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ficial maturity of the principle was certainly developed by Arkwright, who patented it in 1767, and baving constructed his ‘machine called the waterframe for spinning with rollers, he applied it most satisfactorily to the production of watertwist, which was used for warps instead of linen yarn. In this same year, 1767, Hargreaves completed his very impurtant invention of the spinning-jenny, a machine alunirabis adapted to spin the weft-yarn requisite for the shoot of the warps spun upon the waterfraue. Thus were simultaneously developed two inst valuable machines, whereby the growing demands of industry coulí be fostered. About the same time the cleaning, carding, and preparation of cotta wool, derived great benefit from many curious and opportune contrivances. A period more fertile in useful inventions than this now placed under our contemplation has, probably, never before existed. Machines for aiding the progress of industry were called into matured existence with a rapidity and precision not less astonishing than beneficial; and these machines, as if conscious of requiring a inainspring of action beyond the physical power of man, Seened to plead with the mechanic and engineer for aid from some latent force, which could be applied to give them motion, without exhausting that stren th which the artisan could better employ in culination with his intelligence to control, direct, and elicit their productive powers.
Beasts of barde, wind, and water, were made the drudges of the new industry; but the former failed from physical weakness and inharmonious action, whilst the latter, precarious and often exhausted, directed the speculative philosopher and practical engineer to that dorinant and unsurpassed power which all-potent steam was reserved to yield. Many were the sanguine spirits of improvements, from Hero to Savery, who knew the power heat acting upon water, could produce; but there had been found no deve
lopment of this power till Watt, the master magician of the age, called forth, in perfect control, and directed in usefulness for the increase of the world's comfort, the giant force which had baffled in defiant and unbound strength the skill of those who had hitherto endeavoured to subdue it without effect. Again, Kay of Bury had given to the weaver's shuttle a mechanical impulse, which superseded the necessity of throwing it by hand; and at this extraordinary time, Dr. Cartwright, at Doncaster, shadowed forth the power-loom, which was only perfected a quarter of a century afterwards. Proceeding still in the career of invention and improvement, the amiable, talented, and ingenious Crompton, of Bolton, produced in 1787, the now well-known spinning-machine called the mule, the leading peculiarity of which is, that he united the rollers of the waterframe with the advancing and receding carriage of the jenny, whereby he effected the attenuation and spinning of cotton to a degree of fineness that neither of the other two machines could approach; and by his invention and application the production of fine cotton yarn, suitable for the manufacture of the finest muslin and lace, was secured. These have been the inventions which, in an incredibly brief space of time, have arisen chiefly in connection with the industry now under examination. And if these discoveries and this progress were not anticipated, a silent and unostentatious reception had been prepared for them which most certainly gave them successful effect.
Domestic artisans, amongst whom the expatriated Flemings were absorbed, could aid and appreciate; and there existed in Lancashire, where chiefly these new inventions were conceived and matured, an intelligent body of mechanical artificers, whose labours were devoted to the construction of clocks and watches, all of whom contributed to render practical the schemes then propounded, their services being 1
garded as so important, that up to the present time the insurance companies denominate a portion of the mechanical contents of a cotton-spinning mill, as "clock and watchmaker's work." Beyond these, and in addition to the inventors Wyatt, Arkwright, Highs, Panl, Hargreaves, Kay, Crompton, and Watt, were the energetic spirits of the employing class, who were the immediate and future promoters of the cotton trade, the names of many of whom are familiar to all, -the Strutts, Peels, Evanses, Drinkwaters, Marslands, Houldsworths, M'Connels, Kennedys, Ewarts, Murrays, Smiths, Philipses, Birleys, Finlays, Kelleys, Horrockses, Gregs, Ainsworths, Ashworths, and 'Ashtons, besides other worthies. Nor should the fact be omitted, that pecuniary facilities of great value were afforded to the rising trade by the eminent bankers of Lancashire.
During that perind other important and valuable acquisitions had been obtained by the improvements effected in the communication between Liverpool, the destined port of the cotton-trade, and its manu. facturing capital, Manchester. Up to the seventeenth century, goods passing between these places of advancing importance had been carried by pack hories and in waggons; but in 1720 an Act of Parliament was obtained for rendering the idle waters of the rivers Irwell and Mersey useful and navigable, though much opposed by the pack horse and waggon interests. In 1758, however, the Duke of Bridgewater engaged that most practical and distinguished engineer, Brindley, to construct works in harmony with the other achievements of his time; and he was empowered to disembowel the estate of the duke at Worsley of coal, and to construct a canal to convey that welcome fuel to the profitable market of Manchester. This engineer, with singular boldness directed his canal at a low level, to penetrate the very mines which were to be excavated, and he proposed to cross the river Irwell at Barton by an aque
duct at a considerable height; but before he would proceed with his design he desired his patron to consult some experienced engineer upon the difficulty to be surmounted; and on the duke applying to such a one, the sarcastic reply was, “That many a castle in the air had been projected, but the place which one was intended to occupy was only then pointed out: but, with unbounded confidence in Brindley, the duke ordered the work to be executed, and the first canal of our country started into successful existence. Assured of the success of a new and a great prins ciple, and seeing with prophetic penetration that the growing wants of an infant manufacturing and commercial community would require facilities of transit in addition to the retiring pack-horse, to the waggon and river conveyances, and that a canal might be constructed with great advantage, to place Liverpool and Manchester in more direct and immediate communication, in 1762 was begun the celebrated Bridgewater Canal, which became another triumph of that energetic age; but it may be well to remark, that before the legislature sanctioned this last projection, the interests of the old carriers, including the river company, were fiercely directed against this innovation upon vested privileges. Conveyance was of indispensable importance to the industry which had continually enlarged its productions; it was requisite for the transport of fuel, food, raw materials, and manufactured goods; as well as for those business visits which merchants and manufacturers had to exchange, and which were then effected by that novel agent a stage-coach, Subsequently the career of progress decreed that the mighty power of steam should be the impelling principle of traffic and locomotion; and here, again, the energy of Lancashire was displayed, for the first efficient railway in the kingdom was established between Liverpool and Manchester, continuing to their trade and commerce the onward impulse of
rapid progress. Was this railway established without difficulty? No! The engineering difficulties were said to be insurmountable; but before these were permitted to be grappled with, the legislature, through the combined and powerful interests of the carriers upon the old roads, the proprietors of coaches, canals, the river navigation, and of extensire landowners who had not the penetration to discem that a new path of progress was projected which would enhance the value of their own property and also benefit the public, RESISTED PROPOSITIOX; and it was only when selfish interests were made to succumb to the general good, that an Act of Parliament was obtained for the first railway. Yet, so jealous had the legislature been of every innovation, that the Sankey Canal, of some six miles long, near Warrington, had only been allowed to be made with the express condition, that the boats intended to ply upon it should be propelled by no power except that of human labour; but in derision of antiquated contrivances and all obstacles, the railway admonishes the advocate of retrogression, for on passing along its line, the traveller may survey the comparatively deserted old highroad, that conserved canal where men are still beasts of burden, the Bridgewater Canal, and the old river; and steam, the schoolmaster of improvement, now leaves far behind the slow boats and slow coaches of former days.
With becoming spirit and intelligence Liverpool did its duty, and the merchants of that port from time to time increased their spreading sails, and provided docks, and quays, and other facilities for mercantile convenience, all ministering to the extending cotton trade ; the public works
of Liverpool being honourable monuments of skill, labour, and usefulness.
When gas was applied, nearly half a century ago, to purposes of illumination, the large cotton spinning