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than that of weaving; for the spinners could not supply the looms, which were all worked by hand.

In 1769, a patent was taken out by Richard Arkwright, a native of Preston, for the application of rollers for spinning. The following year, another patent was secured by James Hargreaves, of Blackburn; and in 1779 Samuel Crompton, of Halli'th'-Wood, near Bolton, also took out a patent for a similar purpose.

The produce of yarn and weft from these machines, was very considerable, and necessitated improvements in the loom.

In 1789, Dr. Cartwright obtained a patent loom intended to be worked by power; but not being a practical man, and having no connexion with the mechanical trades, he did not carry it out effectually. Others, however, subsequently took it in hand, and lvought it to a state of comparative perfection. In 1809, parliament granted Dr. Cartwright the sum of £10,000 for his exposition of natural talent, deep thought, and ingenuity as to the practicability of applying power to the loom. The men of the mechanical trades at this time performed their work, as may be expected, in a rude way; and their niechanical genius was as much required in the making of tools for the due performance of their Fork, as in the making of the patented machinery they had to construct. The spinning, weaving, and other machinery soon came to be in a very efficient state. A great drawback was however experienced in the want of steam power adequate to the times; and it is remarkable how circumstances dove-tailed, as it were, into each other, for the promotion of commercial developement. About this time, as if by a providential act, the renowned James Watt, a native of Greenock, and mathematical instrument maker at the College of Glasgow, had occasion to repair a model of an atmospheric engine of Newcomb's, which drew his attention more particularly to its itu provement; the result of which, was one of the most important discoveries ever made, viz. :—the practicability of forming a separate condensation apart from the cylinder. This being fully accomplished, he soon after applied steam to force down the piston in the cylinder, instead of using the atinosphere for that purpose as heretefore. The double-acting steam engine being now made, ( the importance of which cannot be over estimated, the demand for them was very great, and they were distributed through the country as rapidly as circumstances would permit. Men capable of managing them were in active demand; factories were built in rapid succession, and driven by steam power; the members of the mechanical trades of Great Britain became a highly distinguished class,—and I may venture to say, that by their industry, enterprise, and ingenuity, Great Britain's greatness was secured, and her position made enviable to all the world !

At this stage of prosperity, the manufacture of cotton and other goods became immense ; but the means of transit were inadequate,—the only means of carriage being by waggons and horses on the highway, or boats drawn by horses on the canal. The demand for conveyance became so extensive that the companies became haughty, independent, and insolent, and it was too common for cotton, timber, and other merchandise to remain at Liverpool and other seaports for weeks, and in some cases months, and no possibility of the owners obtaining their removal to their places of business. Before a committee of the House of Commons, in 1925, Mr. Adams, in opening the case of the promoters of the bill for the construction of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, said—“It was a curious fact, that in the year 1790, there was not one steam engine in Manchester, though in 1824 there were above two hundred. In 1814, there was not one loom in Manchester worked by steam, whilst in 1824 there were thirty thousand i" He also said, in reference

to the conveyance, that “Cases liad occurred of goods taking a longer time to pass from Liverpool to Manchester, than from America to Liverpool. Cotton had been delayed eighteen, twenty-two, and even twenty-four days. Timber sent to the Old Riser Company in December, 1824, had not been delivered on the 14th of March following. Corn had been obliged to be landed and warehoused, for want of means of forwarding it into the interior. The new Quay Company had seventeen flats: between June and December, 1824, each of those flats made eighteen trips,-a trip a-week, and one to divide amongst the seventeen. Thus a vessel required a week to make a trip from Liverpool to Manchester, unload its cargo, take in another, and find its way back again."

I have no particulars of the general state of our manufactories about this period, -say 1824; but a gradual increase took place, and in 1838, the number of factories was 4,217; and in 1856, 5,117: the number of looms in 1856 was 369,205, and that of spindles, 33,503,580. The number of horses-power used at this time was estimated at 161,495. The average value of cotton goods and yarn exported in the three years, 1853, 1854, and 1855, was £31,000,000. Woollen and worsted goods and yarn, £10,000,000. At the early part of the 18th century, our import of raw cotton was about £2,000,000; but by the extraordinary inventions and improvements of the steam engine and other machinery, we required in 1856 about that amount every two days, our consumption being 43,269 bales a-week, or 2,250,000 bales a-vear. Necessity is the mother of invention. -Great Britain may well rejoice, if not all the world, that men have been providentially raised up in the mechanical tradles adequate to the apparent insurmountable difficulties of our inland transit. I need not mention the names of George Stephenson and Timothy Hackworth, whose names will be handed

down to posterity for the establishing and bringing to a state of efficiency our present system of railways and locomotive engines, the advantage of which is so well known, that it is almost needless to make any quotations; but by way of comparison to our old stage-coaches, waggons, and boats, I may state the following announcement which appeared in the Liverpool paper in 1757 : Warrington Flying Stage Coach sets out from the Red Lion Inn, Warrington, every Monday and Thursday morning, and arrives at the Bull Inn, in Wood street, London, every Wednesday and Saturday evening; and sets out from the Bull Inn, Wood street, London, every Monday and Thursday morning, and arrives at the Red Lion Inn, in Warrington, every Wednesday and Saturday evening. Each passenger to pay two guineas, one guinea as earnest, and the other guinea on taking coach; and every passenger to be allowed 14 lbs. of luggage; all above 14 lbs. to pay after three-pence a-pound. Outside passengers and chil. dren on safety to pay half-price. To be perforined if God permit, by Anthony Jackson and Henry Secrit." It was also noticed in Williamson's Liverpool Advertiser, April 15th, 1774, that—" The Manchester, Warrington, and Liverpool stage-coach began to run three times a-week on Monday, the 25th of April, 1774. It set out from the Spread Eagle, Salford, every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and returned from the Bull Inu, Dale street, Liverpool, every Tuesday, Thursday, ami Saturday." This coach started at seven in the morning, and the passengers dined at Warrington. Fare: inside, eight shillings; and only 14 lbs. of luggage allowed.

The “Edinburgh Courant" of 1754 advertised that the Edinburgh stage-coach, for the better accomodation of passengers, will be altered to a new genteel two-end glass coach machine, hung on steel springs, exceeding light and easy, to go to London in ten days in summer, and twelve in winter.” The

same distance is now performed by the locomotive in as many hours; and instead of leaving Salford for Liverpool at seven in the morning, and dining at Warrington in order to appease our hunger on the way, we can leave the same place at the same time, aul arrive at Liverpool in time for an early breakfast.

Things common, although absolutely necessary to our existence or well-being, are by the great majority little thought of, and apparently as little cared for; hence the absence of knowledge by so many of the magnitude of our railway system and engineering progress. In December, 1856 we had 8,708 miles of railway opened in the United Kingdom. In the six months previous to the 31st of December, there travelled on those rails 71,091,075 passengers ; the total number of miles traversed amounted to 1021,781,747; there were also 17,487 holders of season tickets. Parcels conveyed, 4,546,021. Number of carriages, 27,602. Horses, 115,611, and of dogs, 164,429. There was also conveyed in the same time, 12,011,473 tons of general merchandise; and 21,801,452 tons of minerals, 1,050,622 head of cattle, 3,926,203 sheep, and 667,583 pigs.

There were 946,664 passenger trains; the number of miles traversed by which amount respectively to 21,523,329 and 18,582,138. The gross total receipts from all sources of traffic on the railways of the United Kingdom during the half-year was £12,383,741, viz: £5,648,255 (3,583 excess fares) from passengers of all classes; £438,579 from luggage, parcels, carriages, horses, and dogs; £3,897,574 from general merchandise; £934, 175 for minerals ; and £255,823 from live stock, cattle, sheep, and pigs; and I may further say that it is estimated that the mechanical trades have, through the intervention of steam, given us nearly 1} million horses' power on our railways alone, saying nothing of the immense number sent to various parts of the world.

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