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power of the soldiers to appoint the emperor publicly asserted— The emperor
henceforth obliged to humour the soldiers and purchase their good will —

Tacitus, Suetonius, Dion Cassius, Gibbon,
Concluding period of the seal,
Summary,

50 52 54

CHAPTER V.-PAGE 55 to 64.

55 58 59

The decline of the empire dates from this period—More than two-thirds of the

Roman armies destroyed, and their discipline ruined—Tacitus, Josephus,

Plutarch, and Dion Cassius,
The power of the soldiers,
The change in their composition—Tacitus, Gibbon, D'Anville,
An important mistake of Gibbon, corrected by the concurrent testimony of Taci-

tus, Plutarch, and Dion Cassius,
Testimony of Tacitus to the weakness and urgent danger of the empire in his

time, Mr. Gibbon's translation of a remarkable passage in Tacitus examined, Gibbon's own statements confirm the judgment of Tacitus,

ib.

61 62 63

CHAPTER VI.—PAGE 65 to 70.

65

An accurate knowledge of the Imperial system, of the titles, and honours, con

ferred on the Cæsars, necessary for the investigation of the Apocalypse-
Gibbon's inconsistent and contradictory representations—He transfers to, and
considers as characteristic of, the age of Severus, habits, manners and usages,
which, according to Josephus and Tacitus, prevailed in the times of the

earlier emperors,
Gibbon's assertion that the earlier emperors declined to assume the titles and

honours of the Deity, at variance with the language of Virgil, Horace, and

the testimony Tacitus, Suetonius, and Dion Cassius, That the title of dominus, or lord, was not given to the early emperors, contra

dicted by St. Luke, Josephus, Tacitus, and others,
That the Romans, from the reign of Tiberius to that of Domitian, “ were secure

from the dangers of an ignominious torture,” contradicted by Suetonius and
Tacitus,

68

69

70

CHAPTER VII.-THE THIRD SEAL.--PAGE 71 to 81.

71

72

ib.

73

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The scene, time, and general character of the events, which fulfil the vision,
The penny--The chænix, or measure of wheat—The price of food, anciently, in

times of scarcity,
The zugos—Its figurative and symbolical meaning in the Old Testament, Jer.

xxvii., xxviii., 2 Chron. x.
“See thou hurt not the oil and the wine,” a prohibitory law—The power that

enacts it and makes the proclamation, “a measure of wheat," &c., the
Roman government–The calamities predicted, caused by measures affecting

agricultural produce,
Oppressive taxes imposed by Severus and his successors--Their peculiar cha-

racter--The mode of levying them--The ruin of agriculture--Gibbon, The husbandmen, to evade the tax, feign poverty, and injure the vines--Imperial

laws to examine by torture, and punish these evasions by death—The Theo

dosian code-Lactantius,
An omission of Gibbon supplied from Lactantius,
The extreme misery of the rural population of the empire-Lactantius,
Summary,

b

74

77 78

80

ib.

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CHAPTER X.—THE SIXTH SEAL.-PAGE 103 to 131.

ib.

Is the language symbolical or literal ?

The order, structure, and contents of the foregoing and subsequent visions denote

it to be symbolical,

The language is best explained by similar language in other prophecies

, and

the scope of the vision, by the interwoven prophecies,

Sir Isaac Newton and Bishop Warburton's explanations of the figurative and

symbolic language of Scripture,'
The symbolical language of Jeremiah, iv. 23, &c., Isaiah, xiii. 10, &c., Haggai,

ii. 7, 21, 22, Heb. xii. 26, &c., require the vision to be understood sym-

bolically,

The prophecies referred to, or interwoven with the vision, Joel, ii. 10, 31,

Isaiah, xxxiv. 4, Hosea, x. 8, Isaiah, ii. 21, determine its scope to be

the destruction of a great system of heathen superstition,

The theatre and time of the visitation,

The vision fulfilled by the fall of Roman heathenism-Roman heathenism a great

religious system-Established by Numa Pompilius—None but Roman gods
to be worshipped, and only by Roman rites—These positive and prohi-
bitory laws enforced by the Roman magistrate from the time of Numa
to the end of the Diocletian persecution-Livy—The Law of the Twelve

Tables—Pliny-The edicts of Diocletian and Galerius,

Reinarkable difference between the religion of Rome and of the best policied

states of Greece,

ib.

* The quotations, p. 103, from Milton and Shakspeare, were intended for a note.

120

ib.

CHAPTER XI.PAGE 122 to 126.

The sealed— The twelve tribes represent the entire Christian people,

The meaning of the sealing,

Ezekiel's vision, ix.,

The vision denotes great corruptions in the church, and the preservation of the

sealed from apostacy,

ib.

CHAPTER XII.- Page 127 to 131.

CHAPTER XIII.-PAGE 132 to 138.

CHAPTER XIV.-PAGE 139.
The seven Angels with the seven trumpets prepare themselves to sound, Rev.

viii., 6.

140

The third of the earth, a division of the empire-Josephus, Sil. Italicus,
Commotions in the barbaric world— The Huns— They impel the Goths on the

empire—The Goths transported over the Danube-Revolt-Defeat the
Roman army-Devastate, with their allies, Europe, from Constantinople to

the Julian Alps—Reduced by Theodosius,
Their second revolt-Devastate Greece Invade Italy,

ib,
143

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CHAPTER XVI.—THE SECOND TRUMPET.–Page 152 to 159.

A mountain, a kingdom, Is. ii., 14—A burnt mountain, a kingdom that is sub-

verted, Jer. li., 24, 25—A burning mountain a kingdom destructive to
others, and containing within itself the elements of its own ruin—The
creatures in the sea, the inhabitants of the countries, regarded as waters, or
a sea, Ezek., xxix.. 3, &c.; xlvii., 9, 10—Ships instruments of luxury, Is.,
ii., 12, and Lowth—The burning mountain, Attila and his Huns,

150

The third of the sea, the Europeon third, inundated by the barbarians, regarded

as so much sea,

154

Historical illustrations,

ib.

Summary,

159

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CHAPTER XVII.—THE THIRD TRUMPET.-PAGE 160 to 171.

The fall of a star from heaven, the fall of a kingdom, Is. xiv., 4, 12–Rivers,

cities—Sir Isaac Newton—The drying up of rivers represents, in Scripture,

the ruin of cities, Is. xxvii., 25, Ezek., xxix., 10, 12-Wormwood the

symbol of extreme misery, Lam., iii., 15, 20—The third, a division of the

empire,

160

The star, the kingdom of the Ostrogoths—Consequences of its fall,

162

The ruin of cities, a characteristic of the trumpet—The importance of the Italian
towns, Guizot—Their ruin, a characteristic of the Gothic war,

ib.

Historical illustrations,

163

The Lombards,

168

The passes of the Danube being unguarded, in consequence of the Ostrogothic

war, the Bulgarians, Sclavonians, and Avars, waste Europe, from Constan-

tinople to the Adriatic, and complete the ruin of Greece,

Recapitulation,

171

ib.

AN EXPOSITION

OF THE

FULFILLED PROPHECIES OF TIE REVELATION.

CHAPTER I.

The Object of the Work—the Structure and Scope of the Apocalypse, from Chap. VI.

to the end of Chap. XIX.—the Principles on which the Interpretation is conducted the probable Time the Apocalypse was seen—The exact Knowledge of the Time when it was given not essential to the Right Interpretation.

a

The object of this work is to give an exposition of the first six seals of the Apocalypse, the first six trumpets, and of those other Apocalyptic prophecies which appear to have been fulfilled, wholly or in part, before the sounding of the seventh trumpet.

These prophecies are contained in chapters vi., vii., viii., ix., X., xi., xii., xiii., xiv., xvii., and xix. They reach over a long period of time, and embrace the most important events which have happened during seventeen hundred years, within, and a little beyond the limits of the old Roman empire, viz:the propagation of the Christian religion—the persecution of its professors by the Roman government—the civil wars and calamities of the empire—the fall of paganism—the establishment of Christianity-the rapid corruptions and divisions of the church—the invasion of the empire by the barbaric nationsthe settlement of various Germanic tribes in the countries south of the Danube and Rhine, and their relation with the imperial government—the rise and progress of the Mahometan power--the Turks—the fall of the Greek empire—the general idolatry and depravity of the times before and after its fall—the preservation, in the midst of this general corruption, of many

B

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