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awakening from their slumbers those who are still under the influence of the strong wine of Babylon; and of leading those already awakened who have “come out of her,” onward to the attainment of that knowledge and character necessary for an admission into the presence and society of Jesus at his triumphant return.

Intelligence of the state and progress of the churches in all parts of the country will always be read with interest : and as we have not at present any other regular medium of communicating this intelligence to all, we hope our brethren will not fail to avail themselves of the present one. We will only lay one embargo, always be sure the information is authentic,-send nothing from hearsay.'

Could a number of zealous and devoted evangelists be kept constantly employed proclaiming the gospel of peace through this land - such as would and could labour for the glory of God and the salvation of men; it would greatly rejoice our hearts to see and aid the glorious work. This may not be realized at present (we pray it may be ere long), but we hope each of the churches will make it a matter of serious consultation as to what will be the best means to adopt for the furtherance of so desirable an end. We owe it to Jesus and the world. Any plan that may be proposed we will insert into the Messenger for the information of all. For ourselves we cheerfully repeat the offer we have made more than once before, that if the brethren will exert themselves in the spread of the Christian Messenger, whatever profit may be derived, when paper, printing, and incidental expences are paid, shall be devoted to the



any evangelists that may be chosen. But a work of this kind is not to be attained by the exertion of one or two individuals or churches; it is a work in which all must co-operate. The truth can no more prosper without labourers now, than it could in primitive times.

J. F.


Delivered before the Charlottesville Lyceum, by Alexander Campbell, June 18th, 1840.--. Published at the request of the Lyceum. Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Lyceum

IS MORAL PHILOSOPHY AN INDUCTIVE SCIENCE The desire of knowledge, and the power to acquire it, are, by a benevolent provision of the great Author of nature jointly vouchsafed to man. The centripetal principle of self-preservation which pervades every atom of the universe, the great globe itself, with every thing that lives and moves upon it, is not more universal than is the desire to know, in every being that has the power to know. This is the soul of the soul of man- - the active energizing principle, which stimulates into action his whole sensitive, perceptive, and reflective powers; and were it our duty to collect and classify the criteria by which to appreciate the intellectual capacity of an individual, we would give to his desire of knowledge an eminent rank among the evidence of his ability to acquire it.

To direct into proper channels, and to control within ratioval limits, the desire of knowledge have always been paramount objects in every government, human and divine, which has legislated on the subject of education, or sought the rational happiness of man. Indeed, the Divine Father of our race, in the first constitution given to man, suspended his destiny on the proper direction and government of this desire. He was pleased to test the loyalty of his children by imposing a restraint, not so much upon their animal appetites as upon their desire to know. The God of reason hereby intimates to all intelligences, that the power to control this master passion is the infallible index of man's power of self-governinent in every thing else. How wisely and how kindly then did he denominate the forbidden tree, "the tree of knowledge of good and evil!”. And perhaps it is just at this point, and from this view of the subject, that we acquire our best conceptions of the reason of high intelligences-of the fall of that mighty spirit whose desire to know, transcended the law of his being and the object of those sublime endowments bestowed upon him. That he was experimentally acquainted with this paramount desire of rational nature, is obvions from the policy of the temptalion which he offered. Its point was to stimulate, not the animal, but the intellectual appetite of our mother Eve, by dogmatically affirming that God forbade the fruit, because he knew that if they should eat it, “they would be as gods, knowing both good and evil.”

But while it appears most probable that all intelligences, angelic and human, embodied and disembodied, are superlatively fallible and vulnerable in this one point, and that their catastrophe was so far, at least, homogeneous, as to afford plausible ground of inference that the not holding or employing any power bestowed upon us in abeyance to the will of the donor, is the radical sin of our nature, and the prolific fountain of all the follies and misfortunes of man; still the desire of knowledge is one of the kindest and noblest instincts and impulses of our nature. Without it, the power to know would have been comparatively, if not altogether, useless to man.

The physical wants of the infant do not more naturally nor necessarily prompt his first animal exertions to find relief, than does this innate principle, this natural desire of knowledge, urge the mind into the pursuit of new ideas. The ineffable pleasure of the first conception only invites to a second effort; and success in that, stiinulates to a third; and so on, in increasing ratios, till the full grown man, on his full fledged wings of intellectual maturity, soars alost, as the eagle from the mountains' top, in quest of new and greater discoveries. And never did the miser's love of gold bear a more direct proportion to his success in accumulating it, than does the desire of knowledge in the bosom of the successful aspirant after new ideas keep pace with his intellectual attainments.

This again siiggests to us a good reason for the variety and immensity of creation. Man needs such a universe as this, and the universe needs such a being as man, not merely as a component part, but as the worthy guest of it. Every thing that exists is to be enjoyed by a being who has the power of understanding and admiring it. Now, as the huinan power to know and to enjoy, is naturally cumulative and progressive, the objects to be known and enjoyed must be proportionably vast and illiinitable. And here again arises a new proof of design and adaptation in this grand and eloquent universe of God. For it is not only in the infinitude and variety of its parts—in its physical, intellectual, and moral dimensions ; but in the immeasurable ag. gregate of its provisions, as respects variety, extent, and duration, that it is so adapted to the human constitution—to this unquenchable thirst for knowledge-this eternally, increasing intellectual power of knowing and enjoying, bestowed on our rational and moral nature.

In all the language of celestial or terrestrial beings, there is no word of more comprehensive and transcendant import, than the term universe. In its mighty grasp, in its boundless extent, it embraces Creator and creature--all past, all present, all future existences within the revolving circles of

time, and the endless ages of eternity. Our finite minds, indeed, with all their gigantic powers of acquisition, cannot compass infinite ideas, but they can divide and subdivide the mighty whole into such small parts and parcels as come within their easy management. We have, therefore, divided the universe into innumerable solar systems spread over fields of space, so immense as to make imagination herself flag in her most vigorous efforts to survey them. These systems we have again divided into planets, primary and secondary; and these again into various kingdoms-inineral, vegetable, aniinal, intellectual. These we have farther distributed into genera, species, and individuals, until a single individual becomes a distinct theme of contemplation. Even that we often find an object too large for our feeble efforts, and set about separating an individual existence into the primary elements of its nature, the attributes, modes, and circumstances of its being, before it comes within the easy grasp of a special operation of our minds.

But the feast of ihe mind, the joy of the banquet is not found in these distributions and classifications of things, but in viewing every organ and atom of every creature in reference to itsell, and to the creature of which it is a part; then that creature as related to other creatures of its own species and genera; and these again in reference to other ranks and orders belonging to the particular world of which they are atoms; and that world itself as connected with others; and then all as related to the Supreme Intelligence, the fountain and source of all that is wise, and great, and good, and beautiful, and lovely—the Parent of all being and of all joy; and thus to look through universal nature, and her ten thousand portals and avenues, up to nature's uncreated and unoriginated Author.,

It is, indeed, a sublime and glorious truth that this, to us unsearchable and incomprehensible universe, can all be converted into an infinite and eternal fountain of joy, an inexhaustible source of pure and perennial bliss, commensurate with the whole capacity of man. But this, to us, is yet in the boundless future, and must depend upon the proper direction given to our desires and pursuits in the contemplation and study of the universe. The fields of science are innumerable. But few of them have ever passed under the observation of our greatest masters. Not one of them is yet understood. The whole universe, indeed, is yet to be studied; and with such care and attention, that ihe worlds, and systems of the worlds of ideas within us, shall exactly correspond to the worlds and systems of worlds without us. As exactly as the inage in the mirror resembles the face before it, so must the ideas within us correspond to the things without us, before we can be said to understand them, What ages, then, must pass over man, before the single system to which he now belongs shall have stamped the exact image upon his soul, and left as many sciences within him as there are things cognate and homogeneous without hiin! Before this begin to be accomplished, the seven sciences of the ancients will not only have multiplied into the seventy times seven of the moderns; but into multitudes that would bankrupt the whole science of numbers to compute. If Socrates, the great master of Grecian philosophy, could only boast that he had attained so much knowledge of the universe as to be confident that he knew nothing about it-comprehended no part of it-how much of that science of ignorance ought we to possess, to whom so many fountains of intelligence have been opened, from which the sage of Athens was debarred !

But as there is nothing isolated or independent in all the dominions of God, so there cannot be an isolated or detached science in any mind, save that in which the original archetypes of all things were arranged before one of them was called into existence. And this is now, and always has been, the insuperable obstacle to the perfect comprehension of any one science, the basis of which is in the realms of mind or matter.

Still, the desire to know rises with the consciousness of our ignorance, and even of our present inability, and we promise ourselves a day of grace in which we shall not only know in part, and prophecy in part; but shall see clearly, comprehend fully, and know as we are known. Till then, we must be content to study the primer of Nature, and learn the elements of things around us, as preparatory to our admission into the high school of the universe. Indeed, the greatest genius, the most gifted and learned in all human science, rises but to the portico of that school, the vestible of that temple, in which the true science of true bliss is practically taught, and rationally communicated to


There is one science, however, in which it is possible to make great proficiency in this life, and which, of all the sciences, is the most popular, and, withal, the least under

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