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SECT. VII, Jewish Manner of Travelling.–Disposition of their dress : never

travelled in the heat of the day but from necessity; saluted no person when

in haste; feet washed when they entered a house. Rode on asses, horses,

mules, camels, and dromedaries; had no stirrips; used hirans and counes ;

provender for their animals ; provisions for themselves; articles of conve-

nience and commerce. Skins for water; every article carried in skins. Dis-

tance measured by hours; wells the common resting-places; these often

infested by robbers; no inns; khanes, or caravansarais. Caravans; manner of

travelling ; sometimes very numerous. Kings travelled in state; had the

dust allayed with water; harbingers sent before them, and pioneers to level

the roads. Customs observed by the modern Jews on a journey 227

SECT. VIII. Jewish Marks of Honour and Disgrace.-1. Marks of honour

which servants paid to their masters. Slaves, their price; their submis-

sive attitude; washed the hands of their masters; served him before

they ate themselves; servants of different ranks; eunuchs ; singing men

and singing women. 2. Marks of respect paid by inferiors in general to

superiors. Bowing the head; bowing the knee; bowing to the ground;

kissing the land, or what came from it; gave them the chief seat; made

yearly presents ; allayed the dust before them when travelling : spreading

their garments. A spear, or lamps, indicated the tent of a chief. 3. Marks

of respect among equals. The salam, or salutation ; eastern salutations took

up much time; their way of saluting when at a distance, and when at hand;

kissing; falling on the neck; taking hold of the beard, Manner of conduct-

ing visits; these held in the court in summer, and house in winter. The en-

tertainment at an eastern visit; sprinkling with rose-water; perfuming the

guests; their signs of mirth. 4. Marks of honour paid to inferiors; those to

principal officers; Joseph ; Mordecai; changes of raiment; purple robe;

gold buckle and clasp ; a key on the shoulder a mark of office; explanation
SECT. XII. The Jewish Mode of Warfare.-Causes of the Jewish wars;

number of their armies ; degree of efficiency; arms a helmet, breastplate,

habergeon, girdle, greaves, sword, shield, battle-ax, sling, bow, quiver,

poisoned arrows. The Jewish cavalry: their accoutrements; chariots of

war; camels of the kings of Midian ; qualifications of an ancient warrior;

time of going to war; methods taken to distress an invading enemy; order

of encampment among the Jews; camps on hills; religious ceremony before

fighting; method of fighting; their cruelty afterwards. The transplanting

SECT. XIV. Treatment of the Dying and Dead. The hours for visiting

the sick; conduct of visitors. Dying persons addressed their children and

relations; made their latter will. A strange custom of changing the name

of the dying person. After death the nearest relation kissed the deceased,

and closed his eyes ; the other relations tore their upper garment; specta-

tors tore theirs only a hand-breadth; women hired to cry; minstrels ;

Sir John Chardin's account of their lamentations. The dead body washed;

wrapt in spices; bound in grave-cloths; laid in an upperchamber. The

Egyptian method of embalming. The persons employed about a dead

body accounted unclean. Funerals, either public or private; insignia

suited to the person's character laid on the coffin; hired mourners ; Dr.

Shaw's account of them ; minstrels at the funeral ; ceremonies at the grave;

the sittings and standings in their return to the house ; seven of these ;

mourning for the dead either extraordinary by lamentations, tearing the hair,

cutting their bodies, &c. or ordinary, by tears, tearing the upper garment,

covering the lip. Entertainment after the funeral. The ordinary mourning

before the funeral; for the first three days after; for the next four; for the

remaining twenty-three. Funerals of children ; cemeteries always without

cities; potter's field; public burying places; regulations concerning them.

Private burying-places; Rachel's sepulchre: Joseph's soros, or mound;

Isaiah's and David's tombs; Absalom's pillar ; Esther's and Daniel's tombs ;

tombs of Jonah, Zecharias, and Lazarus. Sepulchres of families commonly

in caves ; these described ; tomb of Lazarus ; tombs of the Judges; sepul-

chral monument over the Maccabxan family; sepulchres of the kings of

Syria and Israel ; money said to have been in David's sepulchre examined ;

all the sepulchres white-washed on the 15th of the 12th month; garnishing

sepulchres accounted meritorious. The written mountains in the wilder-

ness of Sinai. Two Hebrew epitaphs; the bodies of criminals left without



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the ox goad; their manner of sowing ; diseases of grain ; blasting or blight ;

mildew; hoar frost; thunder showers; caterpillar ; locusts; harvest in Judea.

The barley harvest; wheat harvest; manner of reaping by pulling up; cut-

ting with a sickle; harvest a season of joy; sheaves, but no shocks in Judea ;

threshing the grain by a staff; flail; feet of cattle; the drag; the wain with

iron wheels or teeth : winnowing by the shovel and fan ; threshing foors in

airy situations; straw used as fodder; grain preserved in earthen jars, or

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