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«William, you must know I am pre-engaged. I never Bruce, under Veneration, said, he doubted he had munication, were it permitted us to compare the actual yet could like a burnt cuttie [a burnt-out tobacco pipe). killed—“You doubt! I'll make siccar." Acquisitive. history of distinguished families with their armorial I have now by the hand my sonsy menseful strapper, ness, Secretiveness, and Caution, suggested the gro. legends. But althongh public history is public pro. with whom I intend to pass my days. You know old velling family motto of Lock siccar; while Thou shall perty, family history is not, and we are therefore age and youth cannot agree together. I must then be want ere I want, aspires no higher than the ambition denied that advantage, and must be content with reexcused, if I tell you I am not your humble servant.'

of the strongest hog in a swine-stye. However this commending to the reader to apply the knowledge of The honest man, 'not taking it much to heart, only unseemly motto may, as it must, have described the such private families as he possesses to the very harm. said, “Come, let us at least keep the feast on the feast founder of the noble family to which it belongs, we Jess end of making the comparison between it and the day ; dinner will be ready, let us go drink and drive

can answer for its contrast to the sentiments of the family arms, for himself. We do not entertain a doubt away care : may never a greater misfortune attend present representative. He has an easy course before that in every instance they will be found strikingly an honest man. Back to dinner they went, and from him : let him reverse it, and mark the time as a truly coincident.Phrenological Journal. the company convened, the bridegroom got one hundred proud epoch in his family history. Forth Fortune merks, and all charges defrayed ; with which he was and fill the fetters, would also be improved by a change

ODE TO ENTERPRISE. as well satisfied as he who got Madam.”

to Forth Fortune and break the felters. Rising in the An edict was this year published at Hanover, pro- scale, but still in the regions of selfishness, are most

(We find this scarce ode in a very tasteful collection entitled The

Beauties of Modern British Poetry, by David Grant, Aberdeen, hibiting “all pages, footmen, and other persons in of the boastful mottos of the warrior. Of course

1831, the peculiar feature of which is the arrangement of the pieces livery, buntsmen, cooks, scholars, journeymen of per- these manifest Combativeness always in alliance with under subjects, by which means it is possible to find the best sons in trade, and other such-like persons, to wear Self-Esteem, variously modified by Firmness, Love of thoughts of various poets respecting all the principal themes of any sword, sabre, cutlas, or other arms, in that town Approbation, Caution, and Hope. I have decreed, is verse.] and suburbs, on penalty of a fine of three crowns for Self-Esteem and Firmness. I saw, I conquered, is

On lofty mountains roaming, every offence. It is to be wished, says the Grub Street Combativeness and Self-Esteem, as are, I advance —I

O'er bleak perennial snow, Journal, that his Majesty would in like manner dis. am ready-Foremost if I can-Stronger than enemies,

Where cataracts are foaming, arm the numerous coxcombs in this town and suburbs." | equal to friends-Quo non ascendam-Sland fast-In

And raging north-winds blow : From Ireland they write “of one Mr Bacon of Ferns, defenceSteady-arose from Combativeness and Firm.

Where hungry wolves are prowling,

And famished eagles cry; who, being an one-and-twentieth son, born in wedlock ness. Glory victory's reward-Never LehindDeath

Where tempests loud are howling, without a daughter intervening, had performed pro- rather than disgrace--Fear shame—have reference to

And lowering vapours fly: digious cures in the king's evil and scrofulous cases, the world's opinion, and therefore spring from Love by stroking the part with his hand.” of Approbation, in combination with Self-Esteem.

There, at the peep of morning,

Bedecked with dewy tears,
Upon a general survey of the contents of this volume,
Cautiousness, when powerful, would not be con-

Wild weeds her brows adorning, one is impressed forcibly with a notion of the great cealed even in a warrior's motto, as in On-slow-Be

Lo! Enterprise appears : improvement which has been effected in almost every ware the bear-Bravely but cautiously.

While keen-eyed Expectation department of the social system since 1731. The di. Hope may well be expected to predominate in minds

Still points to objects new, minished mortality has already been alluded to. The

See panting Emulation, extinction of lotteries is another point on which the subjected to all the chances of war and consequent vi. cissitudes of fortune; accordingly we have, I hope

Her fleeting steps pursue ! present age has to congratulate itself. Crimes may While I breathe I hope I live in hope-Hope nour.

List, list, Celestiai Virgin ! now be more numerous than they were formerly, but

And oh the vow record ! they are certainly in general of a less atrocious and ishesBy hope and labour-They go high who a!tempi

From grovelling cares emerging, revolting character. Nurders, robbery, and other of the summit. Self-Esteem mingles largely in this last.

I pledge this solemn word :the more violent classes of offences, appear to have We lately met with a singular example of this motto

By deserts, fields, or fountains, then been much more frequent than they now are. expressing the ruling feeling. A man rather below

While health, while life remains, The mails are frequently robbed, and great numbers middle rank happened to come to us often for profes

O'er Lapland's icy mountains, of highwaymen are executed. There are also many unreasonable sanguineness and great love of show. sional advice. We observed in him the qualities of

O'er Afric's burning plains ; exposures of perjurers and other offenders on the pil. He died, and left a widow and children nearly desti

Or, 'midst the darksome wonders lory, where the crowd expresses a sense of their guilt tute. Among his effects there was a costly watch,

Which Earth's vast caves eonceal,

Where subterraneous thunders in such a violent manner, that the blood of the crimi.

The miner's path reveal ; nal flows on the scaffold, and in one case life is de- chain, and seals, almost new, worth not less than

Where, bright in matchless lustre, stroyed. Nothing, however, is more striking than sixty guineas, which it was perfect insanity for a per. son in his circumstances to have purchased. Of course

The lithal flowers unfold, the great increase which has taken place, at once in

And 'midst the beauteous cluster, the freedom of the press and its decorum,'since 1731. there was a crest on one of the seals, and we were

Beams efflorescent gold;
The articles condensed by Dr Urban are generally curious to observe the motto. It turned out to be
Spero meliora-I hope better things." Still with

In every varied station, very wretched in point of talent, and many instances

Whate'er my fate may be, of the worst kind of licentiousness occur; indeed, there Self-Esteem for a basis, Secretiveness lends its aid in some minds to constitute the favourite sentiment.

My hope, my exultation is hardly now any class of publications that could be

Is still to follow thee. put on a level with these. At the same time, public For example, Never show your rageI bide my time. This declaration of cherished revenge is a singular

When age with sickness blended, affairs are only alluded to in obscure terms, in order

Shall check the gay career, to avoid prosecution ; and when Mr Urban begins in melange of Self-Esteem, Destructiveness, Secretive.

Aad death, though long suspended,' 1732 to give a few of the more important debates in ness, and Cautiousness.

Begins to hover near; Parliament, it is with the initials of the speakers only. Veneration, as Veneration, if unmixed with the

Then oft in visions fleeting, baser feelings, which lead to bigotry and persecution,

May thy fair form be nigh,
has nothing selfish in it, and when expressed on the

And still thy votary greeting,
warrior's shield, has higher claims to our respect.

Receive his parting sigh ;
HAPPENING lately to notice the motto of a coat of Its manifestation in rude times was, it is true, for the

And tell a joyful story, arms on a carriage in the street, which spoke plainly most part superstitious, and for that reason it is not

Of some new world to come, a particular sentiment, it chanced to occur to us, that, entitled to be classed with Conscientiousness and Be.

Where kindred souls in glory, as it is likely that the chooser of a family motto nevolence, unless it is found in company with them

May call the wanderer home! speaks out the prevailing feeling of his mind, the fa. -Salvation from the cross--Glory to God-While I mily character, at least its founder's, in other words, breathe I will trust in the cross-From God, not from the original predominating family organisation, might forlune-Worship God, serve the KingAymer loyalty nature and properties of stones, as those of vegetables are inade

• Crystals, the blossoms of the mineral world; disclosing the be in ferred from the armorial motto, and the accom. - With good will to serve my King-One God - One known by their flowers. panying crest, which is generally a hieroglyphic or King-One heart. These and many others were proemblematical design, expressing the same sentiment bably mere effusions of Veneration, and have nothing with the motto itself. We thought it probable that in them to show that they were more. But we might


A striking instance of the elevation of a person the books of heraldry would show a great prepon. conclude true religious feelings to belong in addition

from humble to exalted circumstances, is found in the derance of selfish over social feeling. in the earlier to the mind, where Conscientiousness prevailed so mottos. The founders of families, in rude times, decidedly as to appear upon the shield. For example; father was nothing more than a valet de place, that

life of Tortonia, a celebrated banker at Rome, whose would of course be proud of the qualities by which - To the lovers of justice, piety, and faith-Boldly and is, one who showed about strangers for hire. Tor. they rose ; and althongh these were seldom just and sincerelyBe just and fear not-Candidly and steadily tonia, who was an active intelligent young man, at merciful, the motto and crest would lold out the la. -By courage, not by craft--Every one his own-Do conic boast to the world. We expected that next to right and trust_Fideliter.-Judge nough!--Keep tryst In course of time he became a sort of banker; and

first entered into business in a small way as a jeweller. the boasters would come the worshippers, the preux (contract)--Probity the true honour-Virtue the sole chevaliers of chivalry, who bent the knee alike to nobilily-- To be rather than to seem- -High and good with Cardinal Chiaramonti. On the death of Pope

an unexpected circumstance brought him in contact their king, their mistress, and their God; and that of Sound conscience a strong towerThe palm to virtue. sentiments not selfish, Veneration would figure in he Last of all comes Benevolence, and it is like a gleam Pius VI. a conclave was to be held at Venice for the raldic blazonry; and Hope, that never-failing impulse of sunshine in the midst of a storm, to see its mild and election of a new Pope. Chiaramonti had expecta. of the ambitious. We did not expect more than a beautiful countenance in the ages of pride, cunning, and

tions of being elected to the vacant office, but he was sprinkling of justice, and little, if any, mercy at all. ferocity; but it is but thinly sown. "Be brave, not fierce unable to attend the conclave for want of money. In heraldic works, both English and Scottish, and observe That I may do good to others-Do all good. And last; Venice, where, in the church of St George, he was With these anticipations, it was interesting to open – Clemency adorns the braveThat I may do good this emergency he was supplied with a few hundred

crowns by Tortonia. The cardinal now repaired to how far we were correct.

We were nearly so, and though not least, as a sentiment on the blazon of the elected' Pope, under the title of Pius VII.° In gratiprecisely in the above order. With the exception of warrior who fights for peace, a direct condemnation tude for this act of service, the sovereign pontiff

, on Firmness, which forms an element in many mottos, and of war, in the motto, Bellu horrida bella" (wars, hor. his return to Rome, appointed Tortonia banker to which may mingle in a combination of faculties for ill rid wars).

the court. as well as for good-the great majority ascend no In the continued struggle against power which the

He was created a marquis, and afterwards

a duke, and is now perhaps one of the richest ca. higher in the scale of dignity than the twelve lowest history of both ends of our island records, it would be

pitalists in Europe. faculties, embracing the animal propensities and lower strange if on armorial bearings there were no expressentiments. A considerable number ascend to Vene- sions of the love of liberty—that fruit of a fine com. ration—not just so many to Hope-more than we ex. bination of Self-Esteem, Conscientiousness, Benevo

A German nobleman was one day congratulating pected to Conscientiousness--and a very few to pure lence, and Firmness. We have, accordingly, such this monarch on his being sovereign of this kingdom Benevolence.

mottos as, Libertas-Liberty entire--Country dear, and of Hanover. “ Rather," said he, "congratulate Beginning with the lowest class of feelings, we find Liberty dearer-I have lived free and will die free. me on having such a subject in one, as Newton; and these in some mottos in their unmingled degradation. The mottos which indicate the reflecting powers,

such a subject in the other, as Leibnitz.” For example, mere Destructiveness comes forth in as maxims of wisdom, were rare in rude times, unless such legends as these-Strike-Strike hard_Spare we take those for such as express the higher senti

Loydon: Published, with Permission of the Proprietors, by ORR noughtGripe fast.

& Smith. Paternoster Row; G. BERGER, Holywell Street, Destructiveness with Comba- ments, as, Virtue the sole nobility, &c.

We have,

Strand; BANCKS & Co., Manchester: WRIGHTSON & WEBB, tiveness dictated, ThroughI dareFortiler. An ar- however, lighted upon one which is purely intellec- Birmingham; WILLMER & Smith, Liverpool; W. E. SOMER

SCALE, Leeds; C. N. WRIGHT, Nottinghai: WESTLEY & Co. row for crest, with, It lacks not a bowI make siccar, tual, and we quote it, because it happens to be emi.

Bristol; S. SIMMS, Bath ; J. JOHNSON, Cambridge; W. GAIN, with a hand and dagger for crest, adds Caution to nently phrenological. Nihil invita Minerva_ It is

Exeter: J. PURDON, Hull; G. Ridge, Sheffield; H. BELLKRBY, Destructiveness, and was the murderous boast of vain to expect excellence without the genius from

J. TAYLOR, Brighton; and sold by all Booksellers,

Newsmen, &c. in town and country. Sirkpatrick, who re-entered the church of the Domi- which it springs.

Stereotyped by A. Kirkwood, Edinburgh. nicans at Dumfries to finish the Cummin, whom It would greatly increase the interest of this com. Printed by Bradbury and Evans (late T. Davison), Whitefriars.






No. 158.




customers continued, nevertheless, to leave them, and, Æneid, relieved by trifling stories of Eudoxis and An old tailor, who had almost gone out of fashion in even while laughing at the last joke of the old tailors, Flavilla, or allegories respecting the vanity of human his native village, and who pieced out a scanty sub. crossed the street to give their first commission to the wishes ; when mankind are craving either strong hu. sistence by serving as church-officer, was one day new. The ancient style of attire was soon only to be morous stimulants as a recreation for their over-laasked by the equally aged and obsolete clergyman found exemplified on the persons of the neighbouring boured minds, or uncompromising inquiries into the how it happened that the congregation was now get- rustics, and of the poorer class of people in the burgh, means of improving their social condition, and all this ting so thin. “Are not you aware," said the man of who could not afford to have a taste ; or at the utmost in such a form and at such a price as to overpower all shapes, " that half the parish go over the hill to hear it clung to the persons of a few superior people, scruples of the pocket. The old gentlemen would young Ferly o' Ginglekirk ?” Oh, yes, I have who had a way of disliking whatever was much run spend days in polishing their sentences, and puiting heard something of that,” replied the minister ; "but after by the bulk of their fellow.creatures. But this every thing into the fine cool haze, which in the last I cannot understand what they see in that young man only served to make the case the worse. Supported century was called taste ; when men have agreed to more than ordinary—more than in myself, for in- by this minority, miserable as it was, the ancient pay for sense alone, and to like it all the better the stance, with all humility be it spoken.” “Neither inembers of the craft were encouraged to hold out more clear it is of every thing else. Were a doctor of can I, sir," quoth John ; " and I would say the same against modern fashions, till they could not have the old school to revive, he would be no less at a loss. thing of that young chield that bas ta'en my trade over changed without such an injury to their pride as no. His wig might be right to a hair, his cane unimpeachmy head. But it's just the new cut, sir ; it's just the thing could reconcile them to. Long, long did they able, and his system graced with all the authority that new cut.

console themselves with the reflection of Foote in re. famous nanies could give it; but it is probable that The new cut alluded to by honest John was a ference to the crowds which deserted his strut and de. some slapdash fellow in a black stock and blue sur. smarter fashion of attire which a youthful rival had clamation for the nature of Garrick-" They'll all tout, who had a way of performing cures in spite of of late years introduced into the town. In John's come back to church again." Much did they plume system, might be accepted instead. He would be young days, when tailors worked in the houses of themselves when, at Martinmas, a ploughman would asked right down how many patients he saved per their customers for a groat a-day, the prime consider- have his blue duffle shaped out by them, or a gentle. cent., and not being accustomed to do business in this ation was good and sufficient sewing. So that their man commission them for a pair of overalls, or some aritbmetical way, exit cane and bag wig discomfited. thread was properly waxed and brought well home, other easy article. Reckoning up the two or three Old schoolmasters would find themselves in a still worse little regard was paid to niceties of shape. The chil. old customers who adhered to them, however par- dilemma. They would truly be scholars where they dren were supplied with doublets calculated to serve tially, they would still contrive to make themselves came to teach. “Do you: fully understand the Ma. two years without becoming too little ; and if the good believe that they retained all the more respectable part dras system ?” we can conceive such an individual to man was not positively pinched in any part of his phy- of the public, while only the light-headed, and those who be asked. “No; I don't know what it is.” “Are sical

system, it did not matter though his coat hung did not mean to pay, went over to the enemy. But in you qualified to superintend the infant part of the esupon him much after the fashion of a sheet over a fire spite of every self-deluding notion and prognostication, tablishment ?” “Infant ! I never heard of infants screen. The artist would thumb the garment a little the new cut went on with increased vigour and for at school in my life.” “In teaching Latin, whether perhaps in trying it on, give a pinch here and a pull escence, while they declined in exact proportion ; and do you prefer the system of Hamilton or the system there, here a twitch and there a tug, one button out in the long-run, the veterans were one by one starved of Black ?” “I am totally at a loss to know what and another button in—for he allowed, theoretically as off, and sent to their graves, each bearing, we believe, you mean.” “ Could you, at extra hours, give lectures it were, that every thing lay in giving clothes a good set ; the figure of a broad-skirted Queen Anne coat en upon natural philosophy, exercises in calisthenics, and but he always finished by declaring that the article fitted graven on his heart, like a crest patched upon a ham. a few lessons occasionally in political economy?" The to a very hair; and though the good wife might occa- mercloth.

only answer is a stare, and the candidate is dismissed, sionally be somewhat critical about the lie of the lapels It is hardly necessary to point out that there are to make room for a young man, formerly an assistant and the position of the pockets, it was seldom that the few departments of professional exertion in which the in Mr Wood's Sessional School. The juveniles of the first felicitous sketch required to be retouched. Those introduction of a new cut has not wrought similar re- present day have in fact made such an advance upon were the golden days of tailoring ; but in time a sults, partly through the absolute difficulty which an the old, that the latter, but for the accumulated gains change came over the art. It in fact became an art. old dog experiences in learning new tricks, and partly of former and easier times, and similar accumulations A young man of an ambitious and active turn of mind, through the obstinate disinclination which the most of reputation, could never stand for a moment against who had practised his craft for a twelvemonth in the of us, after being accustomed to any opinion or mode them. The one accomplishes the better part of his capital, all at once introduced the new cut into the lit. of procedure, feel to changing it. In the la:v, for in. work, while the other had not yet finished his pretle burgh. He began to make real coats-coats that stance, there have of late been so many alterations in liminary pinch of snuff. the Duke of Leinster might not have been ashamed the forms of process and of papers-all in the way of So far as these disadvantages of the old arise from to describe as such, in the presence of Beau Brum. simplification, too-that an old Scotch writer has be- pure inability to keep pace with the young, they are mell. He had studied the figures of his customers, come a kind of stranger on the very ground he bas entitled to commiseration ; but surely we are not and discovered the great secret in tailoring, known paced for forty years, and will be seen running about called upon to extend the same sentiment, in an equal to so few of his contemporaries—to make clothes, the Parliament House, beseeching his juniors to in. degree, towards that obstinacy which we daily see not snfficiently ample, but sufficiently little. Many form him of this and that act of sederunt, which he has arraying our seniors against almost every new mode good limbs and handsome backs thus broke out, suddenly found to be inconsistent with his old use and that promises to be a matter of general benefit. Not like new lights in science, upon the eyes of the com. wont. Men thought sharp enough about the year 1790, that all the old are liable to this weakness. Some munity; and where formerly the human form divine and who made fortunes by conveyancing and other men contrive to be as young at sixty as others are at could scarcely have been supposed to exist, Praxiteles simple and lucrative work, now find themselves quite half the age. We allude only to those who are really or Lawrence Macdonald might have now found it obtuse, while striplings of yesterday-mere callants-guilty of the habit of cherishing obsolete prejudices. worth while to linger for a week. The old tailors at from acquaintance with all the improved and abbre. Numberless things which the more prompt and sprightfirst treated the improved system with great contempt, viated plans of labour, which have latterly been struck ly intellects of the age open their eyes to and find of and did not think it necessary to take any measures out, conquer the earth from all its former conquerors.incalculable benefi:, continue to be sneered at by old for maintaining their ground against it. “Like all Every sharp thing is now indeed out-sharpened. If men of thirty and upwards, till the world is gained new things," they said, slightingly; “run after at the old booksellers who dealt with Cadell and Davies, from them. They will never allow any thing to be first.” They openly scoffed at the fine staring prints and William Creech, were to rise from their graves canonical till the time is past for their taking any of gentlemen with jimp waists, and ladies in riding and resume business, they would find themselves un advantage of it. They prose away at their antiquated habits, which their youthful competitor boasted he able to make salt where they had formerly made broth. lectures, while their pupils, though compelled by got down monthly from London, that he might be en. They would altogether refuse to deal in the low-priced ancient rule to listen, have acquainted themselves abled to keep pace with the progress of metropolitan trifles which are now purchased, and nothing else with something infinitely better, and are more fitted fashion. A lay figure, on which he exhibited a con- would ever be asked from them. Neither would they to instruct than to be instructed. Thus almost all stantly renewed coat within his shop door, and a advertise—for advertising is not respectable. Accor. the great accessions that have been made to human waxen boy, whom he kept fashionably attired in his dingly, they would go the way of the old tailors. The knowledge have sprung from young, ardent, unchar. window, were favourite subjects of derision with them. same fate would, under the same circumstances, over. tered minds; and, instead of being even aided, not to They said he had no more brains than the one, and take the old authors. They would try to live by pub. say originated, by the conscript fathers of science or that it was a pity the other constituted all he could lishing, at the same rate with the present sheet, a literature, have found their chief struggle to be with point to in the way of family. They had a decided much smaller one, containing formal essays On Pride, those very individuals who enjoy the bounty and advantage, we believe, in the matter of wit; but their | On the Epitaphs of Pope, On a Certain Passage in the I veneration of the public. Even after new lights


He wept

have been generally received and appreciated, how bitants of the earth, who for once were constrained mer period inhabited, the abode at least of land ani. often do we find the best of the elder minds re. to admit the evidence of one to whom might almost mals, which were destroyed by some previous deluge ; treating from scepticism which can no longer be to. be applied the designation of the “witness of the and that they had even suffered two or three such

visitations, which destroyed as many orders of anilerated, to a system of carping, quibbling, and jest. deluge.”

mals. ing, as if a building which could not be overthrown It is impossible to conceive any grander legitimate by main force might be undermined by vermin ! subject for the investigation of man than this--a sub

THE STORY OF SILVIO PELLICO. It is customary to tell young people that they should ject, the pursuit of which has rendered us in a man.

Excepting the famed case of Baron Trenck, and go as much into the company of their elders as possi. ner familiar with the most secret arcana of nature, that of sonse of the prisoners of the

Bastille, no instance ble ; but it would be little, if at all, less advantageous and laid open the history of the earth almost from the of excessive barbarity in shutting up an innocent hu. for the old to consort much with the young. Both moment when it was called into existence by the fiat man being in a dungeon, that has been made known in seem to us alike qualified to improve each other. The of the Creator. But how unbounded must have been modern times, can be compared with that of Silvio Pel. young may be in general over sanguine, over eager, the capacity, how fervent the ardour, and how untir-lico, an individual whom we are about to bring under and too little inclined to regard expediency. But ten ing the perseverance, which could lead their possessor is familiar to the reader of Italian poetry, as one of the

the notice of our readers. The name of Silvio Pellico times rather the generous devotion to principle, and to results so sublime, to contemplations so magni- most distinguished of the modern dramatists of Italy. the self-abandoning anxiety to realise it, which cha-ficent, from delineating plants, and anatomising in. The glowing and yet gentle spirit, the pure and ele. racterise youth, than the dull hopelessness of good, sects, fishes, and birds, for his boyish amusements ! vated imagination of the author, is reflected in all his which too often falls like a blight on the minds of the For it ought not to be forgotten, that although Cuvier writings. Somewhere about fifteen years ago, this

amiable person, whose life was wholly devoted to li. aged. Let the young keep their minds open to the carefully studied, and availed himself of the labours

terary pursuits, fell under the suspicions of the Aus. counsels which veteran experience is qualified to give of all preceding and contemporary naturalists, his sys- trian authorities, who keep possession of the Italian -always guarding, however, against the fallacy which tems of arrangement, to which may mainly be attributed states, in which he dwelt as a citizen. These suspi. is so apt to lurk in references from the past to the pre- his extraordinary success in every department of the cions, instigated either by a misconception of the cha. sent, in as far as circumstances may now be different; science of natural history, were exclusively his own.

racter of Signor Pellico, or by some base informer, -- but also let the old be alive to the advantage of receiv- The light thrown on geology by Cuvier's researches sumption of his being implicated in a conspiracy against

were at length direfully demonstrated. On the as. ing from the young constant accessions of warm feel is in the last degree interesting. The strata called the Austrian government, he was arrested at Milan ing, fresh information, and unsophisticated thought. primitive, on which all the others repose, containing | in October 1820, and, without a moment’s notice,

no remains of life, teach us by that circumstance that transferred from the society of a numerous circle of

life has not always existed on our planet, and that relations and friends, to solitary continement in the POPULAR INFORMATION ON SCIENCE.

prison of St Marguerite. This was a dreadful blow to there was a time when physical forces alone acted on the hopes of one who at the time formed a rising or

the land and on the sea, in which all the wonders of nament in the literature of his country. LAST week we presented a sketch of the life of Cuvier, organisation were subsequently developed. All or

The first day of Pellico's imprisoument passed one of the most eminent naturalists in modern times, ganised existences were not created at the same time: wearily indeed. The jailor, who had studied the phi. and whose discoveries both in animate and inanimate vegetables seem to have preceded animals; mollus. kill time by taking some wine with his meals, and matter have given quite a new turn to this interesting cous animals and fishes appeared before reptiles; and when Pellico informed him that he drank none, “I and useful branch of science. None of the discoveries

reptiles before the mammalia. The species which pity you,” said he ; “ you will suffer doubly from soli. of Cuvier were so novel or remarkable in their characformed the ancient animal population have been de.

tude." But here the jailor was in error; Pellico pos. ter as those relating to the organic remains found in stroyed and replaced by others, and the present ani.

sessed moral energies much better suited to sustain the strata which compose our globe. He was among mal population is perhaps the fourth series. And it liquors. He was now left to gaze out of the window

him in his misfortunes than the temporary stimuli of the first who came to the rational conclusion that the is no less interesting than important to remark how into the court, to listen to the sound of the jailor's seec world has undergone various revolutions in its compo- strictly these geological discoveries agree with the

as they tramped along the passages of the prison, and nent parte, at each change becoming the habitation of Mosaical record of creation. That record distinctly

to the half-frenzied songs which at times rose from different orders of animated creatures. This was

the different cells. Evening approached, and he now intimates the great antiquity of the earth, in a state reckoned by many a bold theory, but Cuvier had solid

thought of home and of his mother. These reflections of darkness and desolation, compared to the age of data for his conclusions : he appealed to the testi.

were agonising, and, sitting down on his hard couch, man; and amongst all the fossil remains of the ancient his heart was relieved by a flood of tears. mony of the senses.

strata, not the slightest vestige of man or his works like a child. Let us try to follow this eminent individual in some appears. Again and again the workmen in the

A few days' experience of his imprisonment led him of his illustrations. The diluvial deposits of mud and quarries of Montmartre, in the neighbourhood of forded him the use of a Bible, and from this source he

irito a state of greater cheerfulness. The turnkey af. clayey sand, mixed with round Aints, transported from Paris, announced the remains of man ; but when drew much that was calculated to elevate and soothe other countries, and filled with fossil remains of large submitted to the inspection of Cuvier, the true re

his feelings. He also found a friend on the outside of land animals, for the most part unknown, or foreign to lation of the fossil was established beyond dispute with his cell. This was a deaf and dumb child of five or six the countries in which they are found—those vast depo- some lower species. Either man did not exist before years old, whose father and mother had been robbers,

and had fallen victims to justice. The poor orphan sits which cover so many plains and fill the bottoms of several of the revolutions of the globe, or his bones lie

was brought up here by the police, with other children caverns and clefts of rocks, deposits which took place yet unburied at the bottom of the present seas; yet in the same situation. They lived altogether in a when the hippopotamus, the elephant, the rhinoceros, that be existed before the last great catastrophe of the

room in front of Pellico's, and at times they came out the horse, the ox, and the deer, were the prey, even in deluge, we know from the universal traditions handed

to take the air in the court. The deaf and dumb boy, our climate and soil of England, of the hyena and the down concerning it in every part of the earth, as well

young as he was, felt interested in Pellico ; he gain.

bolled and danced to amuse him, and for his exertions tiger_have been carefully distinguished from the al. as from the oldest record possessed by man.

he was rewarded by a share of the prisoner’s allow. luvial deposits containing the remains of animals com cord, Cuvier observes, bears date about 3300 years be.

ance of bread. Pellico longed to educate this good. mon to the country in which they are found, and are

fore our own time, and it places the deluge 2000 years hearted child, and to rescue him from his ahject con. now considered as the most decisive proofs of an im. before its own date, or about 5400 years since. No dition. But this wish was vai... Pellico was shordly

tradition accords man a greater antiquity than that to removed to a distant cell, and saw 10 inore of his young mense and ancient inundation. Far beneath the which our antediluvian records lay claim ; and it is friend ; and on the night of the 18th of February chalky stratum which lies under various alternate only after the time of that great event that we find 1821, he was roused from his bed, ordered to come layers of marine and fresh-water deposits, there have men collected into societies, and the arts and sciences forth, and in a few minutes be found himself in a ra. been found, more especially in England, the remains springing up. To the evidence thus afforded by civil pid-driving vehicle along with a body of police. In of gigantic reptiles, including crocodiles and others history, and the inferences drawn from geological re. two days he arrived in Venice, and was immediately of the lizard trive. the remains of an era now un.

searches into the internal strata of the earth, Cuvier confined in the prison called the Piombi, a huge edi.

added the calculations respecting the periods of certain fice, once the residence of the doge. Here, lodged in known--for it is above the chalk, and between it and

natural changes actually known to be going on at the an upper chamber, from whence he could but catch a the era of the general deluge, that the explanation of present moment upon the earth's surface ; such as the glimpse of the square below, be telt his solitude more the earth's history has been sought and found. Lower progress of sand in the Bay of Biscay, which annually complete than even in the prison of Milan. At first than these are laid the vast deposits of former vege.

advances sixty feet, and must reach Bourdeaux in about the jailor, his wife, and family, took some little interest tables, coal retaining the impression of palms and

two thousand years ; the gradual burying up of whole in his fate. They beard he had been a tragic poet ;

and once fertile districts of Egypt, by the drifting of and seeing that he was of a mild demeanour, ibey com. ferns, which show that even at those depths there rands, which have already entombed temples and ci- miserated his continement, and when the daughter was once dry land, although no bones of quadrupeds ties within a space of time, with the leading events of and her two brothers brought him his coffee or his are found there; whilst lower still the naturalist which we are, by history, in a great measure familiar. meals, they would often turn round and regard him traces the first forms of existence, the crustaceous brought to bear on the theory of the last great revoThese, and innumerable other circumstances, are all with a deep expression of pity.

It was, however, only on rare occasions that he was animals, zoophytes, and mollusca, of a world yet al. lution of the earth. Every where, and however in. thus attended, and in a short time be was almost most inert and lifeless. From the imperfect forins of terrogated, observes Cuvier, nature speaks the very wholly deserted by his fellow.creatures, his food heing fossil quadrupeds, Cuvier thus elicited striking testi. same language, and tells us by natural traditions, pushed in to him in his cell by an official. Deprived mony of the early changes of the earth's surface, and by man's actual state, by his intellectual developement, of human society, Pellico had recourse to that of the inaterials for the history of its first and darkest periods sent state of things did not commence at a remote pe inhabited his window, and made a pet of a handsome

and by all the testimony of her works, that the pre-insect creation. He feasted large colonies of ants which those periods concerning which the greatest philoso- riod. He agrees, he says, with the opinion of MM. spider on the wall, whom he fed with goats and flies; phers had before been content with the mildest specula- | Deluc and Doloinien, that if there be any thing de- and who became at last so domesticated, that he would tions. He became, 80 to speak, the great antiquary of termined in geology, it is, that the surface of this crawl into his bed, or on bis hand, to receive his al. the earth. He learned the characters of that obscure globe was subjected to a great and sudden revolution lowance. It would have been well for Pellico if there time when first this planet became the abode of loco. catastrophe was caused the disappearance of countries posed. But the extreme mildness of the winter, and

not longer ago than 5000 or 6000 years ; that by this had been the only insects to whose visits he was ex. motive organisations, and established an order of facts formerly the abode of man and of animals now known the heat of the spring, had generated millions of gnats, bearing a date anterior to that of the history of man, to us ; that the bottom of the sea of that time was left which filled the sweltering oven in which he was ein. and far before the half-hidden ages of those ancient dry, and upon it were formed the countries now inha. fined. The reflection of the heat from the leaden roof empires which have themselves become as much the bited ; and that, since that epoch, the few of the hu. was intolerable, while the bed, the floor, the walls, and domain of fable as of history. From the burial of

man race who were spared, have spread themselves the air, were filled with these venomous insects, con.

over the world and formed societies. But he also be. stantly going and coming through the window with many centuries he called up the forms of things un- lieves that the countries now inhabited, and which their tormenting hum.

The suffering produced by known, and made them familiar to the present inha- | that great catastrophe left dry, had been at some for- | the burning heat and stings of these creatures almost

This re


drove the prisoner to distraction. He applied fre-him: it was contrary to the rules. At last the visit- me to follow him. I may die,' said he, under the quently for a change of prison, but no attention was ing physician sanctioned his removal from the subter operation ; let me at least do so in the arms of a paid to his request. Still, with the assistance of his ranean cell to the floor above, and ordered a mattress; friend.' I was allowed to accompany him. Our own firmness of mind, and religious faith, he bore up and this, after a special application to the governor of confessor came to administer the sacrament to the against all these miseries. He determined, if possible, the province, was with some difficulty effected. In a sufferer. This act of religion being over, we waited to divert his attention by committing to writing the day or two, Pellico's prison dress arrived, consisting for the surgeons, who had not yet made their appear. thoughts which passed through his mind. He was of a sort of harlequin suit of two colours, and a sheet Maroncelli employed the interval in singing a allowed paper, pen, and ink, by the jailor, but was as rough as haircloth, with chains for the feet. As hymn. obliged to account for every sheet he used, by exhi- the smith fastened the chains to his ancles, he observed The surgeons came at last : there were two of them; biting its contents. He did not venture, therefore, to to the jailor, “ that he might have been spared the one the ordinary household surgeon, that is to say our make use of any part of his allowance of paper for trouble, as the poor gentleman did not appear to have barber surgeon, who had the privilege, as matter of this purpose, but contrived to procure a substitute by two months to live." After being thus manacled, no right, of operating on such occasions, the other a scratching the surface of a deal table smooth with a indulgence was afforded except a walk twice a-week young surgeon, an élève of the school of Vienna, and piece of glass, and using it as a tablet. And thus, for one hour, between two guards, upon a platform on already celebrated for his talents. The latter, who with his hands in gloves, his legs and head wrapped the battlements of the castle. It was with difficulty had been dispatched by the governor to superintend up as much as possible from the attacks of the gnats, that the invalid could drag himself and his chain as the operation, would willingly have performed it him. be sat, covering the surface of the table with reflec- far as the platform; and once arrived there, he used self, but was obliged, in deference to the privileges of tions and recollections of the history of his life, and to throw himself on the grass, and remain there till the barber, merely to watch over its execution. giving vent in this mute shape to all the anxions vi. the expiration of the hour allowed him. The guards The patient was seated on his bedside, with his legs sions that crossed his mind. When he heard the stood or sat beside him, and gossiped together. Both hanging down, while I supported him' in my arms. jailor approaching, he used to throw a cloth over the were good-natured and kind, and one of them, Kral, A ligature was attached round the sane part, above table, and place upon it his legal allowance of ink and a Bohemian, was well acquainted with Klopstock, the knee, to mark where the incision was to be made. paper.

Wieland, Goëthe, Schiller, and the best German wri. The old surgeon cut away all round to the depth of an At times, again, he would devote himself to poetical ters. of these he used to recite long passages, while | inch, then drew up the skin which had been cut, and composition, often for a day or a night at a time. Two Pellico lay on the grass and listened to his harangues, continued to cut through the muscles. The blood tragedies, “ Esther of Engaddi,” and “Iginia of which assisted in breaking the monotony of his hours Aowed in torrents from the arteries, but these were Asti," and four cantiche, " Tancreda,” “ Rosilde," of imprisonment.

soon taken up. At last came the sawing of the “ Eligi e Valafrido,” and “ Adello," with many other When Pellico and Maroncelli were brought to Spiel. bone. sketches of poems and dramas--among others, one on berg, it contained many other Italians accused of Maroncelli never uttered a cry. When he saw the leagne of Lombardy, and another on Columbus-conspiring against the Austrian authority in Italy; them carry away the leg which had been cut off, he attest ihe undiminished activity and power of his but these one by one were released by death, being gave it one melancholy look; then turning to the sur, mind, amidst every thing calculated to paralyse the killed by the horrid nature of the continement; and geon who had operated, he said, “ You have rid me o intellect and deaden the heart. As there was occa. at last Pellico and his friend were almost the only pri. an enemy, and I have no means of recompensing you.' sionally some difficulty in getting the legal supply of soners who remained alive. One comfort was now There was a rose standing in a glass near the window. paper renewed when exhausted, the first draft of all allowed to Pellico: Maroncelli was permitted to share May I request you to bring me that rose ?' said he. these was made either on the table, as above men- his cell. A new stimulus was given to both by this I took it to him, and he presented it to the surgeon, tioned, or on the scraps of paper in which figs and indulgence. The emperor had promised at the period saying, 'I have nothing else to present to you in token dried fruits had been brought to him. Sometimes, by of their condemnation that the days of their imprison. of my gratitude.' The surgeon took the rose, and as disposing of his allowance of food to one of the turn- ment should be reckoned by twelve hours each, in- he did it, dropt a tear.” keys, he could procure a sheet or two of paper in re.stead of twenty-four, a roundabout way of promising The cure was completed in about forty days, after turn, and endure the pains of hunger till the evening, that they should be confined only half the time for which, Pellico and the mutilated Maroncelli, with his when some coffee was brought to him.

which they were sentenced. This declaration helped wooden stump and crutches, were again consigned to Iu the meaiitime, what was called a commission was to buoy up the minds of the prisoners. The end of their old prison. Here they resumed their monotonous deliberating on the case of Signor Pellico and some 1827 they thought would be the term of their incar. and painful dungeon existence. Ten years had now other individuals who had been seized and imprisoned ceration; but December passed, and it came not. Then nearly elapsed since Pellico had first been imprisoned, on the same accusation ; and the examinations which they thought that the summer of 1828 would be the and eight and a half since he had been consigned to he underwent almost drove him to frenzy, for he was time, at which period the seven and a half years of the vaults of Spielberg. A gleam of compassion entirely innocent of any crime, and he groaned in Pellico's imprisonment terminated, which, from the seemed now to have shot through the heart of the anguish under the oppression heaped upon him. On report of the emperor's observation to the commissary, Austrian monarch. The resignation with which Ma. the 11th of January 1822, he was informed that he they had reason to think were to be held equivalent roncelli had borne his hard fate touched his feelings. was to be transported to the prison of St Michele at to the fifteen, which formed the nominal amount of On Sunday, the 1st of August 1830, while the priMurano, to receive the sentence of the commission. the sentence. But this too passed away without a soners were preparing their table for their miserable On the 21st of February he was brought before this hint of deliverance. Meantime, the effects of his long meal, Wegarth, the superintendant, entered. “ I am dread tribunal. “Silvio Pellico," said the president, subterranean confinement began to show themselves sorry,” said he, “ to disturb your dinner, but have rising with an air of dignified commiseration, “your in Maroncelli by a swelling of the knee-joint. At the goodness to follow me—the director of police is sentence has been a terrible one_it is death; but it first the pain was trifling, merely obliging him to halt waiting for you.” As this gentleman's visits genehas been mitigated by the kindness of the emperor: a little as he walked, and indisposing him

from taking rally indicated nothing very pleasant, the prisoners, and you are now sentenced to imprisonment for fifteen his usual exercise. But an unfortunate fall in conse. it may be supposed, followed their guide somewhat years in the fortress of Spielberg, in Moravia.” “ The quence of the snow, which was already beginning to reluctantly to the audience room. They found there will of God be done !” replied the unfortunate man. cover the ground, increased the pain so much, that the director and the superintendant, the former of The indignities offered to Signor Pellico were not yet after a few days the physician recommended the re. whom bowed to them more courteously than usual ; completed. He was told, that, along with Signor moval of the fetters from his legs. Notwithstanding then taking a paper from his pocket, he began_“GenAaroncelli, the only one who was condemned at the this, however, he grew daily worse : leeches, caustics, tlemen, I have the pleasnre, the bonour of announcsame time as himself, he should appear on a scaffold fomentations, were tried in vain—they merely aggra- ing to you, that his majesty the emperor has had the in public to have his sentence read in presence of the vated his pangs.

kindness” Here he stopped without mentioning people. Next morning, accordingly, he and his friend, " Maroncelli,” says Pellico, in his narrative, from what the kindness was. whom he now met for the first time since the day of whence these details are drawn, “was a thousand “We thought,” says Pellico, “it might be some his confinement, were put into a gondola, and recon- times more unfortunate than myself; but oh! how diminution of punishment, such as freedom from laducted to the prison at Venice. The scaffold from much did I suffer for him! The duty of atteridance bour, the use of books, or less disgusting diet. You which the sentence was to be proclaimed was in the would have been delightful to me, bestowed as it was do not understand me, then,' said he. No, signor. centre of the Piazetta. Two files of soldiers were on so dear a friend. But to see him wasting amidst Have the goodness to explain what this favour is.' drawn up from the foot of the stair from which they such protracted and cruel tortures, and not be able to 'Liberty for both, and also for another of the Italian descended to the scaffold, along which they walked. bring him health-to feel the presentiment that the prisoners.' One would suppose this announcement It was surrounded by an immense multitude, on whose knee would never be healed—to perceive that the pa-would have thrown us into transports of joy. Yet it countenances sat marks of terror and pity, though tient himself thought death more probable than me. was not so: our hearts instantly reverted to our rela. the consciousness that every part of the square was covery-and with all this to be obliged at every instant tions, of whom we had heard nothing for so long a commanded by canron, with lighted matches ready, to admire his courage and serenity-Ah! the sight period, and the doubt that we might never meet them controlled the expression of their feelings. An officer of this agonised me beyond expression !

again in this world so affected our hearts, as entirely now appeared on the balcony of the palace with a pa. Even in this deplorable condition, he composed to neutralise the joy which might have been produced per in his hand; it was the sentence; he read it aloud, verses, he sang, he discoursed, he did every thing to by the announcement of liberty. and the deepest silence prevailed, till he came to the deceive me into hope, to conceal from me a portion of Are you silent ?' said the director of police ; 'I ex. words condemned to death, when a general murmur of his sufferings. He could now no longer digest nor pected to see you transported with joy.' 'I beg of compassion arose. It subsided when the crowd per. sleep; he grew frightfully wasted; he often fainted; you,' I answered, “to express to the emperor our graceived there still remained something farther to be and yet the moment be recovered his vital power again, titude ; but, uncertain as we are as to the fate of our read, but renewed more loudly at the conclusion- he would endeavour to encourage me. His sufferings families, it is impossible for us not to give way to the “ condemned to the carcere duro ; Maroncelli for for nine months were indescribable. At last a con- thought that some of those who are dear to us may be twenty years, and Pellico for fifteen.” And thus the sultation on his case was allowed. The chief phy- gone. It is this uncertainty that oppresses our minds, ceremony terminated. It may be necessary to explain sician came, approved of all the physician had ordered, even at the moment when they should be open to nothat the words carcere duro signified imprisonment, and disappeared, without pronouncing any farther thing but joy.' accompanied with labour, chains on the feet, sleeping opinion of his own. A moment afterwards the sub- The director then gave Maroncelli a letter from his on bare boards, and miserable food. This may be intendant entered, and said to Maroncelli, “The chief brother, which allayed his anxiety. He told me, how. considered a pleasant sort of punishment in compari. physician did not like to explain himself in your pre-ever, he could give me no tidings of my family, and son with that which is termed carcere durissimo, sence; he was apprehensive you might not have suf this increased my fears that some accident had bewhich implies that the prisoner is to be chained to ficient strength of mind to endure the announcement | falleu them. We conversed till evening, when a sol. the wall in a dungeon, so as to be unable to move be of so dreadful a necessity. I have assured him, how. dier's cloak and cap were placed on each of us, and in yond a certain distance, and that his food is to be only ever, that you do not want for courage.'

our old galley-slave attire, but divested of our chains, bread and water.

'I hope,' replied Maroncelli, 'I have given some we descended the fatal hill, and were conducted We now follow these unhappy objects of commi. proof of it, by suffering these pangs without complaint through the city to the prisons of the police. It was seration to their place of confinement in the fortress What would he recommend ?'

a lovely moonlight night. The streets, the houses, of Spielberg in Germany. Arrived at this strong cas. ' Amputation, signor !-except that, seeing your the people whom we met, all appeared to me so detle, they were put into separate cells, and ordered to frame so exhausted, he has some hesitation in advising lightful, so strange, after so many years during which submit without murmuring to the rules of the prison. it. Weak as you are, do you think yourself able to I had looked on no such spectacle. After four days, These regulations were of the most stern and savage bear the operation ? Will you run the risk ?' the commissary arrived, and the director of police nature. The journey from Venice across the Alps Of death? And should' I not die at all events in transferred us to him, putting into his hands at the bad exhausted Pellico's strength; his body was racked a short time, if this evil be left to take its course ?' same time the money we had brought to Spielberg, with pain and fever ; a continual cough preyed upon Then we shall send word immediately to Vienna, and that produced by the sale of our books and efhis constitution ; yet he was compelled to lie on the and the moment the permission is obtained'- fects, which was delivered to us at the frontier. The bare stones of his subterranean apartment, and was al- What! is a permission necessary?' 'Yes, signor.' expense of our journey was defrayed by the emperor." lowed only the coarsest food. He in vain applied for In eight days (!) the expected warrant arrived. The journey towards Italy need not be described. the use of some of the sheets he had brought with the patient was carried into a larger room: he asked | It excited both pleasing and painfal reflections..." My



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depression of spirits," says Pellico, “increased as we through their youth and manhood, and defer living remarked any thing of this nature, except in the case approached Italy. The entrance to it on that side till their old days. This sentiment accounts for a of the soldiers in the regiments of the line. These has few charins for the eye; or rather, the traveller descends from the beautiful mountains of Germany tries. There is another way of accounting for the pe- beings, and are in general very inferior in stature,

great deal of the difference of system in the two coun. troops appear to be composed of a poor stunted race of lovely track, which gives to foreigners but an unpre. culiarity. In Paris, indeed in every part of France bulk, and aspect, to the soldiers in the British army. possessing idea of our country. The dull aspect of that I visited, a very large proportion of the duties When viewed side by side with the national guards, the country contributed to render me more melan. incumbent on the human being for gaining his sub. they have a very shabby appearance. It should nevercholy. To see once more our native sky, to meet

This I take to with human faces whose features bore not the aspect sistence, are performed by women.

theless be stated, that much of the miserable appear. of the north, to hear on all sides our own idiom--all be the most striking feature in the organisation of ance of the French soldiers is owing to their dress, these melted my heart, but with an emotion more akin society in France. Wherever I went, I found women which is neither of good materials nor well fitted. In to sorrow than joy: How often in the carriage did conducting business and executing the work of ar- looking along the ranks at a parade, you will see many I cover my face with my hands, pretend to be asleep, tizans. There is hardly a shop in Paris that is not of the men with glaring patches of red cloth on the and weep! Long years of burial had not indeed extinguished all the energies of my mind, but, alas, kept by a woman. No matter what is the trade, knees of their faded trousers. I do not remember they were now so active for sorrow, so dull, so insen- there you see a female behind the counter.

I went ever seeing such an exhibition of mendings in the sible to joy !"

one day into a respectable shoemaker's shop in the British regiments. The want of gloves has also a mean The parting of the two friends after years of con. Rue St Honoré, to purchase a pair of shoes, and in effect. While on this subject, I cannot help remarkfinement, on each proceeding to his respective home, this shop there were four or five women at work, and ing what appeared to others as well as myself a strange was one of the most agonising circumstances which

but one man, who was a subordinate. Even in the fancy in the arrangement of the accoutrements of the attended their liberation. It was on the 16th of Sep: drug and the gunsmiths’ shops, women are found in soldier : this is the extraordinary length of the belts tember 1830, that a final permission was given to Pellico to go where his choice directed. " And from attendance. It appeared to me that all these shop- from which are suspended the bayonet or sword and that moment,” he adds, “I was liberated from all

women were exceedingly industrious. When no cuz- cartridge-box, by which these things hang down nearly surveillance. How many years had elapsed since I

tomer is in the shop, they are always engaged in sew. as low as the hollow behind the knee, and bump against had enjoyed the privilege of going where I would, unaccompanied by guards? I set out about three in the ing. In the watchmakers' shops, women are likewise

the leg at every step. This clumsy practice makes afternoon. My travelling companions were a lady,

seen working, and they may also be seen engraving the French soldiers look like so many boys dressed up a merchant, an engraver, and two young painters, one copperplates. All the coach or diligence offices in in the harness of grenadiers. The officers in the French of them deaf and dumb. They came from Rome, and Paris and elsewhere are chiefly kept by women; and army do not seem much better dressed than the pri. I was gratified to learn that they were acquainted it will be remarked, that women are placed within with the family of Maroncelli. We spent the night the wickets at the doors of the theatres to take the which many will conceive to be an improvement in

vates, from whom they cannot easily be distinguished, at Vercelli. The happy morning of the 17th Septem. ber dawned. Our journey proceeded : How slow the money and issue checks. In every coffeeroom, a lady | the practice of the military profession. conveyance seemed! It was evening ere we reached acts as president and clerk, and fulfils the duty of It will appear to the visitor of Paris that the troubles Turin.

matronising the establishment, and rendering it fit for in France for the last forty years have had the effect Who can attempt to describe the transport, the con. the entrance of female customers. It would be need. solation my heart received when I again saw and em.

of producing a marked generalisation of the ranks of braced father, mother, and brothers. My dear sister

less to specify further in what respect women are em. society. There is little that is high or haughty, and as Josephine was not there, for her duties detained her ployed in transacting business : there are few esta.

little that is abjectly poor. Society has been smoothed at Chieri, but she hastened as soon as possible to join blishments without them. They are initiated into the down to a great middle class, and the proportion of our happy group. Restored to these five objects of management of trade, commerce, and agriculture. well-dressed people in Paris seemed to me to be greater my tenderest affection, I was I am--the most en- They do every thing. There is thus no wonder that than in London or Edinburgh. The bulk of the French viable of mortals."'*

the female sex exert that influence in public affairs are indeed much more respectable in appearance than

in France, which has for many years been attributed they are usually represented to he amongst us. I have A FEV DAYS IN FRANCE.

to them. It is more a matter of astonishment that already said that decorum of manners is much more

they have not long since insisted on having an osten. conspicuous in the French than the English towns; The French, as I have said in the preceding article, tensible share in the administration, for it must be al. and in connection with this observation, I may men. are still strangely behind their British neighbours lowed they have wrought well for the honour.

tion that there is obviously a greater taste for literary with respect to a great number of comforts and con- It may be said without a joke, that, in setting the recreation. The number of shops in Paris fitted up veniences, particularly abont their dwellings ; but in women to work for them, the French have discovered as reading-rooms is enormous. In all places are seen estimating these deficiencies it should be kept in mind a principle for supporting a population not dreamed people—men and women, young and old—reading

Yet our books or newspapers.

You see the seats and walks that the genius and babits of the people are very dif. of by the most sage political economists. ferent from what we in this country consider to be neighbours hardly deserve any credit for this fe. in the ynblic gardens occupied with readers, and you the standard of perfection. If the Parisian has a licitons discovery. Their employment of women in will ofien observe the sentinels sitting at the doors of poorly furnished house, it must be recollected that all kinds of businesses in the place of men, has most the palaces perusing a volume or a newspaper. All his principal pleasure does not consist in sitting at probably originated in the long course of civil and ex. this is certainly indicative of an activity of mind, a home by the fireside, but in spending his spare time ternal war in which the nation has been engaged. degree of intelligence, which could not from other cir. in coffeerooms, public gardens, theatres, or other During these wars, so exhaustive of the male po. cumstances have been expected in the French cha. place: of general resort. A large portion of the male pulation, the management of the country must at population, to use a familiar expression, seem to put off times have been thrown almost entirely into the From what has come under my own observation, I a great deal of time doing nothing. In all parts of hands of the women, withont whose interference the am inclined to believe that the British still labour unEngland the struggle for existence is prodigious; it is nation would have gone to wreck. So inveterate has der many prejudices regarding their French neigh. the genius of the people to be busy-to seek for some the practice become, that even in times of profound bours, which it is time for them to abandon. Whatever thing to do—and if possible to make money. London peace the female sex continue to be, to all appearance, the French may have been at one period, they do not exhibits the most perfect spectacle of human industry the principal breadwinners in the country. While now exhibit that love of frivolity which many heed. -industry often carried the length of destroying both it is impossible to regard the industry of the French lessly attach to their character. They are a consider. soul and body. They manage these things very dif- females without admiration, there is every reason to ably sobered people; and gravity or thoughtfulness ferently in France.

conclude that it is productive of the very worst results. has in the present day assumed the place of those

It leaves too much spare time to the male population, smirks, smiles, grimaces, and shrugs, which are said to Paris has a sort of a bustle in two or three streets

have characterised them under the ancient regime. By that is, the very narrow pavements are tolerably which they devote to a sauntering and gossiping uncrowded with passengers, and there is a dashing worthy of the sex. It bas obviously a much worse effect those who are better entitled to judge than I am, they along of gigs and coaches; but all that is exhibited in still; for it enables them to squander a large proportion are considered to be rapidly improving and Anglicis. this way is hardly worth speaking of. The prevalent of their time, not to speak of money, upon figuring in ing. Their scholastic education is daily extending in characteristic is dawdling-doing little or nothing. uniforms, belts, and cartridge-boxes, out of which no usefulness; their soldiers, besides showing a fondness

Wherever you go in Paris, you see for reading, are forming themselves into associations Possibly the reader may be inclined to inquire how good can come.

clusters of the national guard- a species of volunteers resembling our mechanics’ institutions or schools of the people contrive to live, if they thus spend so much of their time in idleness. This is a question that I-loitering at the doors of guard houses and in the arts, under the patronage of their officers ; and it is prosess my inability to answer with entire satisfaction. fronts of public buildings. A great number of these gratifying to learn that savings' banks are progres

men are shopkeepers and tradesmen—at least nomi. sively increasing in number and the amount of their de. It would seem, in the first place, that the gentry and trades-folks are contented to live on a much less ex- nally so—whose wives are conducting their business posits, while the dependence on lotteries and gambling pensive scale than the same classes in this country. in order to support their families, which would other. tables is undergoing a corresponding decline. In one of

the shops of Paris I noticed a steam-engine at work, They can purchase many little luxuries and enjoyments wise starve, or be very poorly off. I cannot but con. at a trifle, and for these they forego the pleasure of demn this system of things as a social anomaly of the grinding chocolate or some such material ; and I acaccumulating either a fortune or a competency for old worst kind : it is most degrading to the female sex, cepted this circumstance as one among others which age. In other words, the French live as they go along and there can be no doubt that it tends vastly to keep certified that an improvement was taking place in the

useful arts. All that the French really want is the per. through life, while the English prefer to drudge France in an unsettled condition. No country can

expect to attain opulence, and the blessings of tran. manent establishment of peace and good order. These During the long imprisonment of Signor Pellico, he composed quillity, where the management of affairs is committed secured, all kinds of improvement will naturally fol. a small work upon the moral duties of life, which has been trans- to women,

and where the male part of the population low; among these beneficial alterations, the greatest lated into English by Mr Roscoe; and the pure spirit of religion, are ever ready and willing to spend days, weeks, and of all would be the abandonment of that profitless mi. hunanity, and Christian charity which it breathes, is the strongest months, on the foolery of soldiering, the most mis- litary mania which is so deplorably mischievous, as attestation of the innocence and the excellence of character of the chievous of all kinds of idleness.

respects both the interest of the nation and of indi. author. His narrative is written in a similarly gentle tone; hc

It has been mentioned by some writers that the viduals. never utters a reproach, but carries his forbearance to an extremne almost unjustifiable. The narrative has been well translated by a

continued exhaustion of the better part of the male I could not help remarking on different occasions writer in the Foreign Quarterly Review, whose graceful language population in France has caused a degeneracy in the that there is an agreeable easiness of manner in con. we have partly adopted in our abridgement.

physical proportions of the race. I cannot say that I l versational intercourse betwixt the two sexes in France,



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