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with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one. “Derivation’ sees therein a narrow invocation of a special miracle and an unworthy limitation of creative power, the grandeur of which is manifested daily, hourly, in calling into life many forms, by conversion of physical and chemical into vital modes of force, under as many diversified conditions of the requisite elements to be so combined.” The view propounded in this work allows, however, a greater and more important part to the share of external influences, it being believed by the author, however, that thèse external influences equally with the internal ones are the results of one harmonious action underlying the whole of Nature, organic and inorganic, cosmical, physical, chemical, terrestrial, vital, and social. * According to this view, an internal law presides over the actions of every part of every individual, and of every organism as a unit, and of the entire Organic world as a whole. It is believed that this conception of an internal innate force will ever remain necessary, however much its subordinate processes and actions may become explicable: That by such a force, from time to time, new species are manifested by ordinary generation just as Pavo nigripennis appeared suddenly, these new forms not being monstrosities but harmonious self-consistent wholes. That thus, as specific distinctness is manifested by obscure sexual conditions, so in obscure sexual modifications specific distinctions arise. That these “jumps” are considerable in comparison with the minute variations of “Natural Selection ”—are in fact sensible steps, such as discriminate species from species. That the latent tendency which exists to these sudden evolutions is determined to action by the stimulus of external conditions. • That “Natural Selection ” rigorously destroys monstrosities, and abortive and feeble attempts at the performance of the evolutionary process. That “Natural Selection ” removes the antecedent species rapidly when the new one evolved is more in harmony with surrounding conditions. That “Natural Selection ” favors and develops useful variations, though it is impotent to originate them or to erect the physiological barrier which seems to exist between species. By some such conception as this, the difficulties here enumerated, which beset the theory of “Natural Selection” pure and simple, are to be got over. Thus, for example, the difficulties discussed in the first chapter—namely, those as to the origins and first beginnings of certain structures—are completely evaded. Again, as to the independent origin of closely-similar structures, such as the eyes of the Vertebrata and cuttlefishes, the difficulty is removed if we may adopt the conception of an innate force similarly directed in each case, and assisted by favorable external conditions. Specific stability, limitation to variability, and the facts of reversion, all harmonize with the view here put forward. The same may be said with regard to the significant facts of homology, and of organic symmetry; and our consideration of the hypothesis of Pangenesis in Chapter X., has seemed to result in a view as to innate powers which accords well with what is here advocated. The evolutionary hypothesis here advocated also serves to explain all those remarkable facts which were stated in the first chapter to be explicable by the theory of Natural Selection, namely, the relation of existing to recent faunas and floras; the phenomena of homology and of rudimentary structures; also the processes gone through in development; and lastly, the wonderful facts of mimicry. Finally, the view adopted is the synthesis of many distinct and, at first sight, conflicting conceptions, each of which contains elements of truth, and all of which it appears to be able more or less to harmonize. Thus it has been seen that “Natural Selection ” is accepted. It acts and must act, though alone, it does not appear capable of fulfilling the task assigned to it by Mr. Darwin. Pangenesis has probably also much truth in it, and has certainly afforded valuable and pregnant suggestions, but unaided and alone it seems inadequate to explain the evolution of the individual organism. w Those three conceptions of the organic world which may be spoken of as the teleological, the typical, and the transmutationist, have often been regarded as mutually antagonistic and conflicting. The genesis of species as here conceived, however, accepts, locates, and harmonizes all the three. Teleology concerns the ends for which organisms were designed. The recognition, therefore, that their formation took place by an evolution not fortuitous, in no way invalidates the acknowledgment of their final causes if on other grounds there are reasons for believing that such final causes exist. Conformity to type, or the creation of species according to certain “divine ideas,” is in no way interfered with by such a process of evolution as is here advocated. Such “divine ideas” must be accepted or declined upon quite other grounds than the mode of their realization, and of their manifestation in the world of sensible phenomena. Transmutationism (an old name for the evolutionary hypothesis), which was conceived at one time to be the very antithesis to the two preceding conceptions, harmonizes well with them if the evolution be conceived to be orderly and designed. It will in the next chapter be shown to be completely in harmony with conceptions, upon the acceptance of which “final causes” and “divine ideal archetypes” alike depend. x Thus then, if the cumulative argument put forward in this book is valid, we must admit the insufficiency of “Natural Selection ” both on account of the residuary phenomena it fails to explain, and on account of certain other phenomena which seem actually to conflict with that theory. We have seen that though the laws of Nature are constant, yet some of the conditions which determine specific change may be exceptionally absent at the present epoch of the world’s history; also that it is not only possible, but highly probable, that an internal power or tendency is an important if not the main agent in evoking the manifestation of new species on the scene of realized existence, and that in any case, from the facts of homology, innate internal powers to the full as mysterious must anyhow be accepted, whether they act in specific origination or not. Besides all this, we have seen that it is probable that the action of this innate power is stimulated, evoked, and determined by external conditions, and also that the same external conditions, in the shape of “Natural Selection,” play an important part in the evolutionary process: and finally, it has been affirmed that the view here advocated, while it is supported by the facts on which Darwinism rests, is not open to the objections and difficulties which oppose themselves to the reception of “Natural Selection,” as the exclusive or even as the main agent in the successive and orderly evolution of organic forms in the genesis of Species.
THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION.
Prejudiced Opinions on the Subject.—“Creation" sometimes denied from Prejudice.— The Unknowable.—Mr. Herbert Spencer's Objections to Theism; to Creation.— Meanings of Term “Creation.”—Confusion from not distinguishing between “Primary” and “Derivative” Creation.—Mr. Darwin's Objections.—Bearing of Christianity on the Theory of Evolution.--Supposed Opposition, the Result of a Misconception.—Theological Authority not opposed to Evolution.--St. Augustine.—St. Thomas Aquinas.-Certain Consequences of Want of Flexibility of Mind.—Reason and Imagination.—The First Cause and Demonstration.—Parallel between Christianity and Natural Theology.—What Evolution of Species is, Prof. Agassiz.-Innate Powers must be recognized.—Bearing of Evolution on Religious Belief—Prof. Huxley.—Prof. Owen.-Mr. Wallace.—Mr. Darwin. A priori Conception of Divine Action.—Origin of Man.—Absolute Creation and Dogma.-Mr. Wallace's View. —A Supernatural Origin for Man's Body not necessary.—Two Orders of Being in Man-Two Modes of Origin.-Harmony of the Physical, Hyperphysical, and Supernatural.-Reconciliation of Science and Religion as regards Evolution.—Conclusion
THE special “Darwinian Theory” and that of an evolutionary process neither excessively minute nor fortuitous, having now been considered, it is time to turn to the important question, whether both or either of these conceptions may have any bearing, and if any, what, upon Christian belief.
Some readers will consider such an inquiry to be a work of supererogation. Seeing clearly themselves the absurdity of prevalent popular views, and the shallowness of popular objections, they may be impatient of any discussion on the subject. But it is submitted that there are many minds worthy of the highest esteem and of every consideration, which have regarded the subject hitherto almost exclusively from one point of view; that there are some persons who