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accumulating through all that time, as it were in the coffers of my intellectual bank—the property that no man can take from me; and every man may accumulate the same.
And lastly, I would refer to this other fact—that it is in cultivating this knowledge that we most effectually realise life, because life does not consist altogether in the occupations to which we devote our energies during the day, but as largely in those we attend to when business is over, or in the intervals of business. ** Business must be attended to;" that is the first rule; the second is to attend to the intervals of business, which require filling up as much as the business hours themselves. A man who can count fifty birthdays, reckons life in a very meagre manner unless he has accumulated during the leisure hours and days of his life, the beautiful and animating ideas which nature supplies. We may get them from books, but we get them from nature at first hand. I love books, and would never disparage them, in regard to nature; merely observing that books and nature are a kind of reflex one of the other ;-we go into the country, and read the “ Book of Nature;" we go into the library, and there we read again; neither can be profitably pursued without the culture of the other. In the lecture room and class room, recollect, we must not expect too much of the teacher; the teacher is like the farmer's daughter, blythe and buxom, who comes out with her apron full of grain; and scatters it amongst the chickens; they must pick it up if any good is to be done with it: like the farmer's daughter, our teacher scatters the grain, and it is for every pupil to pick it up, and to turn it into good red, swift, energetic blood, that shall become the sound muscle and bone that alone can make him strong. What we get in the lecture room is, as it were, the index to what we have really to acquire by patient and personal observation of
BY MR. W. J. COX, M.R.C.S., &c.
Delivered at the Kensall Green Mechanics' Institute, London; and at
Wigan Mechanics' Institute.]
Is forming an estimate of the value of any branch of knowledge, we should, I think, be cautious of the invariable application of the cui bono question : neither be always inclined to adopt the mathematician's standard of excellence, who, after reading "Paradise Lost," said, “Very fine; but what does it prove?" Let us not despise an inquiry into those finer and deeper, if more remote, matters which constitute the charm and poetry of life, and have powerful indirect efforts on the character and happiness of the individual man, and on the intellectual progress of nations. Goëthe, in an eloquent passage, says, " When the man of the world is devoting his days to Fasting melancholy for some deep disappointment, or in the ebullience of his joy is going out to meet his happy destiny, the all-conceiving spirit of the poet steps forth, and with soft transitions tunes his heart either to joy or woe." Would that I, with equally lofty eloquence, could impress on you the conception I myself have formed of the practical value of a more general acquaintance with those studies which chasten the taste, discipline the
mind, invigorate the understanding, improve the heart, and keep in abeyance the corroding and baser feelings which embitter and shorten the term of human existence. For us, then, let not Hamlet breathe his lofty philosophy, nor Bacon teach wisdom, in vain; nor Milton pass the bounds of place and time, to trace the councils of hell, and lead the choirs of heaven.
The thoughts and faculties of our intellectual frames, and all that we admire and reverence in human genius; the moral laws, which are ever felt by us with pleasure or with remorse according as they are obeyed or violated; the virtuous qualities of those we love, and the vices we view with abhorence or pity; the feeling of dependence upon the gracious God who formed us, and the expectation of a state of being whose duration shall not be measured by the beatings of a feeble pulse;—all these tend to impress on us the importance of a knowledge of the relation of our minds to our mortal bodies.
Be it far from me to presume to lead you into the mazes of metaphysics, where, indeed, I apprehend lealer as well as followers would soon be hopelessly entangled: on the contrary, it is my intention to be as matter-of-fact as possible, and to adhere pretty closely to the recital of ascertained facts and phenomena. In the first place, let us understand the terms it will be necessary to employ. By mind I mean not the scul per se, but the soul as it dwells in the body: not the disembodied, but the embodied spirit. The body, on the other hand, is only animated matter. Two worlds, one intellectual and the other sensual
, were equally given to us from the beginning; and all attempts to deduce them from one principle (excepting the Divine source) have failed. This, then, i is the duality which we must accept as the boundary in line of mortal knowledge. For information touching the soul in its future state of existence we must look alone to revelation. It is beyond the limits of hunan
VIND AND BODY:
nin, inrig rate the understanding, improve
lings with emitter ani shorten the to
snius: the mural Laws, mich are ever felt
piir; the feeling of dependence opon ti
inating of a teel le pulse :—all these teul 025 oin us the importance of a knowledge of the res four minds to our mortal biies.
THEIR MUTUAL RELATION.
intellect. I have said that all endeavours to deduce beart, and keep in aberince the corraling at the two principles of our being from one origin have
. Nevertheless such attempts have been made, For us, then, lut not and supported by powerful thinkers and subtle intel.
lects ; and it behoves us, ere we proceed, to consider the anost prominent and plausible of these hypotheses. Fichte considered the body as a phenomenon only
of the mind. This is a mere waste of words ; for it The thoughts ard faculties of our intern advances is not a step towards the solution of the thwes, and all that we admire and reverenc enigmas. Schelling more ingeniously contended that
the mind and body merged into each other's existence. with pleasure it with remorse according as torty This not only fails to give a solution to the question bere or vic!sted; the virtuous qualities to at issue, but is opposed to known facts. For we are
obey different laws; that the self-preservation of We lore, and the rices we view with a here sometimes conscious that the two different principles sit being whose duration shall not be measure of the body; that we have in truth in our nature a ljud who formeil us, and the expectation of the spirit may interfere and be incompatible with that
spirit often “ warring with the law of our members.” Materialism, however, is the most important of these
theories, and has the largest number of supporters. Be it far from me to presund on lead toona By this system, it is pretended that the mind is but
& product of the body, a result of its organization. No studied or elaborate arguments are required to show its fallacy: a single fact of natural science will
Organs of our bodies are constantly being wasted and as inatter-of-fact as pesi' le, and to a theria suffice. Physiology teaches us that all parts and
But the mind remains the same. To give an illusmana. In the first place, let us un lerstanthe renewed from the elements of surrounding nature.
tration :--Napoleon on his dying couch, at St. Helena, was assuredly the same spirit that rose to the surface of the republican tornado; conquered at Marengo and Austerlitz; soared over the fettered European states; was baffled at Moscow; despaired at Leipsic;
and sank on the bloody field of Waterloo. But the pting the Divine source have fuled. Täss fabric of his body had been changed a score of times
during that stormy and unexampled period of time: yet, a few hours only before he passed for ever from
the dreams of battle, he conversed with his faithful alone to revelation. It is beyond the limits of 30 Bertrand on his past campaigns, and showed a
Hazes of rreta varsics where, iz ieeedla Ir a ler as well as foil wers would sena he lens piangled: on the contrary, it is my in elke
isely to the recital if ascertained facts ari pe
"Til be necessary to emply. By mir! l. pile scul per se, but the soul as it dow's in the ::t the disembodied, but the emlak spurt indv, on the other hand, is only animated Two worlds, one intellectual and the charts were equally given to us from the lamming ill attempts to deduce them from ne
the duality which we must accept as the loc ine of mortal knowledge. For information he soul in its future state of existence me DOEN
memory unimpaired respecting all the great events of his career.
And, were it not somewhat a "begging of the question," I would say, that the upholders of Materialism can scarcely be supposed sensible of the monstrous conclusion they must admit: for to contend that the mind is a mere emanation of the body, -a product of its organization,-is in effect to assert that the inorganic elements, of which our bodies are composed, are capable, when combined, of creating all the mighty works of human genius. They have no escape from the astounding conclusion, that the combination of a few pounds of charcoal and lime, and a few ounces of sulphur and phosphorus, with a certain amount of water, and the gases of the atmosphere, is all that is needed to demonstrate the law of gravitation—to dissect the desolation of an antediluvian world, and to supply a physiology to destruction—trace the path of an undetected orb—to invent the steam engine and telegraph-to produce the Venus and the Laocoon—to paint the Madonna, and the Transfiguration—to write the Iliad, the Novum Organum, Paradise Lost, King Lear, Le Tartuffe, Rasselas, Locke's Essay, Faust, Festus, Revolt of Islam, ani David Copperfield. Accepting, then, this dualism as it exists (and which indeed we find by analysis of the unity given to us)--this testimony of the two worlds which we ourselves present-let us content ourselves with endeavouring to acquire correct knowledge of their reciprocal relations.
To commence, then, properly with our sulject. The mind exercises an important intluence on the body. As in the body there are two classes of nerves --of sensation and of volition-so are there two great orders of mental faculties, the intellectual and the affective. Sensation, perception, thought, judgment and imagination, are operations of the intellect. Love, fear, hope, ambition, pride, envy, hatred, &c., belong to the passions or emotions. A law of asso