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hostile attitudes of nations against nations; minor disputes would not so easily grow into serious conflicts, and diplomatic consideration would be infused with some considerations of justice. It would not be derogatory to the most powerful state to submit to the decision of such a court. The feeling of security would promote the feeling of friendship and goodwill; the energies of all nations would be more and more diverted into the channels of useful industry, and directed to further the grand interests cominon to all.

The scheme can be considered chimerical only, when in its totality and completeness it is compared with the present unsettled state of international affairs. But it is quite possible to lay a foundation to such an international court, which might by degrees be developed. If a few of the leading states came to an understanding, many would shortly follow, and we might hope to see the beginning of a new era in the history of Europe and the world in which thinking men would look upon the wars of France and England with the same feelings of regret and pity as we do now on those waged for many generations between England and Scotland.


ROYAL INSTITUTION, 22nd February, 1858.

DR. INMAN, PRESIDENT, in the Chair. Mr. ROBERT LITTLE was elected an Ordinary Meinber. RICHARD BROOKE, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited the first report of The Liverpool Dispensary, published in the year 1799, and made observations on the list of subscribers.

Papers were then read,

“ ON PRESERVED MILKS AND MEATS,” by C. BELL, Esq. in which that gentleman resumed the consideration of the important scientific and practical question of encasing various articles of food, so that they might be kept in a fresh and nutritious condition for a number of years. He opened, in illustration, several canisters of milk, chocolate, eggs, and mutton, all of which were in excellent preservation. (See page 65.]


Before describing his process of making cheap steel, Mr. Clay referred to that of manufacturing iron; the ore being first taken from the blast furnace in the form of "pig-iron," which was a composition of carbon and that metal, and then refined by the puddling operations, by which the carbon to a certain degree was removed and “ wrought iron” produced. To obtain steel a further series of operations had to be gone through, carbon being again united to the iron, but not in the original proportions of the pig-iron. His object was to remove from the pig-iron such a portion of carbon as would give it the composition of steel, and the difficulty lay in removing the necessary quantity. A plan for doing this had been patented in 1850, an excellent wrought steel being produced.

Mr. Clay then explained his method of producing puddled steel, and exhibited numerous specimens which illustrated its strength, fracture, homogeneousness and power to receive in the lathe a very high polish. He considered it a metal exceedingly well adapted, from its

lightness, strength, and cheapness, for ship-building purposes, and the permanent way and rolling stock of railways.


ROYAL INSTITUTION, 8th March, 1858.

The Rev. H. H. HIGGINS, M.A., Sen. V.P., in the Chair.

Attention was drawn to the approaching Solar Eclipse, and the arrangements which had been made for members going on to the central line of eclipse, on the Saturday prior to the event.

The following paper was then read :-





The Eastern world of antiquity, with all the wonderful productions of its fancy, startles us by its strangeness. We must strain our mind and force our imagination in order to understand its ideas, works, and actions. The Greek life lies already nearer to us, its arts and literature already seem to have proceeded from a spirit which is more related to ours. We recognise in the public transactions of that nation the sympathies and passions of our own world. But even Greece, if we look deeper into her private life, has still enough which is strange to 118,

and which tastes of its Eastern origin. The rights of the individual are still submerged in the laws and customs of the state or community. That division within the individual man-how far he belongs to society, and how far he is his own empire-a division which forms the fuudamental law of modern humanity, was still unknown in Greece. The wisest legislation amongst the Greeks, which approaches the nearest to our ideas, – that of Solon-still encroaches in many parts on the autonomy of the moral man. Religion, morals, and civil rights are still unseparated. Therefore if Greece raised in the fine arts the standard of taste, she was unable to lay down rules for the civil intercourse of man with man. The attempts which were made in Sparta, and even Athens, to regulate this intercourse, excite by no means in us the admiration which we are obliged to pay to their architecture and sculpture; nay, their jurisprudence often startles us, as no less strange than the Pyramids of Egypt. According to tradition, the Romans have fetched their laws of the Twelve Tables from Greece; but Gibbon says justly, that, “in all the great lines of public and private jurisprudence the legislators of Rome and Athens appear to be strangers, or adverse to each other;" an opinion witl which even the Greek Dionysius Halicarnassensis so fa) agrees, that he owns the superiority of the Roman law The legislation of Lycurgus, Dracon, and Solon, say: Cicero, appear “ inconditum ac pæne ridiculum,” in compa rison with the Twelve Tables.

If we had to fix with one word the place which we would accord to Rome in the history of civilization we should say it was Rome who first separated civi law from religion and morality, and abolished therewit] a confusion in the relations of man, which retarded inuch the progress of his civilization. Rome was th first state that freed the civil man from the fetters (

religious and moral precepts, and assigned to religion and morality the inner man. By this separation religion and morality gained as much as it was now possible, to place the civil relations of man upon a reasonable, truly humane basis.

The greatest glory and the boldest step of the Romans, in the history of civilization, is their jurisprudence. The fine arts of Rome, her architecture, sculpture, literature, are only more or less successful imitations of Greece; her conquests are destroyed, her roads and aqueducts lie in dust and ruins, but the principles which she has laid down for the meum and tuum, and for the regulation of the family, live still, and will live as long as the world abhors the maxims of communism. “The vain titles of the victories of Justinian are crumbled into dust, but the name of the legislator is inscribed on a fair and everlasting monument,” says Gibbon. The Romans were no deep philosophers. Their idea:

. about the nature of the Deity and her relations to mai are superficial reflections, or pale copies of Greek specu lation; but their mind was peculiarly adapted to pene trate the entangled relations of the practical world Their views were more minute than elevated. This power of their mind fitted them above all former nation: to regulate the social world in its material transactions Rome was thus destined, if I dare say so, to complet Christianity. What Christianity has done for the inne man, Rome did for the outer man. Nay, we are almos inclined to say, Rome, the heathen Rome, christianize the relations of man to man, as far as these relations d not belong to the purely moral and religious world. Th three " præcepta juris” of heathen Rome, honeste viver alterum non lædere, suum cuique tribuere,” waited only fo the addition of the great Christian precept, “love you neighbour as yourself,” to complete the great fundament:

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