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able accumulation additional amount applied argument become Book bring brought capitalist cause cent CHAPTER checks circumstances classes commercial crises common condition consequent consumers course crisis cultivation demand depends desire diminish diminution educated effect employed employment England expenditure expense extent fall gives greater ground growing higher wages houses importance increase of capital increase of population industry invested iron labouring class land larger less limit living lower lower the rate luxuries manufacture marriages matter means Mill mode natural necessary object obtain occasion pauperism persons political economy poor population portion possible present produce proportion question raised rate of interest rate of profit receive result reward of labour rise says share speculation superintendence supply of labour suppose tends things tion trade turn unproductive wages waste wealth workmen writer
Сторінка 21 - Nor is there much satisfaction in contemplating the world with nothing left to the spontaneous activity of nature; with every rood of land brought into cultivation which is capable of growing food for human beings ; every flowery waste or natural pasture ploughed up, all quadrupeds or birds which are not domesticated for man's use exterminated as his rivals for food, every...
Сторінка 9 - Wages, then, depend mainly upon the demand and supply of labour; or as it is often expressed, on the proportion between population and capital. By population is here meant the number only of the labouring class, or rather of those who work for hire ; and by capital, only circulating capital, and not even the whole of that, but the part which is expended in the direct purchase of labour.
Сторінка 5 - According therefore, as this produce, or what is purchased with it, bears a greater or smaller proportion to the number of those who are to consume it, the nation will be better or worse supplied with all the necessaries and conveniences for which it has occasion.
Сторінка 22 - All has been done for it that industry and an extreme love of gain can devise. There is not a foot of waste land in the Engadine, the lowest part of which is not much lower than the top of Snowdon. Wherever grass will grow, there it is; wherever a rock will bear a blade, verdure is seen upon it ; wherever an ear of rye will ripen, there it is to be found. Barley and oats have also their appropriate spots ; and wherever it is possible to ripen a little patch of wheat, the cultivation of it is attempted.
Сторінка 25 - ... contended, that if consumers were to save and convert into capital more than a limited portion of their income, and were not to devote to unproductive consumption an amount of means bearing a certain ratio to the capital of the country, the extra accumulation would be merely so much waste, since there would be no market for the commodities which the capital so created would produce.
Сторінка 19 - It corrupts even the activity of his body and renders him incapable of exerting his strength with vigour and perseverance, in any other employment than that to which he has been bred.
Сторінка 24 - There is not an opinion more general among mankind than this, that the unproductive expenditure of the rich is necessary to the employment of the poor.
Сторінка 19 - His dexterity at his own particular trade seems, in this manner, to be acquired at the expence of his intellectual, social, and martial virtues. But in every improved and civilized society this is the state into which the labouring poor, that is, the great body of the people, must necessarily fall, unless government takes some pains to prevent it.
Сторінка 27 - ... and economize to obtain what they did not desire, suppose that a foreigner arrives, and produces an additional quantity of something of which there was already enough. Here, it will be said, is over-production ; true, I reply ; over-production of that particular article: the community wanted no more of that, but it wanted something. The old inhabitants, indeed, wanted nothing; but did not the foreigner himself want something?