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Mr. MARRAT submitted the Veronica montana, from Bromborough.
The SECRETARY, in the absence of the Author, read a paper,—“ON THE ADAPTABILITY OF WESTERN AFRICA FOR A COTTON SUPPLY, WITH A SYNOPTICAL NOTICE OF MR. JAMES LEES'S OPINION ON THE SIX MONTHS' COURSE OF SEASONS IN THE TROPICS.” BY THOMAS J. HUTCHINSON, Esq., F.R.G.S., H.B.M. Consul, Fernando Po.
The following paper was then read :
ON THE LIABILITY OF SHELLS TO INJURY FROM THE GROWTH OF A FUNGUS.
BY THE Rev. H. H. HIGGINS, M.A. It has often been observed that shells kept for a considerable time in cabinets, are apt to lose much of their original freshness and beauty of appearance. This kind of injury chiefly affects such specimens as have a bright enamelled surface, which at length becomes dull, and less pleasant to the touch. Several suggestions have been made with reference to the probable cause of the change, which has often been attributed to the efllorescence of saline matter absorbed by the shell; but, so far as I have observed, the specimens most liable to injury from saline incrustation, belong to genera in which the shells are without enamel, as Littorina, Turritella, &c., and many collectors are in the habit of steeping their specimens in fresh water for some days before placing them in their cabinets, a process which is said to be an effectual preservative from injury by saline efflorescence. Mr. Dennison of Woolton attributed the loss of lustre in enamelled shells to the ravages of a minute insect, but had not been able to detect the depredator. Many of the shells in my own cabinet suffered such serious injury during last winter that I was led to investigate the cause, which
, indeed became obvious enough by the use of a microscope. An ordinary lens shewed the enamel of the shell to be beset with small bristly points, and when a portion of the surface was scraped off and submitted to a higher magnifying power, the forms of at least two species of Fungi became apparent, one resembling a Mucor with a globose sporangium, the other, and much more common form, exhibited both simple and moriliform filaments, with an abundance of minute spores, seemingly quite free. After having been carefully washed, the surface of the shell was found to be as it were engraved in some places with stellular marks, in others with striæ forming irregular reticulations, caused no doubt in each instance by the spreading mycelium of the Fungus. It is scarcely necessary to add that attacks of this nature need not be apprehended where shells are kept in a perfectly dry or well ventilated place. A slight deposition of moisture does however frequently occur upon their surfaces whilst shells are undergoing examination, in which case it would be a safe precaution to allow them for a while to remain exposed to the air before returning the drawer to the cabinet.
FROM JUNE, 1857, TO JUNE, 1858.
October 19th, 1857. From the Government, through the Astronomer Royal-Hansen's Tables de la Lune, 4to.
From the Earl of Dundonald—On the Bitumen of Trinidad.
From the Borough Engineer-Report of the Public Baths and Wash-houses.
From the Liverpool Compass Committee-First and Second Reports, as published by the Government and laid before Parliament.
From the Linnean Society- Proceedings, Vol. ii. No 5.
From the Zoological Society-Proceedings, Nos. 314 to 333 inclusive.
From the Royal Astronomical Society-Notices, Vol. xvii., Nos. 7 and 8.
From the Historic Society of Lancashire and CheshireTransactions, Vol. ix.
From the Chemists' Association Report, 1856-57.
From the Natural History Society, Dublin-Proceedings, part of Vol. iv.
From the Geological Society-Journal, Vol vii., Part 4.
From the Warwickshire Natural Historic Society-
From the Editor—Provincial Magazine, 5 Nos.
From Drs. Nevins and Edwards—Copies of their Inquiry into the Action of the Liverpool Water upon Lead.
November 2ud. From Dr. Inman-Volumes of British Associ
ation's Reports, completing series.
From the Royal Astronomical Society-Notices, Vol. xvii., No. 9.
From the Royal Institution of Great Britain-Notices, Part vii., 1857.
From the Plymouth Institution-Report, 1856-57.
From the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club— Proceedings, Vol. iv., No. 1.
From the Author-Rowell's Essay on Pain. November 16th. From the Liverpool Architectural Society-Pro
ceedings, Vol. ii., Part 3.
From the Royal Society, Edinburgh-Proceedings, 1856-57.
From the Linnean Society-Proceedings, Vol. ii., Part 6 November 30th. From the Zoological Society, Proceedings, Nos. 334 to 338 inclusivé.
From the Author--Phenomena of Spinal Irritation, by Dr. Inman.
From J. Barnard Davis, Esq.-Du Chailler's Catalogue of Birds collected in Western Africa.
From C. Bell, Esq.-A Theological Work, in Spanish,
of some antiquity, obtained in Mexico. December 4th. From the Literary and Philosophical Society, Manchester-Memoirs, Vol. xiv.
Dalton's Chemical Philosophy, 3 Vols.
Meteorological Researches. From the Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club-Proceedings, Vol. iii., Parts 2 and 3.
From the Royal Astronomical Society-Notices, Vol. xviii., No. 1.
From the Editor--Provincial Magazine, Nos. 6 and 7.
From the Author—Papers read before the Royal
Society, by the Rev. T. P. Kirkman, M.A. January 11th, 1858. From the Geological Society of Dublin -
Journal, Vol. vii., Part ).
January 11th. From the Geological and Polytechnic Society of the
West Riding of Yorkshire-Report of Proceedings, 1856-57.
From the Philosophical and Literary Society, LeedsReport, 1856-57.
From the Author— The Redhill Catalogue of Circumpolar Stars, by Mr. Carrington. January 25th. From the Natural Iristory Society, Dublin-Proceedings.
From the Author--Sequel to the Statistical Details respecting the Republic of Lubeck, by the Rev. R. Everest, M.A.
From the Royal Astronomical Society-Notices, Vol. xviii., No. 2.
From the Editor— Provincial Magazine, No. 9. February 8th. From R. Stephenson, Esq.—Correspondence regarding the Clinical Teaching in the University of Edinburgh.
From the Editor and Compiler-Documents and Proceedings connected with the Gift of the Free Public Library,
by the Rev. Dr. Hume. February 22nd. From the Author—The Nature of Inflammation, &c., by Dr. Inman.
From the Royal Astronomical Society-Notices, Vol. xviii., No. 3.
From the Manchester Natural History Society-Report.
From the Editor-Provincial Magazine, No. 10. March 8th. From the Linnean Society-Proceedings
, Vol ii., No. 7. March 22nd. From the Publisher, Mr. Greenwood—Photographic Journal, Vols. 1 and 2.
From the Royal Institution—Report.
From the Royal Astronomical Society-Notices, Vol. xviii., No. 4.
From the Editor—Provincial Magazine, No. 11.
From the Publisher- The Emperor Napoleon III. and England. April 19th. From the Royal Astronomical Society - Notices, Vol.
xviii., No. 5.