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ALL SOCIAL-REFORM MOVEMENTS AND ACTIVITIES, AND THE ECO-
NOMIC, INDUSTRIAL, AND SOCIOLOGICAL FACTS AND STATISTICS
OF ALL COUNTRIES AND ALL SOCIAL SUBJECTS

EDITED BY

WILLIAM D. P. BLISS, EDITOR-N-CHIEF

AND

RUDOLPH M. BINDER, PH.D., Assistant Editor

WITH THE COOPERATION OF MANY SPECIALISTS

INCLUDING AMONG OTHERS

Jane Addams, Percy Alden, M.P., Dr. S. J. Barrows, E. W. Bemis, Ph.D., Hon. W. J. Bryan, Rt. Hon.
John Burns, Prof. J. R. Commons, Ernest Crosby, Edward T. Divine, Ph.D., Dr. S. W. Dike,
Wm. Lloyd Garrison, W. J. Ghent, Cardinal Gibbons, Prof. F. H. Giddings, Samuel
Gompers, Earl Grey, Pres. A. T. Hadley, Stewart D. Headlam, Prof. C. R. Hender-
son, Morris Hillquitt, F. L. Hoffman, Robert Hunter, Pres. D. S. Jordan, Benjamin
Kidd, Prof. S. M. Lindsay, Edwin Markham, John Mitchell, Frank Parsons, Edward f ex - -
R. Pease, Rt. Hon. Horace Plunkett, (UpfTo. Oscar S. Strauss. -a < * *
Dr. Josiah Strong, Dr. Graham Taylor, Frank H. Vizetely, J. De Witt
Warner, Dr. Booker T. Washington, Sidney Webb, Dr. Clinton
R. Woodruff, Hon. Carroll D. Wright, Prof. C. Zueblin

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This edition of the ENcycloPEDIA of Social Reform is not a revision of the old edition, but a completely new book, save for a few purely historical or economic articles, the subjects of which need no new treatment—altho many even of these are either revised or completely rewritten. All else is absolutely new and it is believed that the work is very much more comprehensive and complete. The two main requisites of an encyclopedia are reliability and serviceableness. The first of these has been sought in this encyclopedia by having every article written by some specialist on its particular subject. Statements of reform have been written by a believer in the reform; together with this, however, or by reference to a corresponding article on the opposing side, a statement of the opposing view will be found. Historical, bibliographical, biographical, and statistical articles have been prepared and carefully revised by adequate authorities, mainly university professors and economic specialists. Biographical articles, in the case of all living persons, have been, wherever possible, submitted to those persons. Articles on foreign countries have been either written by or submitted for revision to residents in those countries. Serviceableness has been sought by making the work, while, as shown above, accurate and scholarly, yet popular and not technical. The encyclopedia is for general workers and students It has been prepared by specialists for those who are not specialists. Its references to books are therefore in the main only to books available to English readers. Articles have been arranged as to length and quality with this idea of serviceableness in view. Articles upon the best-known men are therefore often the shortest and sometimes such men are even omitted. This is not because they did not contribute to social reform, and often to a much larger degree than many who are considered, but because the general reader does not need the story of their life. The space allotted to articles, therefore, has considered the needs of the reader more than the absolute importance of the subject. To the more important articles are appended brief bibliographies of the best available books upon the subject. There has been no attempt to make these exhaustive, but they will serve to guide the student in his search for more complete information. The subject of social reform is so vast, and may be made so inclusive, that almost any subject might have been included here; but the encyclopedia aims to distinguish sharply between subjects that belong mainly to the individual and those that belong mainly to society A A few subjects, such as religion, science, etc., that concern both the individual and society, are treated only in their social aspects. (The aim, however, has been to give on all the broad range of social reform the experience of the past, the facts of the present, the proposals for the future. The biographical portions will be found to be especially full. Of living persons the encyclopedia treats only those having national recognition, and has thus been compelled to pass by many earnest and often more useful and successful workers in local fields. In statistics we have gone to the best sources, but it must be remembered that statistics and statements in social reform are somewhat like the endeavor to count blooms in springtime. Even while the count is going on, new blossoms are continually appearing, while not seldom a sudden chill wind carries some blossoms which have been counted, to the ground before the tally 'ote. It is springtime in social reform, and spring can never be put into any book. - Dossible we have made use of governmental and official figures, even while figures “... more recent, but less reliable. 1... cases like those of political returns, not “nents, ve are indebted to year books, such as “The Statesman's Year The World Almanac,” the “Reformer's Year Book,” “The Daily Mail " ..., unt of Australia and New Zealand,” to German, French, a- 4

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