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other year books. To the large number of economic and sociological magazines, books, and sources quoted in this work we give credit in the text.

We desire to express our great indebtedness to the very large number of writers, scholars, and authorities who have contributed valuable articles, or have done the sometimes equally valuable work of revision. For the large majority of these it has been a gratuitous labor of love which alone has made this work financially possible. The names of our main contributors and revisers we give below, but the list is not a complete one. To a much longer list of society secretaries and others we are indebted for valuable assistance and material.

Especial acknowledgment is due to our assistant editor, RUDolph M. BINDER, Ph.D., and to FRANK H. Vizet ELLY for valued aid and suggestion, both in the preparation of material and in seeing

the work through the press. W. D. P. BLISS.

New York City, March, 1908.

PRINCIPAL CONTRIBUTORS OR REVISERS OF ARTICLES

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DUNNING, WM. A., Ph.D.
Edwards, John.
Ellis, A. B.
Ellwood, CHAs. A., Ph.D.
ERSTER, Wilson, Hon.
FARRAND, Livingston, Ph.D.
Fellows, GEORGE E., Ph.D.
FERGUson, W. P. F.
GARDIN ER, Robert H.
GARRison, WM. Lloyd, LL.D.
GeoRef, Esther B.
George, H ENRY.
Ghent, W. J.
Gibbons, J. CARDINAL.
Giddings, FRANKLIN H., Ph.D.
GilmAN, N. P., Ph.D.
Glazier, J. BRUCE.
Glocker, T. Wesley, Ph.D.
Gompe Rs, SAMUEL.
GRAHAM, Rob ERt.
GREY, EARL.
HAdley, ARTHUR T., LL.D.
H'All, PREscott F., Ph.D.
HANGER, G. W. W.
HAtch, Leon ARD W.
HAw, GeoRo E.
HEADLAM, Stew ART D.
HEBBARD, Rob ERT W.
HENDERson, Alf Red H.
HENDERson, C. R., Ph.D.
H E R Ron, BELv A. M.
Hicks, ALF Reu.
HILLIARD, S. H., Rev.
HILLQUIt, MoRRIs.
Hinds, WM. A.
HoFFMAN, FREDERick L.
Hollist ER, A. G.
Holt, By RoN W.
How ARD, GeoRoe Elliott, Ph.D.
How ARD, John R., Jr.
How Es, EDITH M.

HUNTER, Rob ERt.
JANNEY, O. Edwa Rd, M.D.
Johnson, HERBERT S., D.D.
Jones, J. P., D.D.
Jorda N, DAvid STARR, LL.D.
Kelley, Florence.
KENNEDY, JAMEs B., Ph.D.

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KIRR, WILLIAM J.
KRopotkin, PRINCE.
LA IDLAw, WAlter, Ph.D.
LEAvitt, John BRooks.
LEE, FRANcis WAtts.
LEF FINGw ELL, ALFRED.
Le RossicNol, J. E., Ph.D.
LIN psey, SAMUEL McKUNE, Ph.D.
LoGAN, F. B.
Lovejoy, Owen R.
MAILLY, Willia M.
MARK HAM, Edwin.
MAR riN, John.
MILLFR, A. C., Ph.D.
Mitch ELL, GUY Elliott.
Mitch ELL, John.
Montgomery, CA Roll Ne W., Mrs.
Moody, John.
MUNSTERBERG, Hugo, Prof., LL.D.
My ERs, Gustavus.
PANKHURST, CHRist ABEL H.
PARsons, FRANK, Ph.D.
Paton, John B., D.D.
PEASE, EDw ARD R.
PLEHN, CARI. C., Ph.D.
PLUNKitt, HoRAce, Rt. Hon.
Post ERoy, ElTweed.
Ro BERts, Peter, Ph.D.
Roosev ELT, THEoDoRE, Pres.
SALMox, Lucy M., Ph.D.
SEABURY, JUDGE.
SEAGER, HENRY R., Ph.D.
SEILHAC, Count Louis De.
SIR Es, GeoRGE C.
SINCLAIR, Upton. -
SMITH, ARTHUR H., D.D.
SoMERSET, LADY.
SPARGo, John.
SPRAGUE, Philo. W., Rev.
STARR, Jacob W.

Stev ENs, Li LLIAN M. N., Mrs.
Stew ART, Eth ELBERT.
Straus, Osca R S., Hon.
STRAYER, PAUL Moore.
STELzle, CHAs., Rev.
STRONG, Josiah, D.D.
Swartz, C. L.

TATUM, W. O.
TAYLoR, G. R. S.
TAYLoR, GeoRGE Romey N.
Taylor, GRAHAM, D.D.
THoMPson, CHARLEs L., D.D.
THoMson, D. D., LL.D.
Tolm AN, WM. H., Ph.D.
TRUE Blood, BENJAMIN D., LL.D.
Tuckwell, GERT RUDE M.
Tyson, Rob ERt.
VANCE, Wilson.
Vasey, S. ARCHIBAL.D.
VETTER, D., Dr.
Vivi AN, HENRY, M.P.
Vizetelly, FRANK H.
WALLING, WM. E.
WARNER, John De Witt.
WARNotte, DANIEL.
WashingtoN, Book ER. T., LL.D.
WEBB, Sids EY, LL.D.
WEBER, ADNA. F.

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THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SOCIAL RE FORM

ABANDONED FARMS: The growth of modern comercial centers, the development of factor * *ns, the increasing part played in economic life ow to railroad, the general drift of population oth country to the cities (see Citigs) have one ston sections of the country, to the abanong of farms. The extent to which this has to place has been by some exaggerated, and 'ho prominence given to the subject a few years to led to investigations which have shown the og ration; nevertheless, the number of abanood farms, at times at least, has not been Toll, and the fact has a significance of the most solous character.

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ABBOTT, LYMAN: Editor-in-chief of The Out** New York); born at Roxbury, Mass., 1835. He was graduated from the University of the Cry of New York in 1853 (D.D., New York and Harvard; I L.D., Western Reserve Univers" and in 1863 was ordained Congregational on ter. From 1860–65 he officiated as pastor in Tom Haute, Ind., and 1865-09 at the New Engand horch in New York. For three to. of 8 he was secretary of the American Union on Freedomen's). In 1869 Dr. Abbott focu from his pastorate, and for several Yoseoted the “Literary Record" of Harper's of ori He was associate editor of The on in Union with Henry Ward Beecher, and in 1883 succeeded the latter as pastor of Ply* oth Church, Brooklyn, resigning in 1898. In of Dr Bocher sold out his interest in The

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* Dr. Abbott believes that the problem of solitical economy is to seek a more equitable

winter, his always been interested in the wel

fare of the people, and so far as she has been able, both in Scotland, and in Ireland and Canada, during her husband's viceroyalties, she has given of her wealth, her influence, and her personal service to the improvement of the conditions under which the people, especially women, live. She has been at various times president of the International Council of Women, the Women's Liberal Federation, Scottish Women's Liberal Federation, and the Women's industrial Council. In 1900 she edited the “Report of the International Con

ress of Women.” She is the author of “Through

Xanada with a Kodak." Address: Vice Regal Lodge, Dublin, Ireland.

ABOLITION MOVEMENT: Abolitionist is a term used in the United States specifically for those who favored and sought to effect the abolition of slavery. We here consider the subject simply in the United States. (For the general history of the abolition-of slavery, see SLAv ERY.) It should not be forgotten, however, that the abolition movement in the United States was but a part of this more general movement.

Two tendencies, one from Christianity, the other from French naturalism and revolutionism, contributed mainly to the abolitionist movement in America. Its first open expression was among the Society Friends or Quakers. As early as 1671 George Fox, in England, had spoken against slavery, and in 1696 the Pennsylvania Quakers advised their members against the slave trade. In 1774 all persons engaged in the traffic, and in 1776 all who would not emancipate their slaves, were excluded from membership among the Friends. John Wool MAN (1720–73) and Anthony Benezet (1713–84) were prominent in this stage of the movement. In 1774 a Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery was formed by James Pemberton and Dr. Benjamin Rush. and in 1787 was reconstructed under the presidency of FRANKLIN.

The arguments of these earliest antislavery writers and workers were drawn mainly from general philosophic, humanitarian, and Christian principles. With Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Patrick Henry, and other Southerners, all of whom deplored and often spoke against, altho most of them practised, slavery, other reasons entered in. While not insensible to the humanitarian arguments, they based their position largely on the above-mentioned French political principles then spreading through this country, and thus regarded slavery as a giant evil., inconsistent alike with the principles of the Declaration of Independence and the spirit of Christianity. Other abolition societies were organized: In New

Early Abolitionists

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Absenteeismi

York . (1785); Rhode Island (1786), Maryland (1789), Connecticut (1700), Virginia (1791), New 'o. (1792). The abolition of the slave trade v Great Britain in 1807, and by the United States in 1808, was a great advance. In 1777 Vermont formed a constitution abolishing slavery, and was soon followed by Massachusetts and other states, while many others gradually abolished it. In 1819–20, the opponents of slavery made a stern resistance to the admission of Missouri as a slave state, but were defeated. The struggle, however, resulted in the so-called Missouri Compromise (1820), whereby slavery was legalized to the south of 36° 30' N. Lat., and prohibited in all states that might be formed north of it (Mason and Dixon's line). California, however, tho lying partly south of this line, was admitted as a free state (1850), the Southern party obtaining in compensation the amendment of the Fugitive Slave Law, making it penal to harbor runaway slaves or to aid in their escape. But this is to anticipate. From 1801–47 there were various efforts participated in by Jefferson, Henry Clay, and James Madison, in the South, and Bishop Hopkins, Rufus King, President Harrison, and Dr. Channing in the North, to colonize the blacks in Africa. Liberia was declared independent in 1847. In 1831–32 the insurrection of Nat Turner in Virginia excited a strong desire for gradual abolition. The first leader in immediate abolition was William Lloyd GARRison, a Massachusetts printer who (1829–30) worked with LUNDY on his “The Genius of Universal Emancipation,” published at Baltimore. In 1831 he began publishing The Liberator in Boston, and by 1832 the New England Antislavery Society was formed. In 1833 Garrison visited England and secured from Wilberforce, Zachary Macaulay, Henry Brougham, and others, a condemnation of the colonization societies. Garrison's principles were, in his own words—and they soon became the principles of all abolitionists, however they differed in method—that “the right to enjoy liberty is inalienable"; that “to invade it is to usurp the prerogative of Jehovah”; that “every man has a right to his own body, to the products of his labor, to the protection of law, and to the common advantages of society.” He said: “We plant ourselves upon the Declaration of our Independence and the truths of Divine revelation as upon the everlasting rock. We shall send forth agents to lift up everywhere the voice of remonstrance, of warning, of entreaty, and of rebuke. We shall circulate unsparingly and extensively antislavery tracts and periodicals. We shall enlist the pulpit and the press in the cause of the suffering and the dumb. We shall aim at a purification of the churches from all participation in the guilt of slavery. We shall spare no exertions nor means to bring the whole nation to speedy repentance.” Such were the principles, and such, at least in the earlier stages, were the methods of the abolitionists. Garrison was a firm believer in Christ. He proclaimed himself a follower of the Prince of Peace. Human life he came to regard as sacred above all things. Capital punishment and war, as well as slavery, were to him ano' to most abolitionists an abhorrence. Viewing the subject thus from the standpoint of morals rather than of any political expediency, slavery was to him a sin not to be gradually

Immediate Abolition

abolished, but to be left. In The Liberator (vol. i., No. 1, Saturday, Jan. 1, 1831), he wrote: “I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. On this subject I do not wish to think or speak or write with moderation. No, No! Tell a man whose house is on fire to give a moderate alarm; tell him to moderately rescue his wife from the hands of the ravisher; tell the mother to gradually extricate her babe from the fire into which it has fallen, but urge me not to use moderation in a case like the present! I am in earnest; I will not equivocate; I will not excuse; I will not retreat a single inch; and I will be heard.” From the beginning, Garrison had declared for no union with slaveholders, and proclaimed the Constitution “a covenant with death and an agreement with hell.” In Dec., 1833, The Ameri- the American Antilayory Society can Anti- was formed, with Beriah Green as Slavery }o and Lewis Tappan, and Society ohn G. Whittier, secretaries. Theodore D. Weld, Samuel J. May, and Wendell Philips began lecturing. In 1833, Miss Prudence Crandall, in Connecticut, opened her school to negro girls. She was ostracized, the legislature forbade such schools, and she was imprisoned. Riots against abolitionists became frequent. Prices, ranging from $3,000 to $20,000, were reported to be set by the South on the heads of several of the leading abolitionists. The latter sum was offered by six Mississippians for Garrison's head, and the same amount, made up publicly in New Orleans, was offered for the person of Arthur Tappan. In 1837 a slave was burned to death over a slow fire in St. Louis; and for his words in denouncing this, Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy, a Presbyterian minister who had established an abolitionist newspaper in Alton, Ill., was mobbed and killed. Garrison, in Boston, was seized by a mob, dragged by a rope half naked through the streets, and was only rescued by a posse comitatus and conveyed to the mayor's office. Abolitionist lecturers and sympathizers were denounced from the pulpit and subjected to every indignity. Judge BIRNEY declared that “the American churches were the bulwarks of American slavery.” Such were some of the obstacles that abolitionist "apostles' had to contend with. Yet while the majority of pulpits either denounced the Garrisonian agitation or else were silent on the subject of slavery, there were ministers in all denominations who were outspoken in their denunciation of this great wrong, and valiantly esporou the cause of the slave. In the Unitaria:, denomination alone 170 ministers signed a protest against slavery, many of them preaching fearlessly against it, and willingly sacrificing favor and popularity in the cause of freedom. As a not unnatural result of the popular prejudice and indifference, the Garrisonian wing now became very radical. They were accused of advocating every kind of innovation, from woman's rights to free love, and were freely denounced as “come-outers” and “infidels.” Birney, the Tappans, Gerrit Smith, Whittier, John Jay, Edward Beecher, Thomas Morris, and others left the original organization of the Garrisonians, and in 1840 organized the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society. They felt that the time was come for the organization of a new political party, while the Garrisonians continued to radically urge their doctrines through all parties. As a result, in 1840, the LIBERTY PARTY

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