galleons, all pany in thy first campaign.'

raven in my ears; and yet I dared not disobey the of which had got into port before they reached MaYou will think that my project met with opposition call, for it reminded me that Madelaine was waiting deira. Dampier then relinquished his design upon the from my wife ? Not a whit! It will be but the beside her hearthstone for tidings of those she loved.” river La Plata, and resolved to attack some rich town further embittering of my tears !' was all she said. There are some mysteries of sorrow which it ap. on the Spanish main. But before they left this range “The time of the boy's absence must be a time of pears almost sacrilegious to explain ; and I will there. of isles, dissensions began to break out, and, by or. extreme agony; and I can better bear to be with. fore dwell no longer upon the sufferings of Pierre, or ders of Dampier, the first lieutenant of the St George, out thee, Pierre, than to think that he, so young, so describe the scorching tears that poured from the old with whom he had quarrelled, was left with his ser. rash, so tenderly reared by my weak fondness, will be man's eyes, as I ventured to draw aside the veil by vant upon St Jago. They soon after reached the alone, unguided, in the hour of danger.' And 80, which they had been long concealed. On his return coast of Brazil, where they had the misfortune to lose sir, two fittings out were needed in lieu of one; and to Etiolles, it appeared the curé's abode had been Captain Pickering of the Cinque Ports, who was ac. bequeathing Madelaine to the protection of God, and sacked by the Prussians, and Pierre's old age made knowledged to be the most sensible man on board, and the counsel of the good curé, who took charge of her destitute as well as childless. Suzette, too, was dead. the main stay of the enterprise. This vessel was nos little fortune, away we went for the army. The old people were alone.

very leaky, and falling under the command of a man You may guess that the spirit of the lad blazed “Yet you see we have borne it all!” he ejaculated, of brutal character named Stradling, it was no longer forth when we reached head.quarters! Wounded in in conclusion ; "and our days do not pass in tribula- a place of comfort for Selkirk, who about this time the very first action, the sight of his own blood, spilt tion, for we feel that the lapse of each brings us nearer had a dream, which he esteemed as a forewarning of by the white coats, seemed to put the very devil into to the lad. Yes! we shall soon be with Albert, and the failure of the expedition and the loss of the Cinque his young heart. He got the name of the Lutin in even now I often fancy he is beside me, and commune Ports, and formed the resolution to withdraw at the the regiment, from the pranks he was ever playing, with him by the river side, where we used to labour first opportunity. The situation of the men in ge. even when the cannon boomed over our heads. But together, or in the woods of Luziéres, or in the forests neral may be guessed from the fact that nine of the his pranks did not prevent him from being a good sol. of Sénart. You see, sir, God is merciful; he gave it crew of the St George went ashore upon the isle of dier; and they loved a lightsome-hearted lad in those to us to atone for our own expiation, the feeling of La Granda, preferring the hazard of perpetual sla. days; the great generals thought, somehow, that exultation with which I had beheld the execution of very among the Spaniards to continuing any longer their folly put heart into the men.

the marquis; and still vouchsafes his protection and with their countrymen. The two vessels now doubled But, alas ! the Incky hour of soldiership was over consolations, even to so humble a child of the dust as Cape Horn, and sailed for the isle of Juan Fernandez, for France ! Had Albert been born in time to follow PIERRE L'ECREVISSIER !”

where they were refitted. Here, however, a violent the eagle over the Alps, or along the Danube, or across

quarrel broke out between Stradling and his crew, the sea to the Pyramids, there would soon have been

forty-two of whom (probably including Selkirk) went a ribbon at his button-hole, and an epaulet on his

BIOGRAPHIC SKETCHES.

ashore, vowing that they would not return to the res. shoulder-for the soul of his great grandsire, the old

sel, in which there were not now so many as twenty marquis who fought under Turenne, seemed to be Tais extraordinary man, whose solitary residence in

men left.

It was not without great difficulty, nor till within him. But the second year of our recruitment the island of Juan Fernandez suggested the matchless they could be prevailed upon to change their resolu.

they had become somewhat tired of the island, that carried our gallant brigades into the bitter north, which was not made for our heaven-favoured country- fiction of Robinson Crusoe, was a native of Largo, a tion. For some months after this rerolt, the two ves. men to abide in. Even I, a seasoned man, shrunk village on the north shore of the Firth of Fortb, in sels cruised along the coast of Chili, capturing a few under the frosts of Moscow; and what were they to Scotland. He was the son of a thriving country shoe worthless merchant vessels, which supplied them with Nevertheless, for a time his high courage bore him maker, named John Selkirk or Selcraig, and was born fresh stores, but altogether failing in the principal ob up! The heavier our privations, the louder grew his in the year 1676. Though he displayed some apti

. Stradling parted company, and the Cinque Ports Te. laugh beside the bivouac fire, where the carcase of tude at school, especially in learning navigation, he turned to Juan Fernandez to refit. some half-starved horse was roasting for our supper. was a restless and troublesome youth, of a quarrel. Stradling and Selkirk had for some time been op But that laugh grew hollow as well as loud; and

some temper, and almost always engaged in mischief. such terms, that the latter was now determined to there was a clear brightness in his eyes which was

remain upon the island, the capability of which to more deadly to me to look upon, than the tire of the His father was one of those stern disciplinarians who support him was proved by two men, who had lived enemy. And then there came defeat-and after de formerly abounded in Scotland, and whose severity in upon it since the vessels were there in spring. Ac. feat, retreat- and who does not know the calamities dictating repulsive exercises and restraining from in. cordingly, when the vessel was about to weigh, he of a defeated and retreating army? Tbe lad was nocent indulgences, was so frequently rewarded, in went into a boat with all his effects, and was roved growing discouraged ; and I used to talk of home to the case of children lively temperaments, with ef.

ashore under the direction of the captain (October him in our long, weary, bungering marches, as the

1704). His first sensation on landing was one of joy, trumpets are blown on the field of battle to inspirit fects so different from what were expected. The arising from the novelty of an exemption from the man and horse. And sometimes he tried to listen mother, on the other hand, who was soft and pliant, annoyances which had been oppressing him for such a when I talked of the green alleys of the forest of Sé. made the subject of our memoir a favourite, on ac. length of time; but he no sooner heard the strokes nart, and the wild roses entangling its paths, and the count of his being a seventh son, born without the of the receding oars, than the sense of solitude and green vineyards of Etiolles, and the soft soft-silver intervention of a daughter; which, in her opinion, into the water to entreat his companions to take him

helplessness fell upon his mind, and made him rust current of the Seine. But those soothing words did not prevent that there were wildernesses of snow marked him out for a lucky destiny. The boy's own

once more on board. The brutal commander only around us, and the very atmosphere congealing over

wish was to go to sea; that of his father, to keep him made this change of resolution a subject of mockery, our heads !

Mon père,' whispered the lad one at home as an assistant in his own trade; and it ap. and told him it would be best for the remainder of the night, as the blood burst from his ears and nostrils, pears that the mother advocated the views of her son,

crew that so troublesome a fellow should remain where had 'I been a few years older, I might have borne it;

he was. as most likely to lead to the realisation of her super. but 'tis only a veteran such as thou who can survive

Here, then, was a single human being left to provide this trying time, to die upon the field of battle. Mon stitious hopes. It must be allowed that these circum. for his own subsistence upon an uninhabited and unpère ! mon bien faiture! forgive me formy weakness !"" stances, operating in a humble walk of life, at the cultivated isle, far from all the haunts of his kind, To aid him in his story, I ventured to observe, And soothe an irritable, control a reckless, or even to pre. Selkirk appears to have been, it sank for some days For some minutes Pierre could not utter a syllable. time and place alluded to, were not calculated to and with but slender hopes of ever again mingling

with his fellow-creatures. Vigorous as the mind of the time came, I fear, when he could drag his legs no

serve the original features of an amiable character. farther, and you were forced to leave poor Albert in

under the horrors of his situation, and he could do the rear ?"

After working till about his twentieth year at his nothing but sit upon his chest, and gaze in the direc“To abandon him ?" cried Pierre ; "No! I do not father's trade, Alexander Selkirk left his native vil. tion in which the ship had vanished, rainly hoping deserve that you should think it of me! Abandon lage, in order to avoid ecclesiastical censure for do. for its return. On partly recovering bis equanimity, him ? no, no, no! him, and still there was no chance but to march on, his return in 1701, he once more excited public scan

When
bis strength utterly failed mestic quarrelling, and was at sea for four years. On he found it necessary to consider the means of con.

tinuing existence. The stores which he had brought or fall into the hands of the enemy, I threw aside bag

ashore, consisted, besides his clothing and bedding, of and

baggage, and strapped the fainting child to my dal by bis conduct in the family circle; and being a firelock, a pound of gunpowder, a quantity of bul. shoulders (his weight was but as a feather); and after again cited by the kirk-session, along with his father, lets, a Aint and steel, a few pounds of tobacco, a hatthe first few hours, I did not dare speak to him to ask mother, and other relations, he on this occasion gave chet, a knife, a kettle, a flip.can, a bible, some books no reply. And again, after a time, I thought his satisfaction by submitting to a rebuke in church, and of devotion, and one or two concerning navigation,

and his mathematical instruments. The island he limbs grew more listless—and then stiff—and then I promising amendment. Having spent the winter at

knew to contain wild goats ; but being unwilling to murmured to myself, Madelaine, Madelaine, how home, he returned in spring to England, in search of lose the chance of observing a passing sail, he preshall I tell tell thee of this ?--and my murmurs were employment as a mariner. The war of the Spanish ferred for a long time seeding upon shellfish and drowned by hoarse cries of march! at every pause succession was now breaking out, and, among the seals, which he found upon the shore. The island, of the battalion, and by the grumblings of the men, means adopted by Britain for distressing the enemy, riant vegetation, and clothed to the tops of the hills

which is rugged and picturesque, but covered by luxo. with whom all hope was over! At last one of them, an old comrade, ballooed to me,

was the employment of those daring hall-piratical with wood, was now in all the bloom and freshness of Pierre, Aing aside thy burden-thy labour is in vain! commodores, who used to scour the South Seas at all spring; but upon the dejected solitary, its charms were the boy is dead!' And I cursed him for the word, seasons in search of Spanish merchantmen and bullion. spent in vain. He could only wander along the beach, and would not listen. And another came and said, ships, allowing no regular principle of warfare, except pining for the approach of some friendly vessel, which God I had they known what heaviness was in my celebrated Captain Dampier bad projected an enter. that there never was peace beyond the Line. The might restore him, under however unpleasant circum

stances, to the converse of his fellow.creatures. heart ! Even when I knew that he was surely, surely gone prise with two well-armed vessels, under the com

• Juan Fernandez, so called from a Spanish pilot who discovered (for the locks of his hair grew frozen where his bless mission of the admiralty; designing to sail up the it in 1972, is 330 miles from the nearest land in South America ed head lay stonelike on my shoulder); I bore him river La Plata, and seize a few of the rich galleons it was several times occupied, both before and after Selkirk's time, on and on; for I chose not to leave him for a prey which usually sailed once a-year from that port to

by families prosecuting trade, and even by solitary mariners, lost to the wolves of the Borysthenes, and I knew that my

by chance or otherwise. In 1823, Lord Cochrane found it destitute hopes were gone, by the bursting forth of my words; the mother country. His vessels were respectively of inhabitants ; but, according to very recent inwrmation, it now for now I talked to him-now, again and again, I entitled the St George and the Cinqne Ports, of ment, and are ruled over by an Englishman named Sutcliffe.

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At length the necessity of providing a shelter from to him, and the strangers were for a time so surprised | the picturesque solitude of a glen beneath the brow the weather supplied him with an occupation that by his rude habiliments, long beard, and savage ap. of Largo Law. But nothing could compensate fo served in some measure to divert his thoughts. He pearance, as to be in much the same condition. But the meditative life which he had lost. A• .ength built himself two huts with the wood of the pimento in a little they were mutually able to make explana. having formed an attachment to a rustic inaiden, tree, thatching them with the long grass which grows tions, when it appeared that the two vessels, called named Sophia Bruce, whom he met in the glen just upon

the island. One was to serve him as a kitchen, the Duke and Duchess, formed a privateering expe. named, he suddenly disappeared with her, and never the other as a bedroom. But yet, every day for the dition similar to that of Dampier, but under the more was seen at Largo. He seems to have lived first eighteen months, he spent more or less time on command of Captain Woodes Rogers, the former with his mistress, without demanding the sanction of the beach, watching for the appearance of a sail upon commander being here employed only as a pilot. matrimony, till in 1717 he once more went to sea. the horizon. At the end of that time, partly through Dover, the second captain, and Fry, the lieutenant, Nothing else is known respecting him, except that babit, partly through the influence of religion, which of Rogers's own vessel, were of the boat party, and, he died in the situation of lieutenant on board the here awakened in full force upon his mind, he became after partaking of Selkirk's hospitality, invited him ship Weymouth, in the year 1723, leaving a widow reconciled to his situation. Every morning after on board. But so little eager was he to leave his soli. named Candis, who afterwards realised his patrimony rising, he read a portion of Scripture, sang a psalm, tude, that he was not prevailed upon to do so, till at Largo, consisting of one small house. and prayed, speaking aloud in order to preserve the assured that Dampier bad no situation of command The house in which he lived during his last resi. use of bis voice; he afterwards remarked, that, dur. in the expedition. He was then brought on board dence at Largo is still occupied by the descendants ing bis residence on the island, he was a better Chris. the Duke, along with his principal effects, and, by the of his brother, who preserve his chest and cup. His tian than he had ever been before, or would probably recommendation of Dampier, who said he had been Aip-can exists in the possession of another relation, ever be again. He at first lived much upon turtles, the best man in the Cinque Ports, was engaged as a who once did the present writer the favour of show. which abonnded upon the shores ; but afterwards mate. He now found that if he had remained on ing it to him ; and his gun has for some years been

found himself able to run down the wild goats, whose board the Cinque Ports, he must have experienced a the property of Major Lumsden of Lathallan, near que par flesh he either roasted or stewed, and of which he kept worse fate than his late solitude, for, soon after leave | Largo. It only remains to be mentioned, that a me.

a small stock tamed, around his dwelling, to be used ing Juan Fernandez, Stradling had been obliged to moir of Selkirk, treating his adventures more in dein the event of his being disabled by sickness. One surrender himself and his crew to the Spaniards, on tail, was published a few years ago by Mr John Howell, of the greatest inconveniences which afflicted him for account of the leaky state of the vessel, and had ever an ingenious townsman of our owni, who has distin. the first few months was the want of salt; but he since been in confinement.

guished himself by the composition of various other gradually became accustomed to this privation, and A few weeks after leaving the island, Selkirk was books commemorative of extraordinary adventures. at last found so much relish in unsalted food, that, appointed to the command of a prize which was fitted after being restored to society, it was with equal dif. out as a privateer, and in this situation he conducted ficulty that he reconciled himself to take it in any himself with a degree of vigour and prudence that

ENGLISH SONGS. 10.12 other condition. As a substitute for bread, he had reflects credit on his character. The business in which

turnips, parsnips, and the cabbage palm, all of excel. he was engaged was certainly one by no means calcu. Though England boasts no ancient inheritance of lent quality, and also radishes and water-cresses. lated to give play to the more amiable qualities of hu. When his clothes were worn out, he supplied their man nature; but even in the sacking of coast towns, popular vocal poetry, such as has so long cheered the place with goat-skins, which gave him an appearance and expeditions of plander into the interior, which Scottish peasant at his daily toils and by his winter firemuch more uncouth than any wild animal. He bad for months formed his chief employment, our hero side, her educated poets have produced many songs of a piece of linen, from which he made new shirts by seems to have mingled humanity in as high a propor: the highest excellence. By song, we may here mention, means of a nail and the thread of his stockings; and tion as possible with the execution of his duty. The he never wanted this comfortable piece of attire dur expedition of Rogers was as remarkable for steadiness,

we mean exclusively a piece of poetry adapted for mu ing the whole period of his residence on the island. resolution, and success, as that of Dampier had been sic, and embodying some sentiment or description Every physical want being thus gratified, and his for quarrelling and indecision, and it excites a curious above what is common, and which the heart is pati. mind soothed by devotional feeling, he at length be feeling of surprise when we learn that the church of rally disposed to utter in musical strains, merry or gan to positively enjoy his existence, often lying for England service was regularly read on the quarter, melancholy. It is needless, like Ritson, and other whole days in the delicious bowers which he had decks of these piratical vessels, and all hands piped editors of English songs, to trace such compositions formed for himself, abandoned to the most pleasant to prayers before every action. Selkirk proved him. sensations.

self, by his steadiness, decent manners, and religious from the early times of the minstrels. The reign of Among the quadruped inhabitants of the isle were turn of mind, a most appropriate member of the corps Queen Elizabeth is almost the earliest period produamultitudes of rats, which at the first annoyed him by commanded by Rogers, and was accordingly much tive of what are now considered as songs; and there gnawing his feet while asleep. Against this enemy valued by his superiors. At the beginning of the en. he found it necessary to enter into a treaty, offensive suing year, the vessels began their voyage across the accordingly we shall commence our little disquisition. and defensive, with the cats, which also abounded in Pacific, with the design of returning by the East

Rich in every department of imaginative literature, bis neighbourhood. Having caught and tamed some Indies, and in this part of the enterprise Selkirk and particularly in the drama, always so intimately of the latter animals, he was soon freed from the pre. acted as a sailing-master. They did not, however, connected with vocal poetry, the age of Elizabeth and sence of the rats, but not without some disagreeable reach England till October 1711, when Selkirk had her immediate successors abounds in fine songs. Bi. consequences, in the reflection, that, should he die in been absent from his country for eight years of the shop Still, who lived early in the reign of the maidea his but, his friendly, auxiliaries would probably be enormous sum of L.170,000 wbich Rogers bad reobliged, for their subsistence, to devour bis body. He alised by plundering the enemy, Selkirk seems to

queen, was the author of the admirable panegyric upoa was in the meantime able to turn them to some ac- have shared to the amount of about eight hundred ale, which Washington Irving has rendered familias count for his amusement, by teaching them to dance pounds.

to modern readers: and perform a number of antic seats, such as cats are His singular history was soon made known to the not in general supposed capable of learning, but which public, and, immediately after his arrival in London, they might probably acquire, if any individual in civi. he became an object of curiosity, not only to the people

I love no rost but a nut-browne toast, lised life were able to take the necessary pains. An. at large, but to those elevated by rank and learning.

And a crab laid in the fire ; other of his amusements was hunting on foot, in which Sir Richard Steele, some time after, devoted to him

A little bread shall do me stead, he at length, through healthy exercise and babit, be- an article in the paper entitled the Englishman, in

Much bread I not desire : came such a proficient, that he could run down the which he tells the reader, that, as Selkirk is a man

No frost, nor snow, nor winde, I trow, swiftest goat. Some of the young of these animals he of good sense, it is a matter of great curiosity to hear

Can hurt me if I wolde, taught to dance in company with his kittens; and he him give an account of the different revolutions of his I am so wrapt, and throwly lapt often afterwards declared, that he never danced with mind during the term of his solitude. “When I first

In jolly good ale and olde. a lighter heart or greater spirit than to the sound of saw him,” continues this writer, “I thought if I had | This charming old folly appeared first in Gammer his own voice in the midst of these dumb companions. not been let into his character and story, I could have Gurton's Needle, a very early specimen of comedy,

Selkirk was careful, during his stay on the island, discovered that he had been much separated from comto measure the lapse of time, and distinguish Sunday pany, from his aspect and gesture ; there was a strong

the humour of which turns upon the loss of a needle from the other days of the week. Anxious, in the but cheerful seriousness in his look, and a certain dis. by Gammer Gurton while mending a certain vest. midst of all his indifference to society, that, in the regard of the ordinary things about him, as if he had ment belonging to her husband, and which, after a event of his dying in solitude, his having lived there been sunk in thought. When the ship which brought whole neighbourhood has been thrown into consusion might not be unknown to his fellow.creatures, he him off the island came in, he received them with in search of it, discovers itself by pricking the flesh carved his name upon a number of trees, adding the the greatest indifference with relation to the prospect of honest Gurton, having been in reality lost in some date of bis being left, and the space of time which of going off with them, but with great satisfaction in had since elapsed. When bis knife was worn out, he an opportunity to refresh and help them. The man of the manifold sinuosities of the said garment. Chris. made new ones, and even a cleaver for his meat, out frequently bewailed his return to the world, which topher Marlow, the immediate predecessor of Shak. of some hoops which he found on the shore. He could not, he said, with all its enjoyments, restore speare, and the first writer of passionate tragedy in several times saw vessels passing the island, but only him to the tranquillity of his solitude. Though I had England, was the author of the beautiful pastoral the Spaniards, who would have consigned him to hope absence he met me in the street, and though he spoke quoted by Isaak WaltonJess captivity, he endeavoured to ascertain whether to me, I could not recollect that I had seen him : fa. Come live with me and be my love, these strangers were so or not, before making himself miliar converse in this lown had taken off the loneliness And we will all the pleasures prove, known. In both cases he found them enemies; and of his aspect, and quite altered the air of his face." That groves and vallies, bills and fields, on one of the occasions, having approached too near, What makes this latter circumstance the more re- And all the steepy mountain yields. he was observed and chased, and only escaped by markable, is the fact of nearly three years having And we will sit upon the rocks, taking refuge in a tree. At length, on the last day elapsed between his restoration to society and the time And see the shepherds feed their flocks, of January 1709, four years and four months from when Sir Richard Steele first saw him.

By shallow rivers, to whose falls the commencement of his solitary life, he had the un. In the spring of 1712, Selkirk returned on a Sun. Melodious birds sing madrigals—&c. speakable satisfaction of observing two British vessels day forenoon to bis native village, and finding that approach, evidently with the intention of touching at his friends were at church, went thither, and for the songs of Shakspeare, especially considered in con. the island. The night having fallen before they came some time sat eyeing them without being recognised, nection with the beautiful music to which they have near, he kindled a large fire on the beach, to inform a suit of elegant gold-laced clothes perhaps helping to been set, in most cases, by Bishop and others of the the strangers that a human being was there. During preserve his incognito. At length his mother, after best English composers, are a never failing treaba the night, hope baving banished all desire of sleep, he gazing on him for some time, uttered a cry of joy, and what could be more delightful than employed himself in killing goats, and preparing a flew to his arms. For some days he felt pleasure in feast of fresh meat for those whom he expected to be the society of his friends, but in time began to pine Hark, hark, the lark at heaven's gate sings, bis deliverers. In the morning he found that the for other scenes, his mind still reverting with regret

And Phoebus 'gins arise, vessels had removed to a greater distance, but, ere to his lost solitude. It would appear, indeed, that so

His steeds to water at those springs long, a boat left the side of one of them, and ap- long an absence from society had in some measure un.

On chaliced flowers that lies; proached the shore. Selkirk ran joyfully to meet his fitted him for it. He tried solitary fishing, built a And winking Mary-buds begin eountrymen, waving a linen rag to attract their at. bower like that of Juan Fernandez in the garden be. To ope their golden eyes, tention ; and having pointed out to them a proper hind his brother's house, and wandered for days in With every thing that pretty bin; landing-place, soon had the satisfaction of clasping

My lady sweet, arise ; them in his arms. Joy at first deprived him of that • This is somewhat inconsistent with other accounts, but pro.

Arise, arise, imperfect po wer of utterance which solitude had left | bably has some degree of truth in it.

« With every thing ihat pretty bin"-how delicious

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that word " bin!" But the pleasure inspired by such | days, all of whom sank in their bloom amidst the hardly know whether to give way to melancholy or to “ When icicles hang by the troubles of the civil war. Before the

mirth

of twentypoetry can only be felt.

age wall”-the most descriptive of songs. “When daisies eight, at which he died, he had distinguished him.

How stands the glass around ?

For shame! ye take no care, my boys; pied and violets blue, and lady.smocks all silver white” self as a soldier in the wars of Gustavus Adolphus,

How stands the glass around ? -pretty but naughty. But the most charming of all as a fine gentleman in the court of his sovereign, and

Let mirth and wine abound. is the carol in “ As you like it," so appropriate to that as a poet. His Ballad upon a Wedding contains some

The trumpets sound, sylvan playdescriptive passages of unapproached excellence

The colours flying are, my boys,

To fight, kill, or wound : Under the green-wood tree

Her feet beneath her petticoat

May we still be found Who loves to lie with me,

Like little mice stole in and out,

Content with our hard fare, my boys, And tune his merry throat

As if they feared the light;

On the cold ground. Unto the sweet bird's throat,

And oh, she dances such a way! Come hither, come hither, come hither ;

No sun upon an easter day

Why, soldiers, why, Here he shall see

Is half so fine a sight.

Should we be melancholy, boys ? No enemy,

Why, soldiers, why ?

Whose business 'cis to die?
But winter and rough weather.

Her lips were red, and one was thin,
Compared to that was next her chin,

What! sighing, fie !
Who doth ambition shun,

Some bee had stung it newly ;

Drink on, drown fear, be jolly, boys ! And loves to live i' the sun,

But, Dick, her eyes so guard her face,

'Tis he, you, or I. Seeking the food he eats,

I durst no more upon them gaze,

Cold, hot, wet, or dry, Content with what he gets,

Than on the sun in July.

We're always bound to follow, boys,
Come hither, come hither, come hither ;

And scorn to fly.
Here he shall see

Suckling raised a troop for the king's service, at an
No enemy,

expense to himself of twelve thousand pounds, and is 'Tis but in vain
But winter and rough weather.
said by one account to have died of grief for the mis.

(I mean not to upbraid you, boys),

Tis but in vain The songs in Macbeth are not perhaps worthy of fortunes of his sovereign, his friends, and himself.

For soldiers to complain : But another tradition represents his death as having being alluded to on their own account; but every one

Should next campaign been occasioned by a strange accident. In the course who is capable of deriving pleasure from music, must

Send us to him that made you, boys, of a mission from the king, bis servant deserted him

We're free from pain; delight in the airs to which they were set almost two at Calais, carrying off his portmanteau, in which were

But, should we remain, centuries ago by Matthew Lock. Those airs are

some valuable papers, besides money. Sir John no A bottle and kind landlady among our most precious treasures; and such also is sooner learned his loss, than he leaped on horseback,

Cures all again. the capital thing composed at a still earlier period by and pursued the faithless valet. In the act of pulling Thomas Morley, and still usually given as a finale to

on his boots for this purpose, he felt an unaccountable the opera of the Duenna, “Now 'tis the month of pain, but did not think of inquiring into the cause, till

; THE BARON D'Hausez, in his work entitled AMUSEMENTS AT MELTON

Great Maying.” To sit in this year one thousand eight after riding two or three posts, he overtook the ser.

Britain in 1833," gives the following account of some hundred and thirty-five, and feel the delightful im. vant, and recovered his property. He then fainted

of the amusements of the higher classes in England. pulses given to fancy and feeling by those old compo- away through excess of suffering, and the pain was

“ It is at Melton, in Leicestershire, a mountainous discovered to proceed from a wound in his foot, occasitions, which a few kind and brilliant natures effused sioned by the blade of a penknife, which the servant

and wooded country, intersected by valleys and deep in long past ages for the benefit of their race, and had stuck into the sole of his boot, in order to disable rivers, by brooks, and hedges defended by double which have been charming unnumbered hearts ever bim for pursuit. This wound became so much in ditches, that the best hunting in England is afforded.

The country is not remarkable either for the beauty since, is a fine contemplation. It carries man beyond famed as to excite fever, of which the unfortunate of its sites, or as presenting those enjoyments which the limit of his own little lifetime and his own nar.

poet died in a few days.
Waller, though he survived till a later age, belongs

a small and anciently built town, totally deprived of row place, and connects bim, by a kind of freemasonry, to this tribe of songsters. Shall mankind ever forget those comforts of which the English show themselves

80 jealous, is the least calculated to yield. The sports. with the dead, the living, and those who are yet to

Go, lovely rore !

man, however, accords the preference to Melton, be live. Dear old Morley—excellent Lock-glorious Tell her that wastes her time and me,

cause it unites, and comprises within itself, all that Purcell-what an enviable fate is yours ! thus to be That now she knows

variety of difficulties which a sportsman finds not only

When I resemble her to thee, everlasting sources of pleasure, and to be thanked and

a pleasure but a glory in surmounting. It may be also

How sweet and fair she seems to be. blessed by all the fine spirits of all time!

that English foxes_like the amateurs who hunt then Tell her that's young,

-appear to delight in dangers, and congregate in As we advance into the reign of Charles I., the ly.

And shuns to bave her graces spied,

preference round Melton. They are found in the rical spirit even improves. What could be better in

That, badst thou sprung

neighbourhood in sufficient quantity to furnish a suptheir way than the songs of Ben Jonson ?-all mar- In deserts, where no men abide,

ply for the considerable destruction which yearly takes

Thou must have uncommended died. ried, too, to the fairest of music

place. Small is the worth

There is not a hunt which may not afford food for Drink to me only with thine eyes,

Of beauty from the light retired :

a fortnight's conversation. The brooks and ditches And I will pledge with mine; Bid her come forth,

cleared, the rivers swam over, the broken limbs and Or leave a kiss within the cup,

Suffer herself to be desired,

ribs, the horses killed-such are the anecdotes which And I'll not look for wine

And not blush so to be admired.

form the inevitable episodes of these charming parties! what need of more ? Beaumont and Fletcher, toom

Then die! that she

Caricature, which seizes on every thing in England, The common fate of all things rare

has not neglected so rich a subject; it has contrived Lay a garland on my hearse, of the dismal yew; May read in thee,

to turn to humorous account the often tragical occur

rences furnished by such dangerous amusements. Maidens, willow branches bear

How small a part of time they share,
Say, I died true.
That are so wondrous sweet and fair.

The keeping up of what is called an establishment

at Melton entails a very considerable expense. This Now closes the period during which the English poets species of luxury is necessarily limited to a very My love was false but I was firm

wrote under the influence of sentiment; and accord small number of wealthy people. No Meltonian can From my hour of birth ; Upon my buried body lie

ingly, as vocal poetry depends chiefly on sentiment, Lightiy, gentle earth.

now closes the early golden age of English song. The dispense with a dozen horses, each of which costs, at school of Dryden and Pope, unrivalled in the poetry

the least, two or three hundred guineas. Some stables And Carew, the gallant and tender-a8 witness his

of reflection, produced hardly any thing worthy of the contain even thirty: The labour of a hunter is dat “ Primrose"

name of song; and for a century or more, the only prolonged beyond three or four seasons. From the such compositions which obtained any popularity tendance of one groom. This may convey some ides

care bestowed upon them, two horses require the atAsk me why I send you here This firstling of the infant year; were generally of a convivial or homely character, and

of the enormous expense incidental to this kind of enAsk me why I send to you

the productions
of a humble and obscure class of ver.

joyment.
sifiers, such as Tom D'Urfey, Harry Carey, and many filled up by brilliant

assemblages at the country man.

The intervals between hunting days are
This primrose all bepearled with dew;
I straight will whisper in your ears,

who are nameless. To D'Urfey we rather believe be- sions, by play, and by cock-fighting, which serve as The sweets of love are washed in tears : longs the whimsical philosophico-bacchanalian rant,

pretexts to bets often amounting to a very considerable Ask me why this flower doth show apparently written at the beginning of the last cen.

Melton is one of the places in the world wbere So yellow, green, and sickly too; tury:

one is most careless of one's purse and person, and Ask me why this stalk is weak Let us drink and he merry, dance, joke, and rejoice,

where the one and the other are sacrificed with the And bending yet it doth not break; With claret and sherry, theorbo and voice :

greatest zest.

If the character of nations were to
The changeable world to our joy is unjust,
I must tell you these discover

be studied in their popular games, special attention
All treasure's uncertain, then down with your dust.
What doubts and fears are in a lover.
In frolics dispose your pounds, shillings, and pence;

should be bestowed on cock-fighting, which holds The poetical people of those days were conceited— For we shall be nothing a hundred years hence.

a high rank among the amusements to which the but such conceits ! I wish we had a few of them to

people of England are most fondly attached. In the give flesh and blood to our modern verse. Another To a somewhat later period must be assigned the fine attention which is paid to the preservation of the race domestic song of “Winifreda"

of these birds, a spirit of order and perseverance is specimen, and let it be from Lovelace-like Carew, a

manifested. In the enormous bets to which cock. courtier and cavalier

How should I love the pretty creatures,

fighting serves as a pretext, is disclosed the taste for Tell me pot, sweet, I am unkind,

While round my knees they fondly chung ;

a species of chance, the caprices of which, nevertheless, That, from the nunnery

offer the basis of a sort of calculation. In the courage

To see them look their mother's features,
Of thy chaste breast and quiet mind,

To hear them lisp their mother's tongue.

of the bird, the idea of a resemblance with that of To war and arms I fly.

man presents itself; and in the tragical conclusion of And when with envy time transported

the struggle, the need of an impression lively enough True, a new mistress now I chase,

Shall think to rob us of our joys,

to excite imaginations which a slight movement or The first or in the field ; You'll in your girls again be courted,

curiosity could not agitate. In the enthusiasm of the And with a stronger faish embrace

And I'll go wooing in my boys.

spectators of all classes to take part for such or such A sword, a horse, a shield.

And here also comes in “ the Military Toper," as it combatant, without any other motive than the idea of Yet this inconstancy is such

is senselessly called, to which Handel gave music, and the moment and the inspiration of play, a similitude As you tou shall adore;

which Wolte sung the night before the fatal day of is afforded to that ardour which induces the English I could not love thee, dear, so much,

Quebec-a lyric which appears at first sight a piece to engage themselves, fortune as well as person, in Loved I not honour more.

of coarse drunken folly, but at bottom contains the political quarrels with which they have no concern. Conceits like these live for centuries. Sir John Suck dier-all its perils and its glories, all its hardships and whole romance and pathos of the condition of sol. In a word, in all the details of a frivolous amusement,

a sort of summary of their conduct throughout life is hing was another of the gay poetical courtiers of those I consolations, and all so exquisitely balanced that we manifested.

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Celebrated by its fox-hunts, Melton is not less re- The aspect of a cockpit differs from all assemblages same character to the operations directed against them, nowned by its cock-8ghts. In the environs of this that have pleasure for their object. He who has not so, in those days, every thing was effected by daring town the most celebrated race of birds is bred ; and been present at the sittings of a certain assembly, courage, without the aid of science; and gallantly here it is that all schemes are followed which are likely where graver interests are discussed, world find it contending in individual combat, or fearlessly conto add to the purity of breed, and to increase, by cross. impossible to form an idea of the cries, the gestures, fronting danger, were considered as the highest quali., ing, the perfection of the cock. It is in the environs the applause, the blows, the stamping and clattering ties of a besieger. Thus the contest dragged on for of Melton that, from the peer of the three kingdoms which the spectators resort to by way of expressing montlıs, in petty but sanguinary affairs; and the most to the farmer, nay even to the groom, the passion of their impatience. There are only wanting, to com- persevering or the most hardy troops, however ill or. play confounds all ranke. Bets are here offered and plete the resemblance between a cockpit and the ganised or supplied, were the most dreaded, and not accepted without examining from whence they come, nameless chamber, those gross insults and menaces unfrequently the most successful. But when artillery or into what hands they fall.

which are not allowed in the English assembly. In became more moveable, and large quantities began to People interest themselves no less about the genea- order to check the excess of turbulence, there is sus- be employed in sieges, lofty and exposed walls no logy of a cock than about that of a race-horse. In pended from the ceiling, by means of a cord passed longer opposed any adequate barrier ; large breaches this classic land of social distinctions, aristocracy, throngh a pully, a large basket intended for the re- were speedily effected; places which had formerly rewith all its pretensions and the rigour of its despo- ception of disturbers who transgress the limits—for sisted for months were carried in a few days; and tism, condescends to interfere in the manner of breed the rest extensive enough_assigned to ill-breeding. bence, in order to restore an equality of defence, it

France, which is so eager to model her institutions on became necessary to screen the ramparts from distant Thanks to the care taken of the ancestry of the those of Great Britain, should resort to this means, fire... The attempt to gain security by concealment cock-which is traced back through several genera. which perhaps would have more efficacy than a presi. rapidly advanced towards perfection, whilst the means tions-you are sure that the birds destined to fight ident's bell."

of the besiegers remained the same; and between the have what is called blood, that is to say, they de.

middle of the sixteenth and commencement of the scend, by an uninterrupted succession of grandsires

seventeenth century, works were so skilfully disposed of noble origin, from a stock capable of furnishing.

SIEGES.

and so well covered, that the defence of towns obtained combatants well suited by their courage for the arena

[It has always appeared to us that the most effectual means of a temporary superiority over the attack, as the latter in which they exhibit their valour. Cock-fighting has putting an end to war with all its horrors, would be the introduc- was then practised. Of this the obstinate and success. its laws, as rigorously observed as those which regu. tion into use of some species of enginery which would possess the ful defences made by the Dutch against the Spaniards lated the passes of a tournament, or as the brutal the field, thus rendering death so much a matter of certainty that during the reigns of Philip II. and Philip III. may rules observed in the boxing-matches of London. no one in his senses would thenceforward act in the capacity of a be cited as remarkable examples. The great bets are made on the success of a series soldier. Until this end can be gained, it is of consequence to take

But unhappily for this pre-eminence, Vauban apof fights between a certain number of cocks. Thus, render victory as certain and bloodless as possible. In no depart- peared on the scene, and, supported by Louis XIV., each better fetches about thirty of these birds, and ment of the military profession is the value of scientific know who brought to the attack of fortresses & vast and divides them into three parties. He opposes one of ledeniten Welt demhistiated as io per atrofi tisadictaede corde defendehicostly preparation in ordnauce, ammunition, and ma. them to the bird presented by his adversary, and the against them, are certain to be subdued, whatever be their strength. terials, perfected in the early offensive campaigus of bet is adjudged to the better whose champions liave an excellent account of the mode now pursued in condueting sieges, that monarch a covered mode of attack, which, by a been most frequently conquerors, first in each party, that very valuable work the Encyclopædia Britannica, from which singular combination of science and labour, and by and afterwards in two of the three parties. we extract the following interesting details. ]

the steady advances of a few brave men well trained Other bets are offered, even during the battle, on the chances which it presents : and it is thus that the ings in which an army or corps d'armée can be em

A siege being one of the most arduous undertak. to such work, rendered comparatively easy the reduc

tion of places capable of for ever defying the rude tact and rapidity of judgment of the betters are called ployed; one in which the greatest fatigue, hardships, violence of multitudes

. These increased meang of into exercise. A knowing eye conjectures, from the and personal risk are encountered, and in which the attack, to which it was found impossible to oppose a manner in which a cock enters upon and maintains prize can only be won by complete victory, it is ob- successful resistance, caused the art of concealment or a struggle;

from the blows he gives and receives ; vious that, upon the success or failure of such an en- covering to be further studied, till at length, in well. from the effect produced on his countenance by a terprise may depend the fate of a campaign, sometimes constructed fortresses, not a single wall remained ex. wound inflicted on such or such a part of the body, that of an army, and perhaps even the existence of a posed to view, and the sap and the mine became as the probable issue of the contest; and from one end

of this the failures before Pavia in 1525, be necessary as the gun and the mortar to the success of to the other of the cockpit, the spectators propose, or, fore Metz in 1552, before Prague in 1537, before St a besieger. To render this intelligible to the general to speak more properly, cry out bets, which are accepted with the same readiness, the proportions vary.

Jean d'Acre in 1799, and before Burgos in 1812, pre-reader, it may be proper to introduce here a descriptive

sent instructive examples. By the first, France lost sketch of the progress of a modern attack, from the ing according to the opinion which the better enter- her monarch, the flower of her nobility, and all her excellent work of Sir John Jones. tains of the result. Italian conquests; by the second, she was saved from

The first operation of a besieger,' says that able A circular hall

, furnished with steps which enable destruction, whilst thirty thousand of her enemies and experienced engineer, 'is to establish a force you to descend into the pit, is filled with spectators. perished; by the third, the greatest warrior of his able to cope with the garrison of the town to be atcutcheons of their masters are richly embroidered age, Frederick the Great, was brought to the very tacked, at the distance of six or seven hundred yards

from its ramparts. This is effected by approaching brink of destruction ; by the fourth, the most successThey draw forth the cocks which are to fight, and ful general of France, and perhaps the greatest com.

the place secretly in the night with a body of men, = place them before a judge, who examines them, and mander that any age or country has produced, was part carrying entrenching tools, and the remainder

who assures himself, by an inspection of their weight stopped short in his career of victory; and by the last, armed. The former dig a trench in the ground pa. = and conformatian, whether they are of equal strength. This formality fulfilled, the cocks are returned to the centrate his scattered corps, and regain that ascen. a beaten enemy gained time to recruit his forces, con rallel to the fortifications to be attacked, and with the

earth that comes out of the trench raise a bank on men who have brought them to the pit, and are placed dancy of which the victory at Salamanca had for a

the side next to the enemy, whilst those with arms upon the turf which serves as the theatre for the com cime deprived him. Innumerable other instances of remain formed in a recumbene posture, in readiness bat. The birds are prepared for the combat in a manner suited to the occasion. The comb and such feathers failure of sieges might easily be produced ; but those out. During the night this trench and bank are made

the disastrous consequences usually attendant on the to protect those at work, should the garrison sally are removed. Their heads are therefore stripped of which have just been referred to are sufficient to esta. of sufficient depth and extent to cover from the misthese, and their wings rednced to an extent which blish the importance of the undertaking, and to show siles of the place the number of men requisite to cope only allows them to raise themselves to a small height that the dearest interests of a country may frequently with the garrison, and the besiegers remain in the Bheir tail, which is cut square, gives them a marcial be staked on the sure and speedy reduction of a for- trench during the following day, in despite of the fire

or sorties of the besieged. This trench is afterwards turn, and imparts to their gait a spruce and easy appearance. Their spurs are armed with steel

, very that the sieges undertaken by its armies should be of earth raised till it forms a covered road, called a

It is therefore of the greatest importance to a state progressively widened and deepened, and the bank sharp and cutting, and of the form of a poniard. Like horses prepared for the race-course, cocks are

carried on in the best and most efficient manner parallel, embracing all the fortifications to be attacked; subjected to a regimen, to which is to be attributed, possible, or, in other words, that, by a due combi. and along this road, guns, waggons, and men securely in a great measure, the strength they put forth. The nation of science, labour, and force, these operations and conveniently move, 'equally sheltered from the food they receive tends to prevent fat, and adds to the should be rendered not only short, but certain, and view and the missiles of the

garrison. Batteries of energy and play of their muscles. They are purged, unproductive of any great expenditure of life. But guns and mortars are then constructed on the side of are made to swallow stimulants, and kept in continual the sieges undertaken by the British have almost the road next the garrison, to oppose the guns of the irritation, as well as in a forced exercise. The effect of never united these three indispensable conditions ; town, and in a short time, by superiority of fire, these minute observances discloses itself by a rapidity and with regard to those which took place during principally arising from situation, silence all those and violence of movement, which gives to the birds the contest in the Peninsula,

it is well known that which bear on the works of the attack. After this thus treated an incontestible superiority over their various defects of organisation, and particularly the ascendancy is attained, the same species of covered fellows eubjected to an ordinary regimen.

want of a body of men, such as sappers and miners,

road is, by certain rules of art, carried forward, till As soon as the combatants are in presence, they look tion the inexperience of the engineers, and an ade of the place, and touches the main rampart

wall at a to .

it circumvents or passes over all the exterior defences measures and judges his opponent. Immediately after- quate supply of matériel, necessitated a departure spot where it has been previously beaten down by the wards, they give tokens of a fury, the gradations

of from all established principles and rules of

attack, and fire of the batteries erected expressly for the purpose which can be easily observed ; incline their necks to consequently led to a waste of life wholly unprece in the more advanced parts of the road. wards the ground, and, after having preserved

this atti dented in modern sieges. Till late in 1813, the army • The besieger's troops being thus enabled to march

was unattended by a single sapper or miner : regular in perfect security to the opening or breach in the rage and their strength, rush towards each other. The approaches were therefore impracticable: it was ne. walls of a town, assault it in strong columns; and bill is the first weapon of which they avail themselves, cessary, in almost every case, to take the bull

, as the being much more numerous than the garrison defenda but the

most formidable is the spur. They seek to saying is, by the horns; the last operation of a siege ing the breach, soon overcome them, and the more strike each other with it in the head, upon the back, scientifically conducted, namely, battering in breach, easily as they are assisted by a fire of artillery and and in the sider. The blood runs from their deep and was the first, or almost the first, undertaken ; and the musketry directed on the garrison from portions of numerous wounds, from the bill, even from the eyes, remained nearly entire, and exposed to every species fire can, at that distance, be maintained on the de,

troops were marched to the assault whilst the defences the road on!y a few yards from the breach ; and which other's motions, and deal out fresh blows till one of of destruction which the unreduced means of the be- fenders of the breach until the very instant of personal the combatants drops. It often happens that while sieged could bring to bear against them.

contention, without injury to the assailants. The boshlie dying in the arena, they summon up, as though

Prior to the sixteenth century, the art of disposing first breach being carried, should the garrison have by concert, a remnant of life, rush against each other, the several works of a fortress so as to cover each other, any inner works, the covered road is by similar rules add to their

wounds, and fall down again. But their and to be covered by their glacis ( sloping bank in of art pushed forward through the opening, and adfury has not forsaken them, and the gambols of their front] from the view

of an enemy, was either unknown vanced batteries are erected in it to overpower the re. agony still wear the character of valour,

and afford to or disregarded;

whilst the small quantity of artillery in maining guns of the place ; which effected, the road is the umpire the means of deciding with whom the vic-use, its unwieldiness, and

the great expense and diffi- again pushed forward, and the troops march in secu. tory rests.

culty of bringing it up, occasioned so little to be used in rity to the assault of breaches made in a similar man. When the fight is only disastrous to one of the sieges, that the chief object in fortifying towns was to ner in those interior works, and invariably carry combatants, the conqueror walks proudly round his render them secure against escalade and surprise, by them with little loss. But as it is always an object to fallen enemy, and attempts, with an exhausted voice,

means of lofty walls or altitude of situation. All preserve the life of even a single soldier, so, when z grow of triumph, to which the acclamations of the places fortified prior to the sixteenth century are in time is abundant, the loss of men attendant 'on the enthusiastic spectators respond.

variably of this construction. And as the simplicity assault of breaches under these favourable circum. of the fortresses to be attacked necessarily gave the stances may be avoided, by pushing up the covered

tress.

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