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accumulation Adam Smith advantage amount bank notes Bank of England bankers benefit bills bullion capitalists cause cheaper cheapness circulation circumstances commerce commodities competition consequence consumers corn corn laws cost of labour cost of production cultivation currency dealers debt degree demand diminished duction economical effect employed employment enable England equal equivalent exchange exchange value exist expense exports fall favour foreign France Germany gold greater imports income increase of capital industry labour and capital labouring class land landlords law of value les associés less loans lower manufactured means ment millions mode modities money wages necessary obtain payment persons political economy portion precious metals present principle proportion purchase quantity raise rate of interest rate of profit rent rise of price savings society speculation sufficient sumer supply suppose taxation things tion trade value of money whole yards of cloth
Сторінка 338 - Hitherto it is questionable if all the mechanical inventions yet made have lightened the day's toil of any human being. They have enabled a greater population to live the same life of drudgery and imprisonment, and an increased number of manufacturers and others to make large fortunes.
Сторінка 338 - It is scarcely necessary to remark, that a stationary condition of capital and population implies no stationary state of human improvement There would be as much scope as ever for all kinds of mental culture, and moral and social progress; as much room for improving the Art of Living, and much more likelihood of its being improved, when minds ceased to be engrossed by the art of getting on.
Сторінка 537 - Rae that nothing has a greater tendency to promote improvements, in any branch of production, than its trial under a new set of conditions. But it cannot be expected that individuals should, at their own risk, or, rather, to their certain loss, introduce a new manufacture and bear the...
Сторінка 394 - Equality of taxation, therefore, as a maxim of politics, means equality of sacrifice. It means apportioning the contribution of each person towards the expenses of government, so that he shall feel neither more nor less inconvenience from his share of the payment than every other person experiences from his.
Сторінка 393 - Fourthly, by subjecting the people to the frequent visits and the odious examination of the tax-gatherers, it may expose them to much unnecessary trouble, vexation, and oppression...
Сторінка 336 - Under this twofold influence, society would exhibit these leading features: a well-paid and affluent body of labourers; no enormous fortunes, except what were earned and accumulated during a single lifetime; but a much larger body of persons than at present, not only exempt from the coarser toils, but with sufficient leisure, both physical and mental, from mechanical details, to cultivate freely the graces of life, and afford examples of them to the classes less favourably circumstanced for their...
Сторінка 105 - Could we suddenly double the productive powers of the country, we should double the supply of commodities in every market ; but we should, by the same stroke, double the purchasing power. Everybody would bring a double demand as well as supply ; everybody would be able to buy twice as much, because every one would have twice as much to offer in exchange.
Сторінка 133 - It is hardly possible to overrate the value, in the present low state of human improvement, of placing human beings in contact with persons dissimilar to themselves, and with modes of thought and action unlike those with which they are familiar.
Сторінка 336 - I know not why it should be matter of congratulation that persons who are already richer than any one needs to be, should have doubled their means of consuming things which give little or no pleasure except as representative of wealth ; or that numbers of individuals should pass over, every year, from the middle classes into a richer class, or from the class of the occupied rich to that of the unoccupied.