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of this world. For these reasons Christianity did not formulate itself at once into a system of philanthropy. It declared itself through a new principle or quality of action. Christianized love was a very different thing from any kind of love which the world had made use of as a working principle.
1. The Quality of the Christian Charity.
(1.) The Christian charity was a passion, an enthusiasm for humanity. The golden rule was not the full expression of it. It was more than a finer justice.
(2.) The Christian charity was more than pity. It had insight. It took account of the possibilities in men ; it saw the man in the beggar.
(3.) The Christian charity wrought through sympathy, by perfect identification with the sufferer. It was founded on the principle of the Incarnation.
See • Ecce Homo,” p. 178.
(4.) The Christian charity was universal. It was impartial and without limit.
2. Characteristics of the Christian Charity in its First Manifestations.
(1.) Its sense of the sacredness of life. It did away with the socalled natural reliefs of poverty like infanticide, exposure of children and of sick slaves. It introduced another law than that of the survival of the strongest.
(2.) Its insistence upon personal thrift. “When we were with you we commanded you that, if any would not work, neither should he eat.” 2 Thes. iii. 10.
“ Blessed is he that giveth according to the commandment, for he is guiltless. Woe to him that receiveth : for if any one receiveth having need he is guiltless ; but he that hath not need shall give account wherefore he received and for what, and coming into close restraint he shall be strictly examined concerning what things he hath practiced, and shall not come out from thence until he have paid the last farthing. But take note, even concerning this hath it been said, Let thine alms sweat in thine hands until thou shalt have come to know to whom thou shouldest give." Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, chapter i.
(3.) Forbearance in the exercise of right and in resentment. Paul's letter to Philemon.
(4.) Vicariousness, the willingness to risk life for friends and enemies. This characteristic made specially prominent in times of pestilence and epidemics. Neander, “ History of the Christian Religion and Church," vol. i. pp. 257–259.
2. THE CHARITIES OF THE CHURCH.
The charities of the church belong to the period from Constantine to the Reformation, the period of the power and wealth of the church. Previous to this time, the outward history of the church is to be studied with reference to the effect of persecution, and also of asceticism, upon charity. The two tendencies in the church, which Neander describes as “the world-resisting and the world-appropriating tendencies," are to be traced to their practical results. Special attention should be given to the practical effect of Montanism.
For condition of the Roman world at time of ascendency of Christianity, see Schmidt, “ The Social Results of Early Christianity," or Ulhorn, “ Christian Charity in the Ancient Church.” See, also, secular histories covering this time.
The methods of the church in its charities may be divided into three periods, according to the use which it made of different instrumentalities :
1. THE PERIOD OF THE DIACONATE.
The diaconate flourished under the organization of the church covering an entire city. Deacons and deaconesses were multiplied at all the centres, except at Rome, where the original number of seven was maintained, though subordinates were there employed to render an equivalent service. Diakonia, or houses of relief, were established in all cities. The support for these homes, and for the charitable work of the church under this system, came chiefly from the offerings made at the sacrament of the Lord's Supper.
2. THE PERIOD OF PRIVATE BENEFICENCE UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE BISHOPS.
This is the period of institutional charity. The special charity was the hospital. The doctrine of almsgiving was greatly amplified and elaborated. Legacies and special gifts from the rich were encouraged ; and gifts in remembrance of the dead, which gave rise to the practical working of the dogma of purgatory.
3. THE PERIOD OF THE MONASTIC ORDERS.
Two types of orders were developed, — the anchoretic or hermit type ; the cænobitic or social type ; the one of the East, the other of the West.
The history of this period is best studied by studying the history of the different orders, – the Benedictines, the Franciscans, the Dominicans, and later of the Sisters of Charity.
William Jewett Tucker. ANDOVER.
BOOK REVIEWS AND NOTICES.
DIE APOLOGIEEN Justin'S DES MARTYRERS, herausgegeben von Lic. Dr. G. KRUGER. Pp. x, 84. J. C. B. Mohr : Freiburg, 1891. Mrk. 1.50.
This convenient little pamphlet is the first number of a series of selections from the sources for the study of church history and of the history of doctrine, which is to be issued under the guidance of Prof. Gustav Krüger, of the University of Giessen, with the design of furnishing in suitable form and at a small price material for the use of students in the Seminarien. In the preface the editor alludes to the fact which the experience of every instructor has revealed, that texts of single writings, even the most important ones, of the Fathers — with the exception perhaps of " Augustine's Confessions," and a few writings edited by Lindner — are impossible to be obtained. The purchase of a complete copy of one of the great critical editions for the sake of one writing, and of several such in the course of a winter's work, is more than can be expected of the student. And the possession of a number of such copies by the library, to be loaned to the student, does not satisfy the need. Nothing can really take the place of the ownership on the part of the student of the work which he is using, the freedom to use it as he will, and the privilege of referring to it in the progress of his studies, and even after his seminary life has closed. If these things are true in Germany, they are still more true in this country. To be sure there are many institutions which get on without anything resembling seminar instruction. But even that state of things is not wholly responsible for the fact that many a student graduates without having even so much as seen the text of one of the Fathers, much less having set himself to work through one of the typical and world-famous of their writings. Even the use of a translation to read one's self into the spirit of a man or of a time is a thing which is only just beginning to be understood. But no such use of translations can take the place of the mastery of the text of even a very few of the great writings of Christian antiquity. The miserable zeal for keeping current with all the lucubrations of wise men of modern times absorbs many a man. If one could only make it clear that that is a thing which in a measure he will be compelled to do by and by, and that meantime the student years afford possibly the only opportunity of making a student-like acquaintance with the master spirits of the ages! And yet the difficulty in the past has certainly been augmented by the terror produced by the array of Migne, or of this or that Corpus Patrum, and the impossibility of owning and carrying about with one the scrap on which the student was at work. It is therefore matter of congratulation that this difficulty at any rate is to be removed. Indeed, it is intimated that the effort is not necessarily to be confined to the works of the Patristic period, but may be extended to those of the Middle Age and of the Reformation time, if the interest manifested shall appear to justify that course. The text of Justin used is that of Otto. All departures from that text are noted in an appendix. There is a brief introduction, with bibliography. The footnotes are limited to references, and a Greek index makes the work thoroughly available.
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