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Appearance of the worldly life in Europe-Its conditions and causes

-How it was established in England-Etiquette, amusements,

conversations, manners, and talents of the drawing-room 161

Dawn of the classic spirit in Europe-Its origin-Its nature-Differ-

ence of conversation under Elizabeth and Charles II.

. 164

111. Sir William Temple-His life, character, spirit, and style . . 166

IV. Writers of fashion-Their correct language and gallant bearing-

Sir Charles Sedley, the Earl of Dorset, Edmund Waller-His

opinions and style-Wherein consists his polish-Wherein he is

not sufficiently polished — Culture of style-Lack of poetry-

Character of monarchical and classic style


Sir John Denham-His poem of Cooper's Hill-Oratorical swell of

his verse-English seriousness of his moral preoccupations-How

people of fashion and literary men followed then the fashions of



VI. The comic-authors–Comparison of this theatre with that of Molière

-Arrangement of ideas in Molière-General ideas in Molière--

How in Molière the odious is concealed, while the truth is de-

picted-How in Molière the honest man is still the man of the

world-How the respectable man of Molière is a French type . 181

VII. Action-Complication of intrigues-Frivolity of purpose-Crude-

ness of the characters--Grossness of manners-Wherein consists

the talent of Wycherleyn Congreve, Vanbrugh, and Earquhar

Kind of characters they are able to produce

TII. Natural characters-Sir John Brute, the husband; Squire Sullen

-Sir Tunbelly, the father-Miss Hoyden, the young lady-Squire

Ilumphry, the young gentleman-Idea of nature according to this



Dryden's beginnings--Close of the poetic age-Cause of literary

decline and regeneration

. 215

II. Family-Education-Studies--Reading-Habits-Position-Char-

acter-Audience-Friendships-Quarrels-Harmony of his life

and talent

11. The theatres re-opened and transformed— The new public and the

new taste-Dramatic theories of Dryden-His judgment of the

old English theatre-Ilis judgment of the new French theatre-

Composite works—Incongruities of his drama-Tyrannic Love-

Grossness of his characters—The Indian Emperor, Aureng-zebe,



IV. Style of his drama-Rhymed verse-Flowery diction-Pedantic ti-

rades—Want of agreement between the classical style and ro-

mantic events—How Dryden borrows and mars the inventions of

Shakespeare and Milton-Why this drama sell to the ground 228

Merits of this drama-Characters of Antony and Don Sebastian-


· 234

vi. Dryden as a writer-Kind, scope, and limits of his mind-Clumsi.

ness in flattery and obscenity-Heaviness in dissertation and dis-

cussion-Vigor and fundamental uprightness


vi. How literature in England is occupied with politics and religion-

Political poems of Dryden, Absalom and Achitophel— The Medal

- Religious poems, Religio Laici, The Hind and the Panther-

Bitterness and virulence of these poems—Mac Flecknoe


viu. Rise of the art of writing-Difference between the stamp of mind

of the artistic and classic ages-Dryden's manner of writing-

Sustained and oratorical diction.

· 255

1x Lack of general ideas in this age and this stamp of mind--Dryden's

translations-Adaptations-Imitations—Tales and letters-Faults

---Merits-Gravity of his character, brilliancy of his inspiration,

fits and starts of poetic eloquence-Alexander's Feast, a song in

honor of St. Cecilia's Day


Dryden's latter days—Wretchedness-Poverty-Wherein his work

is incomplete-Death


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The moral revolution of the seventeenth century-It advances side

by side with the political revolution


IL Brutality of the people--Gin Riots-Corruption of the great-Po.

litical manners—Treachery under William III. and Anne-Venal.

ity under Walpole and Bute-Private manners—The roisterers,

The atheists-Chesterfield's Letters—His polish and morality-

Gay's Beggar's Opera–His elegance and satire .


111. Principles of civilization in France and England-Conversation in

France; how it ends in a revolution-Moral sense in England;

how it ends in a reformation


IV. Religion-Visible signs-Its profound sentiment-Religion popular



The pulpit-Mediocrity and efficacy of preaching-Tillotson-His

heaviness and solidity-Barrow-His abundance and minuteness

-South-His harshness and energy-Comparison of French and

English preachers


Vi. Theology-Comparison of the French and English apologetics-

Sherlock, Stillingfleet, Clarke — Theology not speculative but

moral—The greatest minds are on the side of Christianity--Im-

potence of speculative philosophy-Berkeley, Newton, Locke,

Hume, Reid-Development of moral philosophy-Smith, Price,



VII. The Constitution-Sentiment of right--Locke's Essay on Govern.

ment-Theory of personal right accepted— Maintained by tem-

perament, pride, and interest—Theory of personal right applied

-Put in practice by elections, the press, the tribunals

vil. Parliamentary eloquence—Its energy and harshness-Lord Chatham

- Junius-Fox-Sheridan-Pitt-Burke


IX. Issue of the century's Tabors-Economic and moral transformation

-Comparison of Reynolds' and Lely's portraits — Contrary

doctrines and tendencies in France and England-Revolutionists

and Conservatives—Judgment of Burke and the English people

on the French revolution

· 312

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Characteristic of the English novel-How it differs from others 393

De Foe-His life-Energy, devotion, his share in politics—Spirit

-Difference of old and modern realists-Works-Career-Aim

- Robinson Crusoe—How this character is English-Inner enthu-

siasm-Obstinate will — Patience in work-Methodical common

sense-Religious emotions—Final piety

• 393

III. Circumstances which gave rise to the novels of the eighteenth cen-

tury-All these novels are moral fictions and studies of character

- Connection of the essay and the novel-Two principal notions
in morality-How they produce two kinds of novels.

IV. Richardson-Condition and character--Connection of his perspi.

cacity and his rigor-Talent, minuteness, combinations-Pamela
- Her mood-Principles- The English wise--Clarissa llarlowe
- The Harlowe family-Despotic and unsociable characteristics

in England-Lovelace-Haughty and militant characteristics in

England-Clarissa-Her energy, coolness, logic-Iler pedantry

and scruples—Sir Charles Grandison-Incongruities of automatic

and edifying heroes-Richardson as a preacher--Prolixity, pru-

dery, emphasis .


v. Fielding-Mood, character, and life- Joseph Andrews-His con-

ception of nature-- Tom Jones-Character of the squire-Field-

ing's heroes-Amelia-Faults in her conception


VI. Smollett — Roderick Random —- Peregrine Pickle - Comparison of

Smollet and Le Sage-Conception of life-Ilarshness of his he-

roes-Coarseness of his pictures--Standing out of his characters

Humphrey Clinker


vil. Sterne-Excessive study of human particularities-Sterne's charac-

ter-Eccentricity-Sensibility-Obscenity-Why he depicts the

diseases and degeneracies of human nature

· 427

VIII. Goldsmith-Purification of the novel-Picture of citizen life, up-

right happiness, Protestant virtue- The Vicar of Wakefield—The

English clergyman

· 431

IX. Samuel Johnson–His authority-Person-Manners-Life-Doc-

trines-- His opinion about Voltaire and Rousseau-Style-Works 434

llogarth-Moral and realistic painting-Contrast of English tem-

perament and morality-How morality has disciplined tempera-


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