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Frrurh Portrait Gallery.
denly removed by death, he would, doubtless, have checked that outbreak, and thus have delayed the ad
vent of the republic. In private, he was still abandoned No. 1.-MIRABEAU.
to profligacy, but in public, apprared as a virtuous man. GREAT and sudden changes generally produce, as
Bought and sold to satisfy his lavish expenditure, he sudilenly, greut men, whose names are linked with retained the incorruptibility of his genius. His own momentous events in the pages of history, and pass glory was his idol, and the people were the instruments down to posterity in unison—the men and the cause by which he sought to set it up. Had he been as they espoused or opposed. Such was eminently the honest, as incorruptible, as one who after him wielded case with the first French revolution ; such was also almost equal power, he would have been the great man, the case in 1848: in the former instance, the names
as he was the great orator of his age. of Mirabeau, Danton, Marat, and Robespierre were
Mirabeau died whilst at the apex of his popularity; scarce known before the agitation commenced; in the had he lived but a little while longer, he would have lutter, Lamartine, Louis Blanc, and Ledru Rollin were
been execrated as universally as he was feared or adcomparatively obscure prior to the governmental op
mired. But the evidences of his dishonesty were not position to the Reform banquet—now all are insepar- destined to see the light until he was in his tomb. ably united in the history of their times.
Death, in its approuch, brought no terrors: like Cicero, Mirabeau was born of respectable parents, who af- he applauded the judgment of Apollo, who gave death terwards became exiles from the land of his birth. In to the suppliant that prayed for the gift which should one of the stormy excesses of the Florentine struggle be best for man; and, as dissolution approached, he for liberty, they were cast from Florence, and estab- said—“sprinkle me with perfumes, crown me with lished themselves with their family in Provence. flowers, that I may thus enter upon eternal sleep.” Here many of the scenes of the future statesman's Probably the manner of his death was youthful career were performed. Entering the army quence of his opinion concerning religions, in referat an early age he acquired the habits of his compa
ence to which he said, in one of his most remarkable nions, intrigue and gaming being the most prominent, orations, Hithcrto we have seen these things through and these he indulged to excess. Whilst deeply sunk
a magic lanthorn, but now the glass is broken. After in the mire, from whence none sought to rescue him, his death his remains were buried with the obat the instigation of his father, he attempted to form sequies of a monarch in the Pantheon, surrounded by a matrimonial alliance with a wealthy heiress of Pro
two hundred thousand spectators, whom his fame had vence, and, by dint of stratagem, succeeded. This attracted to view the ceremony of consigning his ashes union was an unfortunate one; and his thoughts were
to the grave. soon turned in another direction :-he fled to Holland The king, though he regretted his death, seemed with the wife of M. de Monier, where in a few months relieved by his absence; and the National Assembly they were separated; the fugitive lady was confined accepted it as a signal for them to arouse themselves. in a convent, and her lover incarcerated in the dun- All parties felt themselves in the position of a Ulind geon of Vincennes It was in this cell that his cha
man suddenly restored to sight, or a lame man to the racter as an orator and statesman was matured. The
use of his limbs : though capable of seeing or walking strong passions of his breast were excited in secret; the change had come upon them so suddenly that they and with a tesperate effort he resolved to become known, became transfixed with wonder, incapable of motion whatever might be the sacrifice; he was even prepared until gradually confidence was regained, and the to sell himself, so that celebrity might be attained.
called into action. Being rejected by the nobility at the election of Aix, he cast himself upon the people, and claimed their sup
THE SHORT TIME MOVEMENT. port. His career as an orator commenced, and he was hailed as another Cicero, thundering forth his eloquence to the populace. In him the spirit of the old orators W’aig politicians have been likened to the Opossum of Grrece and Rome flourished again. Me boldly an- which, naturalists tell us, is a quick climbing animal, nounced himself to the Marseillais, as Tully would though in other respects heavy and helpless.' Now, have done had he been placed in his position, “When that Whigs are quick climbers cannot be gainsayed, the last of the Gracchi expired,” said Mirabeau, "he but that they are either heavy or helpless is by no flung dust towards heaven, and from this dust sprung means clear. Incapable statesmen many consider Marius! Marius, less great for having exterminated the them, but they are lightness itself, especially about the Cimbri thun for having prostrated in Rome'the aris- fingers, and not at all helpless in business of mischief. tocracy of the nobility.”
Lord Stanley, by one memorable speech, fully estabHe entered the National Assembly, and there his lished their claim to be considered the most adroit of power was felt as though he were, in himself, the thimble-riggers. Their sharp practice towards the whole people; the throne appeared but as on a level factory operatives will add to their ancient reputation. with himself, the nobility felt themselves subdued by Unable openly to get rid of the Ten Hours' Bill these his presence, and the clergy cringed in submission quick climbing animals are industriously employed in ready to do his bidding-all parties and all persons neutralizing its provisions. Their philosophical minds waited his commands, feeling assured that he could are shocked at the idea of governmental interference either serve or destroy them. The effect produced on between capital and its victims, even though those vio-political opponents by his presence gratified his vanity, tims are weak women, or, still more helpless children. and he was frequently heard to declare, on being in- Haunted by the ghost of a bankrupt revenue--well formed of a stormy debute during his absence, that he remembering, when last in office, their Chancellor of would restore a colm in the National Assembly by the Exchequer was described as sitting upon the top shewing his boar's head to them.*
The violent com- of an empty chest, by the side of bottomless deficiences, motions which seemed to forbode the impending storm fishing for a budget-they think it safer to turn the were in his power, by his own arm he restrained the screw on labour than to educate the labourer. They outbreak of ihe Revolution, and, had he not been sud- know well that excessive toil is incompatible with
mental improvement. They are fully aware that to * All accounts agree that the countenance of Mirabeau, when
reduce the hours of labour is, in fact, to enlarge the excited by opposition, was terrible to behold.
powers of intellect; but then the empty chest must be filled at whatever expense of blood or brains. Less und truly meetings of such, whether in country or town, toil, more enjoyment, is the cry of the people ; more are farces. No, no; a rich and powerful minority work, less time for enjoyment, and no time at all for never has been known to deal justly with a weak thought, seems to be the darling maxim of their rulers. poverty-stricien majority, until frightened by pressure Whig statesmen make fine speeches in tavour of edu- from without. The spirit of oppression is generally in cation, just as they make fine speeches in favour of alliance with the spirit of cowardice. Unjust men are Church, and all other kinds of reform; but, practically, seldom valiant; and none are less so than unjust ministhey care for none of these things. The most ungrate- ters of state. Show a bold front; determine no longer ful of politicians, their affection for the people is to be juggled out of those rigbts the law itself' allows; very like that bestowed by wolves on lambs, except be civil, while civilly dealt with, not otherwise; let when needing popular assistance in their quick climb- those who wanlonly oppress do so at their own risk ings to power.
and peril. In this mad world the being too harmles i Happily the operative classes have shrewd suspicions is quite possible, and ofteu more injurious to liberty on this head, and are alive to the importance of taking than wickedness itself. We love gentleness of spirit this Ten Hours Bill into their own hands. The ill
and umiability of disposition; but, alas ! they often dissembled treachery of false ministers has aroused
perpetuate injustice by a too great tenderness towards the slumbering lion ;-agitation is once more the order
tyrants. of the day. The great meeting recently held in the
There is a story told, we believe in old Æsop, to the Manchester Free Trade Hall will be a heavy blow and
effect that an eеl complaiued of the injustice of men, sore discouragement to our vacillating rulers, who con
their treatment of eels, who, quoth he, are skivned vert free trade into free, booty, and, wbile forward
most mercilessly, whilst you serpents, so very like us,
are seldom ill used. enough to punish crimes against the property of the
The reason is, said the serpent, rich, permit to pass unpunished and unmolested far
no man hurts us with impunity. And really the reworse crimes against the property of the poor. The mark would do no discredit to that wisest of all the Ten Hours Bill is part and parcel of the law of this beasts of the field; for men in general do not scruple land. What, then, is the Whig Home Secretary about least liable to be trumpled upon who, with power to resist,
to injure if they can do so with safety. Those are while Messrs. Clarke, and others, work their infant victims fifteen hours a day? Perhaps, like the heathen fail not in spirit. I'he working classes in this country god. he hath fallen asleep, or gone on a journey. Were
have hitherto allowed themselves to be skinned with the working people to break a law for the protection impunity, causing no more terror, in those who do the of rich mill-owners, or any other set of rich people, business for them, than eеls did to the philosophic old (especially if whiggishly inclined) what they call the
woman, who when remonstrated with for her cruelty to majesty of the law would soon be vindicated. It is the Talk as we may about obedience to rulers, the ruling
wards them, merely observed they were used to it. old story
few must be made uneasy or the suffering many will “ Plate sin with gold,
never obtain substantial relief.
Arm it in rags, a pigmy's straw doth pierce it."
THE FALLEX STAR; their ministerial allies may be brought to respect for
OR THE HISTORY OF A FALSE RELIGION. the law and the performance of their duty by the
BY SIR E. L. BULWER. getting up of a good big fund. Now, without doubt, fighting gold with gold is very like diamond cut dia
AND the STARS sate, each on his ruby throne, and watched, mond ; but then the gold is almost all on one side.
with sleepless eyes upon the world. It was the night ushering Mill-owners have a monopoly of it; and we venture in the new year, a night on which every Star receives from the to predict, that the biggest fund we are likely to get Archangel that then visits the universal galaxy, its peculiar will not answer the purpose; and, moreover, that our charge. The destinies of nien and empires are then portioned thimble-rigging ministry will not dare to enforce the forth for the coming year, and, unconscious to ourselves, our Factory Act, unless alarmed into honest boldness by a
fates become minioned to the stars. A hushed and solemn good stiff pressure from without. Not a farthing need night is that in which the dark Gates of Tiine open to receive
the ghost of the Dead Year, and the young and radiant Stranger be subscribed, if the working people act upon their knowledge that whig statesmen are made of squeezeable night, it is said, that there is to the Spirits that we see not
rushes forth from the clouded chasms of Eternity. On that material. Agitate! agitate ! agitate !—for agitation
a privilege and a power: the dead are troubled in their forgotwill do the job. Mere noise is mere nonsense. No peo- ten graves, and men feast and laugh, while demon ard angel ple ever gained anything by shouting; and our contem- are contending for their doom. porary the Spectator has done the state good service by It was night in heaven; all was unutterably silent, the music some remarks on cheering, great cheering, and so forth, of the spheres had paused, and not a sound came from the at publio meetings. We recommend an attentive pe- angels of the stars; and they who sate upon those shining thrones rusal of the article in which they appear, Not that
were three thousand and ten, each resembling each. Eternal we object to cheering, great cheering, or even tremen
youth clothed their radiant limbs with celestial beauty, and on
their faces was written the dread of calm, that fearful stillness dous cheering, upon suitable occasions ;-by no means.
which feels not, sympathises not with the duoins over which it They are often the outward and, as it were, visible
broods, War, tempest, pestilence, the rise of empires, and sign of patriotic determination; but if the people would
their fall, they ordain, they compass, unexultant and unconibe victorious in their struggle with rich knaves and passionate. The fell and thrilling crimes that stalk abroad time-serving, mammon-worshipping politicians, they when the world sleeps, the parricide with his stealthy step, and must do something more than shout. It is lamentable horrent brow, and the lifted knife; the unwifed mother that to see enthusiasm evaporate in noise. Let us have less glides out and looks behind, and behind, and shudders, and cry and more wool than heretofore. If the friends of casts her babe upon the river, and hears the wail, and pities this righteous movement are really opposed to all com
not -- the splash, and does not tremble, these the starred kings promise ; if they mean what they say, and will act up
behold-to these they lead the unconscious step; but the guilt
blanches not their lustre, neither doth remorse wither their to what they mean, we promise them complete and
unwrinkled youth. Each Star wore a kingly diadem; round speedy success. The political opossums who, having
tae loins of each was a graven belt, grayen with many and climbed to office, cling so tenaciously to its sweets, will mighty signs; and the foot of each was on a burning ball, and do whatever a resolute majority bids them. At do
the right arm drooped over the knee as they. bent down from nothing empty-patel shouters they can afford to laugh; their thrones; they moved not a limb or feature, save the finger
of the right hand, which ever and anon moved slowly pointing, And the crowned Star gazed unlauntedly on the face of the and regulated the fates of men as the hand of the dial speaks Archangel, and answered, the career of time.
“Yea!--grant me but one trial." One only of three thousand and ten wore not the same aspect Ere the Archangel could reply, the furthest centre of the as his crowned brethren ; a Star, smaller than the rest, and less heaven was rent as by a thunderbolt; and the Divine herald luminous; the countenance of this Star was not impressed with covered his face with his hands, and a voice low and sweet, the awful calmness of the others; but there were sullenness and and mild with the consciousness of unquestionable power. discontent upon his mighty brow.
spoke forth to the refining Star. And this Star said to himself,"Behold, I am created less "The time has arrived when thou mayest have thy wish, glorious than my fellows, and the Archangel apportions not to Below thee, upon yon solitary plain, sits a mortal, gloomy as me the same lordly destinies. Not for me are the dooms of thyself, who, bórn under thy influence, inay be moulded to thy kings and bards, the rulers of empires, or, yet nobler, the will." swayers and harmonists of souls, Sluggish are the spirits and The voice ceased as the voice of a dream. Silence was over base the lot of men I am ordained to lead through a dull life to the seas of space, and the Archangel, once more borne aloft, a fameless grave. And wherefore ?-is it mine own fault, or slowly soared away into the farther heaven, to promulgate the is the fault which is not mine, that I was woven of beams less divine bidding to the Stars of far distant worlds. But the soul glorious than my brethren? Lo! when the Archangel comes of the discontented Star exulted within itself; and it said. “I I will bow not my crowned head to his decrees,
I will appear
will call forth a king from the valley of the herdsman, that as the ancestral Lucifer before me: he rebelled because of his shall trample on the kings subject to my fellows, and render the glory, I because of my obscurity; he from the ambition of charge of the contemned Star more glorious than the minions pride, and Į from its discontent.
of its favoured brethren ; thus shall I revenge neglect-thus And while the Star was thus communing with himself, the
shall I prove my claim hereafter to the heritage of the great earth" upward heavens were parted as by a long river of light, and adown that stream swiftly, and without sound, sped the Arch- At that time, though the world had rolled on for ages, and angel Visiter of the Stars; his vast limbs floated in the liquid the pilgrlmage of man had passed through various states of lustre, and his outspread wings, each plume the glory of a sun, existence, which our dim traditionary knowledge has not prebore hini noiselessly along; but thick clouds veiled his lustre served, yet the condition of our race in the northern heinisphere. from the eyes of mortals, and while above all was bathed in the was then what we, in our imperfect lore, have considered to be serenity of his splendour, tempest and storm broke below over among the earliest. the children of the earth: “He bowed the heavens and came down, and darkness was under his feet.”
( To be continued.) And the stillness on the faces of the Stars became yet more still, and the awfulness was bumbled into awe. Right above their thrones paused the course of the Archangel; and his wings MANCHESTER AND ITS BISHOP. stretched from east to west, overshadowing, with the shadow of light, the immensity of space.
Then forth, in the shining stillness, rolled the dread music of his voice: and, fulfilling the
The Right Reverend the Lord Bisho“) of Manchesheraldry of God, to each Star he appointed the duty and the ter returns to London, where he will reach a Charity charge, and eacn Star bowed his head yet lower as it received Sermon, to-morrow. Owing to the (nerons nature of the fiat, while his throne rorked and trembled at the Majesty of the Right Reverend Prelute's parliamentary duties, – the Word. But at last, when each of the Brighter Stars had, his lordship being now. sitting on several Committees in succession, received the mandate, and the viceroyalty over
of the House of Peers--it is extremely doubtfu! when the nations of the earth, the purple and diadems of kings
he may be able to return to Manchester.- Manchester the Archangel addressed the lesser Star as he sate apart from his fellows:
Guardian, Saturday, June 23rd. " Behold," said the Archangel, “the rude tribes of the north, the fishermen of the river that flows beneath, and the
We confess to having been startled by this hunter of the forests that darken the mountain tops with announcement.
To wonder at nothing may verdure! these be thy charge, and their destinies thy care. Nor deem thou, O Star of the sullen beams, that thy duties are
very wise, but so sublimne a height of less glorious than thy brethren; for the peasant is r.ot less to wisdom we have not yet reached ; and great is thy master and mine than the monarch; nor doth the doom of
our surprise that my Lord Bishop of Manempires rest more upon the sovereign than on the herd. The passions and the heart are the dominions of the Stars, a mighty chester should desert his post as curer of realm: --vor less mighty beneath the hide that garbs the shepherd souls in order to sit on Railway Committees. than the jewelled robes of the eastern kings.”
Doubtless Railway management might be Then the Starlifted his pale front from his breast, and answered the Archaugel :
improved, but such matters belong to the "Lo!", he said, “ages have past, and each year thou hast pomps and vanities of this wicked world from appointed me to the same ignoble charge. Release me, I pray the contaminating influence of which Bishops thee, from the duties I scorn; or, if thou wilt that the lowlier race of men be my charge, give unto me the charge not of many,
should carefully guard themselves. but of one, and suffer me to breathe unto him the desire that of one sinner is of more importance than all spurns the valley of life, and ascends its steeps. If the humble the railways in England. To save souls ought are given to me, let there be amongst them one whom I shall lead on the nuission to a base the proud; for, behold, oh Appointer to be the only business of divines, who, though of the Stars, as I have sate for ur.counted years upon my solitary purity itself, cannot touch pitch without being throne, bronding over the things beneath, my spirit hath gath-defiled. Serving God and Mammon is a ered wisdom from the changes that shift below. Looking upon tha tribes of the earth, I have seen how the multitude are hopeless business, which scripture expressly swayed, and tracked the steps that lead weakness into power; forbids our engaging in; and if the laity are and fain would I be the ruler of one who, if abased, should
apt to forget law in looking after the PROFITS, aspire to rule.!!
As a sullen cloud over the face of noon was the change on the clergy are surely bound to show weaker the brow of the Archangel.
fellow mortals a shining example of contempt só Proud and melancholy Star," said the Herald, “thy wish would war with the courses of the invisible DesTINY, that, throned
What shall it pro
for worldly-mindedness. far above, sways and harmonises all; the source from which fit a man if he gain the whole world and lose the lesser rivers of fate are eternally gushing through the heart his own soul? How shall riches avail in of the universe of things. Thinkest thou that thy wisdom of itself can lead the peasant to become a king?"
the world of spirits ? Or what shall a man
give in exchange for his soul? These are appertaining to his pastoral office outshoot awful questions that Bishops, who prefer the the devil at his own bow. If so many thouperformance of parliamentary to christian sands of souls in Manchester alone are booked duties, will find difficult to answer, Feed for Hell, the overseer of souls in this diocese my lambs, said Christ; a saying little re- is inexcusable : he should be here to supergarded by government-appointed shepherds intend the opening of a Railway to Heaven, of his flock, who, except in shearing time, seeing that the ordinary old coach road thither leave the sheep to take care of themselves has been deserted for many a day. We say this, and get into the fold as best they may. Can not profanely, but in sober earnestness.
We such things be without our special wonder. grieve to think that, while the Devil's kingPerhaps our consciences are over scrupulous dom is made surpassingly attractive, and, and tender; perhaps we understand not the thanks to clerical industry, the broad and higher mysteries of salvation; or, perhaps well-beaten path conducting thereto, may be the text which expressly forbids our laying travelled pleasantly as well as rapidly enough, up treasures on earth, and as expressly com- the narrow path which leadeth to salvation, is mands that our thoughts be turned exclusively all but unpassable. It is is though our spiritual heavenward, is a fraudulent interpolation. guides desired to make of heaven a great If s.), the sooner our bishops enlighten us the monopoly, which only themselves and a select better; for they should not preach one doc- circle of friends should be permitted the entrine and practise another. Our national joyment of. religion, it seems to us, had better be given The ordinary in Jonathan Wild preferred up, if non-resident money-hunting bishops punch toany other kind of beverage, chiefly beare to be tolerated. They, of all God's crea- cause he found nothing against it in Scripture. tures, are most bound to keep their hands Will the Bishop of Manchester put in a simiclear of filthy lucre. Most respectfully, then, lar plea for non-residence as this pious we demand of Manchester's Bishop to show ordinary did for punch? Will he declare cause for an absence we could not have be- for non-residence rather than residence, on lieved in, but for the alarming paragraph we the ground that there is nothing against it in have faithfully copied from that veracious in Scripture? We think not, for wise in print the Manchester Guardian, which, by his generation he is aware that there is very the way, we grieve to find has not thought much against it in Scripture. The Bible the matter worthy of an article. How strange emphatically condemns those ministers of God that the pious conductors of that paper should who minister to the Devil by deserting their turn dumb dogs with so fine an opportunity flocks. Hear Saint Paul—À Bishop must be to bark. Such lukewarmness in the cause of blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, Christianity is unaccountable. Are these gen- sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitaltlemen resolved to throw on our young shoul- ity, apt to teach, not given to wine, no striker, ders the entire burthen of exposing non-resi- not greedy of filthy lucre; but patient, not a dent money-hunting bishops, and all other brawler, not covetous, one that ruleth well traders in religion, who devour widows' houses his own house, having his children in subjecand, for a pretence, make long prayers? We tion with all gravity. hupe pot; for the labour, though one of pure
Now, the Bishop of Manchester may, for love, is more than we can well perform single handed. Nevertheless, what man dare ought we know, be a good sort of man, but we dare ; and we are resolved to
we fear that greediness of filthy lucre hinders spare
neither pains nor courage in the cause of souls; and
his ruling well in his own diocese. Far be it if the Bishop of Manchester will not do his from us to insinuate a word against his sobriety duty, we will, at once, proceed to do it for him. or general regard for those of his own house. It is monstrous that souls should perish and No, we despise calumny, and freely, give Manchester pine for its Bishop for so paltry
general character the benefit of onr ignoran equivalent as throwing out a Jew Bill,
ance. What we assert is, that when raising his
mitre'd front in Parliament, he cannot properly raising the price of railway shares. Have we not Reverend authority for it, What the Sun is to the earth, the Bishop
attend to the spiritual concerns of his diocese. that in this benighted town there is a Railway should be to his diocese. If his services may to Hell, with a regular booking office in Camp be dispensed with, why pay for them at so Field*_-Then in God's name let come back, and by the pious exercise of duties high a rate; and of what earthly use is a
Bishop who has'nt time to overlook our affairs ? He
be vigilant, sober, and satisfied with one wife, but what is the use of
* The Rev. W. Gadsby.
him? Where is the quid pro quo for our as sense of dependence upon, the invisible and unknown, money? Are we to starve, because, immersed there can be no greater tyranny, no more presumpin railway or other sublunary speculations, impose his creed or mode of faith upon another. The
tuous wickedness, than for one man to arbitrarily he has not time to feed us God forbid.
frequent attemps to do this, exhibit human nature in With all our love of Bishops, we love ourselves its vilest aspect. Religious wars have ever been the considerably more, and have a mortal distaste most terrible and bloody. Nor is it wonderful that for starvation, whether of body or sonl. We potence, to announce his will, and wreak his vengeance
men who imagine themselves commissioned by Omnitherefore, though at great risk, protest against should be obstinate, self-willed, pitiless, and implacthe conduct of Bishops, Deacons, and others who able. Weapplaud Shadrach, Meschach, and Abednego pocket large salaries for duties unperformed, for refusing to worship the God that Nebuchadnezzer, who neglect the cure of souls at peril of their the king, had set up, yet, many of us, with notable own souls, and by their rapacity, deceit, pride, furnace of inquisitorial fanaticism, all who refuse to ignorance, and impudence, disgust every well pay hypocritical homage before the blood stained constituted mind. We warn these people to shrine of modern Nebuchadnezzars. Every brawling set their houses in order; for though the bigot, who calls down fire from heaven, upon the heads
of others, whose God is not as his God, whose nobler public is a patient animal, its patience may instinct revolts at the idea of all power, wisdom, and ere long lose itself in indignation. We are benevolence, in alliance with weakness, folly, and greatly mistaken if the Manchester public foulest cruelty, have the spirit, though happily not the will much longer submit to be shamefully power of Nebuchadnezzar. They are examples of how robbed, even though such robbery be perpe- perversi n of the religious instinct. We believe that trated for the truest of all established Churches religion, as interpreted by our author, is an essential and in the name of Jesus.
element of human nature, and consequently of civilization, but with the late Thomas Hood, we can
sincerely declare REVIEW.
“Our hearts ferment not with the bigot's leaven, A DISCOURSE ON MATTERS PERTAINING TO RELIGION, All creeds we view with toleration through, BY Theodore PARKER.*— Reprinted from the Ame- And have a horror of regarding heaven, rican Edition, No. 1, BARKER.
As any body's rotten borough.” RELIGION is immortal : if by religion we mean
Appreciating the sage saying of Hobbes, that names
are counters of wise men, but the money of fools, we yearning towards, and sense of dependence upon, that
are neither deceived nor alarmed by such names as invisible and unknown something which we feel is a
Polytheist, Theist, Deist, or Atheist. Let those who reality, though unable by reasoning to satisfy ouran instinct of our nature, as murh so indeed as hunger counters, the merest symbols ir the worla, symbols
too of the most egotistic and pernicious errors. They or thirst. To none is it wanting. Universally, in
are all of one family, whose parentage is by no means some form or o her, men acknowledge the dread mys- Joubtful. But for the overweening conceitof fanaticism, tery of existence, Atheists not excepted. Those
Theism never would have degenerated into idolatry ; whom the rulgar (learned or unlearned) stigmatize as
none would have invented such Gods as wise men such, are no more atheistic than themselves, It is time to raise the veil behind which this great truth has religions so awfully blasphemous that educated human
were shocked from belief in, nor set up by authority been cunningly concealed. By consulting the admir
nature necessarily rejects them with loathing and able Tract whose title stands at the head of this article, the reader will see that men, eminent alike for piety Atheism. Millions of ignorant worshippers prostrated
disgust. Polytheism, Theism, and Deism, preceded and philosophy, have been called atheists, -Thales themselves before idols, called divine, ages before men Anaxagoras, Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle,
were to be found enlightened and bold enough to deXenophanes, both the Zenos, Cicero, and Seneca,
nounce them. Those who first did so, were the first among the ancients; Abelard, Galileo, Kepler, Deş Atheists—Atheism meaning nothing if not opposition Cartes, Leibnitz, Wolf, Locke, Cudworth, -amuel Clarke, Jacob Bohine, Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and, author, who says, the conception of God, as men ex
to the worship of idols, a truth well developed by our Hegel, among the moderns. Even Luther and Melancthon, the great apostles of reformation, lay under pressit in their language, is always imperfect, sometimes the same imputation. But, surely no argument is human thoughts, human feelings, yes, human passions,
self-contradictory, and impossible. Human aitions, necessary to prove that these mighty geniuses were not without Ġou in the world, or opposed to religion. It about the idea of God. Its primitive simplicity and
and all the limitations of mortal man, are collected is true that, with a few exceptions, they refused to
beauty are lost. It becomes self destructive; and worship other men's gods, doeming them mere dream
the conception of God, as man's mind sets it forth, lihe begotten phantoms, nor would they suffer ignorant that of a Griffin or Centaur, or men whose beads do enthusiasts to cajole or frighten thein into a belief that interpretations of Nature, having no foundation in the notion of a being, who, from the very nature of
grow beneath their shoulders, is self-contradictury ; Nature, were divine truths. Faith depends on evidence; but the evidence suffi: been called Atheists, who denied its inconsistency,
things, could not exist. They, for the most part, have cient for fools, may not convince philosophers. Reli
and proved that such a being could not be. gious faith being instinctive, arising solely, as our author thinks, from a sense of dependence upon the unknown, but, as we think, a thirst to know, as well
Kings, aristocrats, tyrants of every description, are slaves in revolt against the sovereign o! the earth, which is the human race, and against the legislation of the universe, which is nature.Robespierre's declaration of rights.
• An eminent American divine.