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eum inter homines desisse, producta prima syl. laba, jocabatur.” (Nero, c. 33.) The wit, such as it was, and no doubt it was thought clever at court, consisted in pronouncing the first syllable, so as to express that Claudius had ceased, not to abide (morari), but to play the fool (morari from the Greek uwpòc) among mankind. It is clear, that whatever quantity be given to the first syl. lable of morari, the accent must be on the second: so that the way of making the first long must have been by dwelling longer on it. It appears from Cicero that the first letter of inclytus was short, that of insanus long. (Orat. 48.) Certainly the first syllable of both these words was long by position ; but there was a difference between the vowels themselves, which the Romans expressed in pronunciation. Aulus Gellius mentions a dispute between two scholars of his own time, whether the E in quiescit ought to be long or short (Noct. Attic. vi. 15): and he enters into an argu. ment as to the proper quantity of the first letters of actito and unctito. (Ib. ix. 6.) Draco lays down a rule, that A followed by and a mute is usually short, as ãoOna, koric, coo, AorantiùG K.7.2. (p. 22), and again (p. 25) that the A in apric is short.

The quantity of syllables made long by position would, if the expression may be allowed, take care of itself: as, for instance, it would not be possible for any one, even in common discourse, to pronounce ăvo pwnoc without making the first syllable long; because he could not make the word intelligible, without giving effect to the N, the e, and the P.

I am inclined to think that a great part of the misapprehensions of English scholars, both as to the pronunciation and the quantity of Greek, is owing to our not taking into consideration, that the Greeks might, and most probably did, give a greater extension to their long syllables, than that to which our ears are accustomed. Unless mine deceive me, we have a shorter pronunciation of every kind of syllable than any other European nation. The Scotch give a greater length to the long vowels, which would, I think, be grateful to the ear, were it not generally accompanied by a different disposition of the or. gans, and not unfrequently by a different accent from our own. A Scotchman, who could catch perfectly all our sounds, preserving his own national time, would, I think, speak more agreeably than almost any Englishman, and would be thought to do so by many an Englishman, who would not be able to say why it was so. But not only is it probable, that the Greeks in all times have given a greater extension to the long vowels than we do, but further, that the Greeks in Homer's time gave them a greater than the Greeks in the time of Sextus Empiricus. That they did so in the case of some of the diphthongs at least, seems nearly certain ; and not unlikely in many, if not all, the long vowels. Syllables


made long by position, though we cannot make them understood without giving each letter its sound, we slur over in the least possible time; and if we do not quite cheat them, we give them the scantiest measure which the exigencies of language will allow. Any one who has heard Italians pronounce such syllables, and remarked how much more time they give to the first two syllables of convento than we to conventional, will at once understand my meaning. This rapidity of speech makes it harder for the ear to catch the difference of the quantity of our syllables, though the disproportion be as great between them in the English language as in the Greek ; just as the relative distances of places are less easily caught by the eye on a map of a small scale than on a large one.

QUANTITY IN ORATORY. 6. The mode of expressing quantity in oratory requires a fuller consideration. The orator considered quantity as an important study, adapting it artfully to the effect which he wished to produce on his hearers, sometimes exaggerating it to a degree which would be ridiculous in com. mon discourse, and sometimes slurring it over with a rapidity which nothing could reconcile to the ear, but the hurry of vehement passion. He would, moreover, even in the discussion of the most solemn and important matters, be too well aware of the influence of sounds, not to select such words as would be best suited to the particular passion which he meant to communicate to his audience. This with the Greeks was an avowed object of study, and we find Dionysius not only recommending it, but enforcing it by way of example, by scanning the quantities of some of the finest passages in the orators. Having first discussed in this manner a speech from Thucydides, and pointed out how well suited is the choice of words to the subject, he proceeds to speak of the rhythm of the funeral oration of Plato ; and the whole passage is well worth our consideration, not only as showing beyond a doubt that the orators attended to quantity, but as pointing out even particular feet which they seem to have chosen as suitable to particular passions. The oration begins with the following words: Epya uèy ñuiv oil éxovou rà a poonkovta opioi avtoic, which Dionysius proceeds to scan we may observe that the commencement might be considered as a trimeter iambic:

έργω μεν ημίν οίδ' έχουσι τα προσή but it seems from our author, that this manner of delivering it would have taken away from the solemnity suitable to the subject: he accordingly divides it thus : &pya wèy is a bacchic foot; not thinking it right to scan this branch of the sentence as an iambic, inasmuch as the quantities to be assigned to pathetic subjects should not run glibly, but should be slowly drawn out; then

nuiv is a spondee ; oide ě (for he would have the orator pause long enough after orde to take away the synalcepha) would be a dactyl ; xovot would be a spondee, either by the interposition of a firal N, or by the effect of a long pause, probably the latter, as in that passage of Quinctilian : “ Paullulum enim moræ damus inter ultimum atque proximum verbum, et 'turpe' illud intervallo quodam producimus." (ix.4.108.) Tà npoon he considers rather as a cretic than an anapest; Kovta in his opinion is a spondee, no doubt on account of the consonants which follow it: opiow ayl would be a hypobacchic, which is to suppose the last syllable of opiow long, or if you please, an anapest, if you make that syllable short (xviii. 138).

When we find so considerable an antiquarian and historian as Dionysius bestowing so much pains to analyse the rhythm of these sentences, we see at once what pains they must have cost the great men who framed them : with how much technicality every syllable is disposed ! and with what art, though concealed art, the whole must have been delivered! Let us consider how in our own country we are charmed by a public speaker who excels in emphasis and delivery; and then let us carry our minds back to the orators of Athens, who it is clear, from what we have just read, paid a closer attention to the technical measuring of sounds than we do: besides this, let us at least suppose it possible that their organs of speech may have been more deli

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