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abroad abundance advantage afford agriculture America amount augmented Bank of England become bills Brazil Britain British British coinage bullion capitalists cash payments cause cent circulating medium coinage commodities consequence considerable consumption continued conveniences copper corn corn laws cotton degree demand depreciated desire diminished dium duty effect employed employment of capital encouragement enjoyments equal Europe excess existed expense exportation extent foreign former France gold and silver gold coin greater greatly importation improvements increase industry issues kind labour land manufactures means ment merchants milreis mode necessaries obtain occasion owners paid paper currency payable period portion ports Portugal possessed pound sterling precious metals premium produce prove purchase quantity rate of profit receive rency restrictions revenue seignorage shillings ships silver coin small notes Spain Spanish Spanish dollars specie spelter supply tion trade value of gold vessels wages wants whilst workmen
Сторінка 65 - This great increase of the quantity of work which, in consequence of the division of labour, the same number of people are capable of performing, is owing to three different circumstances; first, to the increase of dexterity in every particular workman; secondly, to the saving of the time which is commonly lost in passing from one species of work to another; and lastly, to the invention of a great number of machines which facilitate and abridge labour, and enable one man to do the work of many.
Сторінка 68 - The habit of sauntering, and of indolent careless application, which is naturally, or rather necessarily, acquired by every country workman who is obliged to change his work and his tools every half hour, and to apply his hand in twenty different ways almost every day of his life, renders him almost always slothful and lazy, and incapable of any vigorous application, even on the most pressing occasions.
Сторінка 403 - The capital employed in purchasing foreign goods for home consumption, when this purchase is made with the produce of domestic industry, replaces too, by every such operation, two distinct capitals: but one of them only is employed in supporting domestic industry. The capital which sends British goods to Portugal, and brings back Portuguese goods to Great Britain, replaces by every such operation only one British capital. The other is a Portuguese one.
Сторінка 403 - The capital which sends British goods to Portugal, and brings back Portuguese goods to Great Britain, replaces by every such operation only one British capital. The other is a Portuguese one. Though the returns, therefore, of the foreign trade of consumption should be as quick as those of the home trade, the capital employed in it will give but one half the encouragement to the industry or productive labour of the country.
Сторінка 284 - ... secondly, in manufacturing and preparing that rude produce for immediate use and consumption; or, thirdly, in transporting either the rude or manufactured produce from the places where they abound to those where they are wanted; or, lastly, in dividing particular portions of either into such small parcels as suit the occasional demands of those who want them. In the first way are employed the capitals of all those who undertake the improvement or cultivation of lands, mines, or fisheries; in...
Сторінка 286 - If a poor workman was obliged to purchase a month's or six months provisions at a time, a great part of the stock which he employs as a capital in the instruments of his trade, or in the furniture of his shop, and which yields him a revenue, he would be forced to place in that part of his stock which is reserved for immediate consumption, and which yields him no revenue.
Сторінка 400 - In our country an uniform experience of forty years has shown that whatever the tariff of duties upon articles imported from abroad has been, the amount of importations has always borne an average value nearly approaching to that of the exports, though occasionally differing in the balance, sometimes being more and sometimes less. It is, indeed, a general law of prosperous commerce that the real value of exports should by a small, and only a small, balance exceed that of imports, that balance being...
Сторінка 1 - THE annual labour of every nation is the fund which originally supplies it with all the necessaries and conveniences of life which it annually consumes, and which consist always either in the immediate produce of that labour, or in what is purchased with that produce from other nations.
Сторінка 3 - Lewis now slackened his pace, and followed at a sufficient distance to observe them. When they reached the place where Drewyer had thrown out the intestines, they all dismounted in confusion, and ran tumbling over each other like famished dogs. Each tore away whatever part he could, and instantly began to eat it : some had the liver, some the kidneys, and, in short, no part on which we are accustomed to look with disgust escaped them.
Сторінка 403 - The capital which is employed in purchasing in one part of the country in order to sell in another the produce of the industry of that country, generally replaces by every such operation two distinct capitals that had both been employed in the agriculture or manufactures of that country, and thereby enables them to continue that employment.