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CHAPTER V.

1. ALTERATION OF MARKS.-2. CORRUPTION OF ACCENTS.

ALTERATION OF MARKS.

1. I might perhaps have availed myself of the manner in which I have found it convenient to state the question respecting the Greek accents, so as to avoid altogether any historical inquiry into the subject. I might have rested satisfied with the grammatical proof which has been obtained of the correctness of the marks in the manuscript of Theophilus. I am not called upon to answer any general observations on the corruption of accents or on the vitiation of marks. I am contented to show a certain number of marks on a given passage of a given manuscript, and to bring proof from writers of unquestionable authority that those marks are in accordance with the pronunciation of well-educated men in the second century; for though I do not find the very same words commented upon, the comments on words of precisely the same nature and formation may fairly have the same authority as if the writers had happened to give as instances the very same words which we meet with in Saint Luke. Ereidhtep, for instance, though apparently discrepant from the general rule, is borne out by what Apollonius says of a similar accentuation of kalórı; tolloi, indeed, does not happen to be mentioned as an oxytone by any ancient writer, but that kadr, was so, I learn from Athenæus, and therefore am justified in assuming that Theophilus was correct in his mark, till the contrary can be shown. Any doubt which we may at first entertain as to the correctness of the mark of érrexeiproav on account of the penultimate being long is set at rest by Herodian, who tells us that none but barbarians say Boulwuar. To åvarážao. Oai a double objection may be made, that it ought to be paroxytone, either because the penultimate is long, or because the last syllable is so. The first is answered by our finding rúpavvog used as a proparoxytone by Quinctilian, and the second by the Αρίσταρχοι of Apollonius. Διήγησιν is really questionable, because what Herodian says of verbs may perhaps not be applicable to nouns; and we learn that Homer pronounced èpñuoc with a cir. cumflex on the penultima. But we know from the same authority that the Attics made it a proparoxytone, and we are very unreasonable if we wish to speak Greek better than the Attics. For nepi we have the authority of Apollonius, for though katà happens to be the word mentioned, his disquisition on the avaßißnouòc shows that all the prepositions of two syllables were oxytoned when they stood before the noun. And not to

CHAPTER V.

1. ALTERATION OP MARKS.-2. CORRUPTION OF ACCENTS.

ALTERATION OF MARKS. 1. I MIGHT perhaps have availed myself of the manner in which I have found it convenient to state the question respecting the Greek accents, so as to avoid altogether any historical inquiry into the subject. I might have rested satisfied with the grammatical proof which has been obtained of the correctness of the marks in the manuscript of Theophilus. I am not called upon to answer any general observations on the corruption of accents or on the vitiation of marks. I am contented to show a certain number of marks on a given passage of a given manuscript, and to bring proof from writers of unquestionable authority that those marks are in accordance with the pronunciation of well-educated men in the second century; for though I do not find the very same words commented upon, the comments on words of precisely the same nature and formation may fairly have the same authority as if the writers had happened to give as instances the very same words which we meet with in Saint Luke. E ELONtep, for instance, though apparently discrepant from the general rule, is borne out by what Apollonius says of a similar accentuation of kalóri; moldoi, indeed, does not happen to be mentioned as an oxytone by any ancient writer, but that kalni was so, I learn from Athenæus, and therefore am justified in assuming that Theophi. lus was correct in his mark, till the contrary can be shown. Any doubt which we may at first entertain as to the correctness of the mark of étrexeiproav on account of the penultimate being long is set at rest by Herodian, who tells us that none but barbarians say Boulwual. To åvaráčao. Oai a double objection may be made, that it ought to be paroxytone, either because the penultimate is long, or because the last syllable is so. The first is answered by our finding rúpavvog used as a proparoxytone by Quinctilian, and the second by the Aplotapxou of Apollonius. Ainynow is really questionable, because what Herodian says of verbs may perhaps not be applicable to nouns; and we learn that Homer pronounced épnuog with a cir. cumflex on the penultima. But we know from the same authority that the Attics made it a proparoxytone, and we are very unreasonable if we wish to speak Greek better than the Attics. For trepi we have the authority of Apollonius, for though katà happens to be the word mentioned, his disquisition on the avaßißaquòc shows that all the prepositions of two syllables were oxytoned when they stood before the noun. And not to

fatigue the reader by going further, I may say that I have produced undoubted authority for the marks of all the twenty verses. I am then justified in regulating my pronunciation accordingly: the rest of the manuscripts in the British Museum, or in all Europe, may be as faulty as you please ; I maintain my proposition by sustaining the correctness of Theophilus. I have thought it convenient to put the argument into this shape, to show, that if we have grammatical proof for the existing marks, as I certainly think we have most abundantly, the many loose statements which we find in the works of our opponents as to the corruption of accents are really not entitled to any consideration. There are the marks to speak for themselves : if they are inconsistent with the pronunciation of the pure ages, no doubt they have been corrupted ; if they agree with them, all conjectures that they must have been corrupted by such and such causes fall to the ground at once.

But as a general complaint has been made by many modern writers of the corruption of the Greek accents, as such complaint seemed at first sight to be borne out by the lamentably low state of modern Grecian literature, and therefore created a prejudice against the marks from the very circumstance of their representing the pronunciation now prevailing in Greece, I shall make a few observations on the subject.

Vossius begins with a general reflection on the short date of languages :-"Frustra simus, si id,

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