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CHAPTER 1.-PAGE 1 to 14.


1 2 3

The object of the work—Contents of the fulfilled prophecies of the Apocalypse

from c. vi. to the end of c. xix.,
Principles of interpretation—This part of the Revelation a system of prophecy,
Its Scope -Revelation, xix., 10—Bishop Hurd,
Seeming ambiguity of many symbolic visions—The double kingdom of the Lord-

Bishops Pearson and Butler-His double kingdom the subject of many
prophecies—The prophecies referred to, or interwoven with, fix the scope of

the symbolic visions—Reason, authorities, and examples, Symbolic style of the Apocalypse — The general use of symbols in ancient times

—Examples—Sacred symbols—The meaning of the enigmatic symbols

fixed by scripture, Prophecy interpreted by history-Necessity of, illustrated by Daniel, ii., vii.,

, Place and time of the events a part of the prophecy, The order of the prophecy, Rev. vi.—xix., not the order of the visions—The

reason, Difficult to determine with certainty when the Apocalypse was seen—

-The determination of it not necessary to understand the visions that have been fulfilled — If the Apocalypse were seen in the reign of Domitian, would the exposition be thereby invalidated that refers to an earlier date, the commencing chain of a series of events, which are supposed to fulfil a vision, because they correspond with its characteristic notes and the other conditions required by the Apocalyptic system ?—The question examined— The

Analogy of Daniel, vii.,
Summary of the principles of interpretation,
Their use to the expositor and the reader,

7 9 10


12 14 ib.

CHAPTER II.-PAGE 15 to 27.



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The first seal, considered by itself, contains no notes to fix the time, place, or

character of the events which fulfil it—The scope is to be ascertained by

the symbols, The white horse and rider, Rev. xix. 11, &c.— The Lord introduced twice in

in the Apocalypse on a white horse, why-Rev. xix. 11, &c., determines

the scope of the first seal to be the propagation of the Gospel, This, confirmed by the prophecies of the Old Testament, wherein the symbols

of the seal are found—Psalm, xlv. 1, 9—Its evangelical character and

scope—The translators of the Bible-Augustine-Bishop Horsley, The bow expressly given

to the Lord, Zech. ix. 13-The subject and scope of
this prophecy-Ancient and modern expositors,
A crown the subject of many prophecies—The crown of Israel given to David,

Solomon, &c.—Taken off from Zedekiah-Reserved for the Messiah, Ezek.
xxi. 25, 27- The theocracy -A crown symbolically given to the
Messiah, Zech. vi. 12, 13——Its evangelical character—The regal dignity
claimed by the Lord while on earth, and exercised in its fundamental rights
shortly after His ascension—The apocalyptic imagery of St. Paul,



21 Page

CHAPTER III.-REVELATION, xix., 11, &c.—PAGE 28 to 40.


sian—The war renewed— The Vitellians defeated - Italy devastated by the
Vespasians—The Capitol burned-Many battles fought before and in

Rome-The Vitelliaps destroyed,

The revolt of Civilis,

Tacitus' account of the course of the civil war-Remarks,

The sword,

The Imperial system, a military government disguised by Republican names

and the appearance of an election-Gibbon, Tacitus, Dion Cassius—The

secret of the empire discovered by the death of Nero-Tacitus-Galba

assumes the symbol of the seal—The military tenure of the empire and the






power of the soldiers to appoint the emperor publicly asserted— The emperor
henceforth obliged to humour the soldiers and purchase their good will-

Tacitus, Suetonius, Dion Cassius, Gibbon,
Concluding period of the seal,

50 52 54

CHAPTER V.-PAGE 55 to 64.

55 58 59

The decline of the empire dates from this period—More than two-thirds of the

Roman armies destroyed, and their discipline ruined— Tacitus, Josephus,

Plutarch, and Dion Cassius,
The power of the soldiers,
The change in their composition—Tacitus, Gibbon, D'Anville,
An important mistake of Gibbon, corrected by the concurrent testimony of Taci-

tus, Plutarch, and Dion Cassius,
Testimony of Tacitus to the weakness and urgent danger of the empire in his

time, Mr. Gibbon's translation of a remarkable passage in Tacitus examined, Gibbon's own statements confirm the judgment of Tacitus,


61 62 63

CHAPTER VI.-PAGE 65 to 70.


An accurate knowledge of the Imperial system, of the titles, and honours, con

ferred on the Cæsars, necessary for the investigation of the ApocalypseGibbon's inconsistent and contradictory representations—He transfers to, and considers as characteristic of, the age of Severus, habits, manners and usages, which, according to Josephus and Tacitus, prevailed in the times of the

earlier emperors, Gibbon's assertion that the earlier emperors declined to assume the titles and

honours of the Deity, at variance with the language of Virgil, Horace, and

the testimony of Tacitus, Suetonius, and Dion Cassius, That the title of dominus, or lord, was not given to the early emperors, contra

dicted by St. Luke, Josephus, Tacitus, and others, That the Romans, from the reign of Tiberius to that of Domitian,

from the dangers of an ignominious torture,” contradicted by Suetonius and Tacitus,



were secure







The scene, time, and general character of the events, which fulfil the vision,
The penny--The chænix, or measure of wheat—The price of food, anciently, in

times of scarcity,
The zugos—Its figurative and symbolical meaning in the Old Testament, Jer.

xxvii., xxviii., 2 Chron. x. “See thou hurt not the oil and the wine,” a prohibitory law—The power that

enacts it and makes the proclamation, “a measure of wheat," &c., the Roman government—The calamities predicted, caused by measures affecting

agricultural produce, Oppressive taxes imposed by Severus and his successors--Their peculiar cha

racter--The mode of levying them--The ruin of agriculture--Gibbon, The husbandmen, to evade the tax, feign poverty, and injure the vines--Imperial


laws to examine by torture, and punish these evasions by death—The Theo

dosian code-Lactantius,
An omission of Gibbon supplied from Lactantius,
The extreme misery of the rural population of the empire-Lactantius,

77 78 80 ib.

To kill with the sword, with hunger, &c., Ezek. xiv. 21—Commentators gene-

rally agree in the scope and object of this seal,
Murder of Alexander Severus by Maximin-Maximin succeeds him—His cruelty

-Death-Rapid downfall of his successors,
The first invasion of the empire by the Goths—The Romans defeated in two

great battles, and the emperor slain,
The empire invaded by the Franks—The Alemanni—The Goths—The Persians

-Torn at the same time by internal discord and civil wars,

Famine and pestilence,

The beasts of the earth,

The fourth part of the earth,

CHAPTER IX.- THE FIFTH SEAL.- Page 93 to 102.


The scope of the seal—The place where St. John sees the Apocalypse—The souls

lying under the altar,

They cry for vengeance—The white robes—The injunction that they should rest

yet a little while, &c.
The church persecuted during the first three centuries,
The first persecution by the Roman government,
The second,
The third, in the reign of Trajan–His edict-Its character,
Renewed by Adrian,
Christians persecuted with savage ferocity by Antoninus the Philosopher,
By Severus, Maximin, Decius, Gallus, and Valerian,
The Diocletian persecution, A.D. 303 to 313—The object of it— The state of the


The persecution ended in the ruin of heathenism and of its great supporters,








Is the language symbolical or literal ?

The order, structure, and contents of the foregoing and subsequent visions denote

it to be symbolical,

The language is best explained by similar language in other prophecies, and

the scope of the vision, by the interwoven prophecies,

Sir Isaac Newton and Bishop Warburton's explanations of the figurative and

symbolic language of Scripture,'

The symbolical language of Jeremiah, iv. 23, &c., Isaiah, xiii. 10, &c., Haggai,

ii. 7, 21, 22, Heb. xii. 26, &c., require the vision to be understood sym-

The prophecies referred to, or interwoven with the vision, Joel, ii. 10, 31,

Isaiah, xxxiv. 4, Hosea, x. 8, Isaiah, ii. 21, determine its scope to be

the destruction of a great system of heathen superstition,
The theatre and time of the visitation,
The vision fulfilled by the fall of Roman heathenism–Roman heathenism a great

religious system-Established by Numa Pompilius—None but Roman gods
to be worshipped, and only by Roman rites—These positive and prohi-
bitory laws enforced by the Roman magistrate from the time of Numa
to the end of the Diocletian persecution-Livy—The Law of the Twelve

Tables—Pliny—The edicts of Diocletian and Galerius,

Remarkable difference between the religion of Rome and of the best policied

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states of Greece,

The quotations, p. 105, from Milton and Shakspeare, were intended for a note.

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