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or commonwealth at all; because there would be peace without subjection.

Nor is it enough for the security, which men desire should last all the time of their life, that they be governed and directed by one judgment, for a limited time, as in one battle, or one war. For though they obtain a victory by their unanimous endeavour against a foreign enemy; yet afterwards, when either they have no common enemy, or he that by one part is held for an enemy, is by another part held for a friend, they must needs, by the difference of their interests, dissolve and fall again into a war amongst them

selves. . * * * • The only way to erect such a common power as may be able to defend them from the invasion of foreigners, and the injuries of one another, and thereby to secure them in such sort, as that by their own industry, and by the fruits of the earth, they may nourish themselves, and live contentedly; is to confer all their power and strength upon one man, or upon ope assembly of men, that may reduce all their wills, by plurality of voices, unto one will ; which is as much as to say, to appoint one man, or assembly of men, to bear their person; and every one to own and acknowledge himself to be author of whatsoever he that so beareth their person shall act or cause to be acted, in those things which concern the common peace and

safety; and therein to submit their will, every one to his will, and their judgments to his judgment. This is more than consent or concord; it is a real unity of them all, in one and the same person, made by covenant of every man with every man, in such manner, as if every man should say to every man, “ I authorize and give up my right of governing myself to this man, or to this assembly of men, on this condi. tion, that thou give up thy right to him, and authorize all his actions in like manner.” This done, the multitude so united in one person is called a Commonwealth, in Latin Civitas. This is the generation of that great Leviathan, or rather (to speak more reverently) of that mortal God, to which we owe, under the immortal God, our peace and defence. For by this authority, given him by every particular man in the commonwealth, he hath the use of so much power and strength conferred on him, that by terror thereof, he is enabled to perform the wills of them all, to peace at home, and mutual aid against their enemies abroad. And in him consisteth the essence of the commonwealth ; which (to define it) is “ one person of whose acts a great multitude, by mutual covenants one with another, have made themselves every one the author, to the end he may use the strength and means of them all, as he shall think expedient, for their peace and common defence.”

And he that carrieth this person, is called Sovereign, and said to have sovereign power ; and every one besides is subject. * * From this institution of a commonwealth are derived all the rights and faculties of bim, or them, on whom sovereign power is conferred by the consent of the people assembled.

The author then establishes the following positions, comprehending the rights and authority of the sovereign. 1. That the subjects cannot change the form of government. 2. That the sovereign power cannot be forfeited. 3. That no man can, without injustice, protest against the institution of the sovereign, declared by the major part. 4. That the sovereign's actions cannot be justly accused by the subject. 5. That whatsoever the sovereign doth is unpunishable by the subject. 6. That the sovereign is judge of what is necessary for the peace and defence of his subjects; and judge of what doctrines are fit to be taught them. 7. That the right of making rules, whereby the subjects may every man know what is so his own, as no other subject can, without injustice, take it from him. 8. That to him also belongeth the right of all judicature and decision of controversies. 9. And of making war and peace as he shall think best, 10. And of choosing all counsellors and ministers, both of peace and war. 11. And of rewarding and punishing, and that (where no former law hath determined the measure of it) arbitrary. 12. And of honour and order. 19. That these rights are indivisible, and can by no grant pass away, without direct renouncing of the sovereign power. 14. That the power and honour of subjects vanish in the presence of the power sovereign.-He concludes his arguments on these topics in the following manner:

But a man may here object, that the condition of subjects is very miserable; as being obnoxious to the lusts and other irregular passions of him or them that have so unlimited a power in their hands. And commonly they that live under a monarch, think it the fault of monarchy; and they that live under the government of democracy, or other sovereign as sembly, attribute all the inconvenience to that form of commonwealth; whereas the power in all forms, if they be perfect enough to protect them, is the same; not cansidering that the estate of man can never be without some incommodity or other, and that the greatest that in any form of government can pos

sibly happen to the people in general, is scarce sensible, in respect of the miseries and horrible calamities that accompany a civil war; or that dissolute condition of masterless men, without subjection to laws, and a coercive power to tie their hands from rapine and revenge: nor considering that the greatest pressure of sovereign governors, proceedeth not from any delight. or profit they can expect in the damage or weaking of their subjects, in whose vigour consisteth their own strength and glory ; but in the restiveness of themselves, that unwillingly contributing to their own defence, make it necessary for their governors to draw from them what they can in time of peace, that they may have means on any emergent occasion, or sudden need, to resist, or take advantage on their enemies. For all men are by nature provided of notable multiplying glasses, (that is, their passions and self-love) through which every little payment appeareth a great grievance; but are destitute of those prospective-glasses (namely moral and civil science) to see afar off the miseries that hang over them, and cannot, without such payments, be avoided,

The third division of this admirable work treats of the nature and rights of a christian commonwealth. Hobbes was a friend to an established religion; but, as will be seen, was

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