Modern Nicaraguan Poetry: Dialogues with France and the United States

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Bucknell University Press, 1993 - 227 стор.
This work demonstrates that twentieth-century Nicaraguan poetry can not be comprehended in its fullest dimension without an understanding of the literary traditions of France and the United States.
Ever since Ruben Dario established Hispanic America's literary independence from Spain in the nineteenth century with his modernista revolution, poets in Nicaragua actively have engaged in a dialogue with the works of French and North American authors as a means of assimilating and transforming them and thereby inventing a profoundly Nicaraguan literary identity.
This process has resulted in what might be called a double genealogy in Nicaraguan poetry: certain poets attracted to the alchemical properties of the poetic word and a transcendent, mythic, meta-reality seem to have descended from French literary forebears; others, interested in an expansive, poeticized version of history and verisimilitude, have roots that might be traced to North American soil. This division is a provisional, experimental means of grouping Nicaraguan poets based not on the traditional compartmentalization of literary generations, but on the "family resemblances" of poetic affinities.
Presented here is an effective analysis of the "familial" nature of the Nicaraguan poets achieving their own literary independence by taking into account socio-political and historical considerations, common literary themes, as well as the intertextual relations that form the basis of international literary dialogues. This rigorous, but flexible, approach to modern Nicaraguan poetry enables the reader to accompany the poets on their journeys toward God and the end of the world; into a timeless Nicaraguan landscape invaded by U.S. Marines; beyond a contemporary urban portrait of Los Angeles; through the horrifying European battlefields of World War I and the trenches of Nicaragua's revolution against the Somoza dictatorship.
The English-speaking reader probably will be unfamiliar with most of the seven preeminent Nicarguan poets whose works are the subject of this book, but it is hoped that the reader will realize that the poetry of Nicaraguans Alfonso Cortes, Salomon de la Selva, Jose Coronel Urtecho, Pablo Antonio Cuadra, Joaquin Pasos, Carlos Martinez Rivas, and Ernesto Cardenal is worthy of serious study. Furthermore, the poems of these authors take on a richer meaning when they are studied as co-presences in relation to certain texts by Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Mallarme, and Supervielle, or - in an "American" context - by poets such as Whitman, Pound, Eliot, and Masters. A relatively small country with a rich, diverse tradition in poetry, Nicaragua has maintained high literary standards generation after generation and has produced poets of a world-class stature whose time has come for greater recognition.

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Зміст

The Journey toward God in the Poetry of Cortes Baudelaire Rimbaud and Mallarme
19
Pablo Antonio Cuadra and Jules Supervielle Utopia National Identity and History
45
Carlos Martinez Rivas and Charles Baudelaire Two Painters of Modern Life
77
A Dialogue with France and the United States
93
The Eschatological Voyage in the Poetry of Joaquin Pasos Vicente Huidobro and T S Eliot
95
A Dialogue with the United States
117
Salomon de la Selva Testimonial Poetry and World War I
119
Translation and Intertextuality in the Poetry of Jose Coronel Urtecho
144
Ernesto Cardenal and North American Literature The Formulation of an Ethical Identity
158
Notes
188
Bibliography
207
Index
221
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