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" What is time, after all, but a negative quantity ? an empty space, in itself all silent and dead, until our thoughts and deeds strike against it and make it vocal? Nay, even in the heavenly life we see the same losing of the time element, for we read, “There should be time no longer.' Not that it will then disappear, swallowed up in that infinite duration we call eternity. That would make heaven a confusion; for to finite minds eternity itself must come in measured beats, striking, like the waves along the shore, in rhythmic intervals," etc. (Page 16.)

The critical difficulties concerning the hymns found in the first and second chapters of Luke are clearly stated, and then met in this way : “ To Eastern minds poetry was a sort of native language. Its inspiration was in the air. . . . And so it need not surprise us, much less trouble us, that Simeon and Elisabeth, Zacharias and Mary, should each speak in measured cadences. Their speech blossomed with flowers of rhetoric, just as naturally as their hills were ablaze with daisies and anemones. Besides, they were now under the direct inspiration of the Holy Spirit. . . . And so, after all, it was but fitting and perfectly natural that the Gospel that Heaven had been so long time preparing should break upon the world amid the harmonies of music. Instead of apologizing for its presence . . . we should have noted and mourned its absence, as when one mourns for the sound of a voice that is still.'” (Page 32–34.)

This passion for rhetorical intensity sometimes leads to confusion in figures, as, for example, " In considering the words of Jesus, if we may not be able to measure their depth or to scale their height, we can with absolute certainty discover their drift, and see in what direction they move, and we shall find that their orbit is an ellipse." (Page 241.)

One feels himself at a hopeless disadvantage when he attempts to criticise in homely prose the views set forth with such poetic fervor.

William H. Ryder. ANDOVER.


troductory Note by Prof. RANSOM B. WELCH, D. D., LL. D., of Auburn Theological Seminary. 12mo, pp. 215. Philadelphia : Presbyterian Board of Publication.

This modest manual is of portable size, of pleasing style, of large reading, of historical drift, of timely thought, of conservative aim, of serene faith. The author shows the absence of the mummy of the Pharaoh of the Exodus to be confirmatory of God's Word. He does not adopt the view or the language of Canon Cheyne on the prologue to Genesis. “A pious Hebrew writer takes a semi-mythical narrative current either in his own or in some neighboring nation, and moulds it into a vehicle of spiritual truth.”

On the Canon we wish a key somewhat more modern might have been struck. What is said, on the other hand, respecting the miraculous in the great crises of the Old Testament Revelation is eminently just and convincing. Tristran, on page 170, should be corrected to Tristram.

John Phelps Taylor.


Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Familienrechts. Ein Beitrag zu einer allgemeinen vergleichenden Rechtswissenschaft auf ethnologischer Basis, von Dr. Albert Hermann Post, Richter ans Landgericht in Bremen. Pp. viii, 375. Oldenburg und Leipzig: Schulzesche Hof-Buchhandlung und Hof-Buchdruckerei (A. Schwartz). Mrk. 6.

- This, we believe, is the tenth volume which Dr. Post has written concerning historical and ethnological jurisprudence. The character of the present work is indicated by the explanatory phrase subjoined to its title. It is recognized that ethnological facts may be arranged according to two different methods. First, monographically, by which different peoples are treated separately and comprehensively. This requires an amount of labor quite beyond the power of ordinary men. Secondly, the data may be arranged according to the subject-matter or norms of jurisprudence which are found among the different peoples of the earth. By this method we endeavor to discover the norms which have a universal meaning, how they originated, and to fix the boundaries within which custom moves. This method has the advantage of greater definiteness by being able to avoid the confusion incident upon drawing lines between closely related yet different disciplines. This is the method which the author applies to the history of the Family. Attention is called to the great contrast between the mass of Family law and the position of the Family at the present time, also to the gulf between the earlier Family constitution and the state constitutions of to-day. The Family as the unit of society has disappeared, yet Family constitution and law are of supreme importance to the history of jurisprudence. Although Family law differs among different peoples, there are certain principles “ so universal that we may call them the common property of the human race.” The unity of the race and the unity of the human mind are supported by Anthropology. The author has little confidence in the validity of many hypotheses now current respecting the original constitution and law of the Family. He furnishes light by *furnishing abundant material on these subjects. The work is systematic and encyclopædic. The thirteen chapters treat of relationship, association of the sexes, different kinds of relations, intermarriage, association under laws, blood revenge, wife seizure, the engagement, marriage, divorce, family property and inheritance, home relations, and external relations of the sexes. Dr. Post has the genius of system without being dogmatic, and as a result we have an admirable handbook on the subject in data, literature, and form.

Die religionsphilosophische Bedeutung des stoisch-christlichen Eudämonismus in Justins Apologie. Studien und Vorarbeiten von Dr. Carl Clemen. Pp. viii, 158. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. Mrk. 2.50.— It is held that the Christianity of Justin can be understood only in connection with previous development of doctrine, and that only by reviewing the principal considerations relating to theories of knowledge can we make any estimate of the fundamental speculations contained in his Apologies. Thus the treatise is in an important respect an inquiry into the principles which control the theology and philosophy of stoicism and the New Testament. That the discussion throughout is of an ethical character is indicated by the title of the book. The subject-matter falls under three heads. First, “ Justin's Intellectualism,” which brings into orderly review questions of metaphysics and religion, and particularly the philosophical elements in early Christianity with Justin's relation to the same. Secondly, Justin's Ethics, which is introduced by a study of the ethics of Christ and Paul and their immediate successors. Here is given a most interesting inquiry into Justin's relation to the new law, free will, and last things, closing with an attempt to determine his position in the development of the Post-Apostolic doctrine. The third part is concerned with Justin's method of argumentation, particularly with reference to Prophecy, the agreements between faith and philosophy, and the nature of the Logos. Justin has not been sufficiently appreciated. Notwithstanding his sarcastic and obscure forms, his was a comprehensive mind. He was the first to give a speculative proof of Christianity, and he is worthy of a high place in the history of philosophy. By his eudæmonistic conception of Christianity he completed the thought of Stoicism and built upon this basis a comprehensive cosmology. Dr. Clemen has thrown much light on the Dialogue and Apologies, and has rendered a real service to the history of Christian philosophy.

Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literature, von Oscar von Gebhardt und Adolf Harnack. VI. Band. Heft 3. Die Gnostischen Quellen Hippolyts in seiner Hauptschrift gegen die Häretiker, von Hans Staehelin. Sieben neue Bruchstücke der Syllogismen des Apelles. Die Gwynn'schen Caius- und HippolytusFragmente. Zwei Abhandlungen von Adolf Harnack. Pp. iii, 133. Leipzig : J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. Mrk. 4.50. — Pages 1-109 is a critical study of the contents of the Philosophumena both in view of the Refutatio omnium hæresium and the conflicting views respecting the nature of the writings of Hippolytus and their relation to Gnosticism. The questions raised by Salmon (The Cross-References in the Philosophumena, Hermathena, 1885) are the chief consideration. Dr. Harnack's first essay, pages 111-120, finds in the De Paradiso of Ambrosius seven new fragments from Apelles, and makes a hypothesis as to how the syllogisms of Apelles came into the possession of Ainbrosius. The second essay is a German translation of Dr. Gwynn's “Hippolytus and his Heads against Caius.” Dr. Harnack comments on the work, and formulates eleven points of interest to the student. Caius flourished in Rome about the year 200 A. D.

Immanuel Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Mit Einleitung und Anmerkungen herausgegeben von Dr. Erich Adickes. Pp. xxvii, 723. Berlin : Mayer und Müller. Mrk. 3. — A work of this nature printed in large type on good paper with broad margins at such a price is a commendable novelty. Dr. Adickes has also done all in his power to place Kant's great work within the mental grasp of students. Kant's difficult forms of statement, his contradictions, repetitions, irrelevancies, and empty meditations which often confuse and submerge what is really important, are relieved by the careful work of the editor who by his marginal analyses keeps before the reader the drift of Kant's argument. All things considered, we have the best text of the Kritik yet presented. It is only upon the hypothesis of Dr. Adickes, namely, that the Kritik is made up of different parts written at different times and under different circumstances through a period of at least twelve years, that contradictions and repetitions can be accounted for, and that the mighty maze ap

pears not without a plan. Although this edition of the Kritik is by no means satisfactory, it is undoubtedly more serviceable than any other. The dogmatic and polemical elements in Kant are too much overlooked, and it is doubtful if he can be adequately understood without a careful study of that confluence and conflict of doctrine which we find in Leibnitz's “ Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement humain.”

Erläuterungen zur Kant's Kritik der reinen Vernunft, von Dr. Alfons Bilharz. Pp. xvi, 366. Wiesbaden: Verlag von J. F. Bergmann. Mrk, 6. - It is remarked that “The Kritik of Pure Reason is much more of a problem than a sufficient answer to the question concerning the nature of knowledge.” Nevertheless, it lies across one's path and must be considered. At present there is not a strict Kantian in all Germany, yet each feels obliged to define his attitude toward “ The book with the seven seals.” Dr. Bilharz finds the key to the Kritik in that passage where Kant likens his conception of things to the Copernican conception of the Solar System. Here Kant clearly puts his idea and purpose, but these are not consummated in his work. He demands what he failed to give. This failure is the sole ground of the unintelligibleness of the Kritik, and from this point of view the author carries out his exposition of the entire work. First there is given, pages 1129, “ The Kritik of Pure Reason in a Nutshell.” In the second part, “Common Sense versus Dogmatism," and the third part, a systematic and critical presentation of the whole subject, Dr. Bilharz attempts to bring Kantian views into the light, and determine their character. It is found that dogmatic and skeptical elements vie with each other, yet settle down to skeptical results. Kant solves nothing ; but his attempts are full of significance. Some of the more striking lessons are drawn. The exposition is very clearly written, full of interest, and, at many points, helpful.

Metaphysik als Lehre vom Vorbewussten, von Dr. Alfons Bilharz. Erste Hälfte, enthaltend den Analytischen Theil und vom Synthetischen Theil die Beziehungen der Metaphysik zur Erkenntnisstheorie und Logik. Pp. vi, 153. Wiesbaden: Verlag von J. F. Bergmann. Mrk. 4. — This work may be regarded as an explanatory supplement to the author's larger work, “ Der heliocentrische Standpunkt der Weltbetrachtung 1879.” “Men sicken most on the contradictions between science and dogma.” Philosophy must find one principle out of which all principles may be deduced. Is there such an ultimate point underlying all; a point where thought and Being are one? “This is the everlasting problem of philosophy.” To this question the analytical part gives an affirmative answer. We come irresistibly upon Metaphysic, “the foundation of all science.” We find behind the veil of consciousness the ultimate ground in pre-consciousness. The Ego antedates its predicates. Quantity is the initial category. Philosophy is in essence deductive. The mathematical method is alone reliable. A distinction between speculative and practical reason has no real existence. The subjective as a unit stands over against the objective. The work is compact and clear, following closely mathematical formulæ. The second part, which will complete the synthetical section, is looked for with much interest.

Technological Dictionary. Published by C. Dill, E. von Hoyer, und E. Röhrig. Fourth Edition, enlarged, completely revised and corrected, I. Band: Deutsch-Englisch-Französisch. Mrk. 10. II. Band : Englisch

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Deutsch-Französisch. Pp. x, 909. Mrk. 12. III. Band : Französisch-, Deutsch-Englisch. Mrk. 12. Wiesbaden : Verlag von J. F. Bergmann. 1891. New York: B. Westermann & Co. — We gladly call attention to a new edition of one of the most serviceable books published. The rapid growth of industry and international intercourse has introduced a multitude of technical terms which furnish much annoyance even to the possessor of the best general lexicons. Moreover, these terms are often misunderstood and incorrectly translated. This work fills up not a gap but a yawning chasm. It treats of the terms employed in all the departments of art and science, industry and commerce. It is edited by twentyeight specialists, each treating of his own department. Some who have worked toward making a dictionary of their own art or industry have thrown their labor and matter into this work. To avoid any inaccuracy each proof sheet was corrected by the respective contributors. The fact that three large editions of this work have been called for within twenty years is sufficient proof of its value. The press-work and type are admirable, and the price comparatively small. It is a work to which students should have access and no library should be without

Ueber den Nous des Anaxagoras, von Prof. Dr. Max Heinze. Pp. 45. Sonderabdruck aus den Berichten der Königl. Sächs. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. — This essay may be regarded as a supplement to the author's “ Lehre vom Logos," notably to pages 35 f. and 62 f. The view expressed in Ueberweg-Heinze, Gesch. d. Phil., I. 83, 7th ed., that Anaxagoras did not arrive at a conscious dualism of Spirit and Matter, but regarded vows as a material principle, is corrected, Anaxagoras being found to maintain a dualism like that of Descartes. Dr. Heinze confines his study to the cosmic or metaphysical voûs. This, with Anaxagoras, is immaterial, intelligent energy; all knowledge, all power, all law, all order. It is also clear that voûs is self-conscious personality, and although not called God, expressly, Anaxagoras may be regarded as the first philosophical Theist as well as the Father of Teleology. This subjective, spiritual, thinking principle, pure yet arranging and controlling all matter, has played a large part in the development of philosophy. It is strong in Socrates and Plato, but stronger still in Aristotle's theology, teleology and volls FOLYTıkós. The problem which Aristotle strove to solve, of matter and motion, was handed over to him by Anaxagoras. The essay gives an excellent presentation of the rise of dualism in the pre-Socratic philosophy, and is altogether a model of clear exposition.

Darstellungen aus dem Gebiete der nichtchristlichen Religionsgeschichte. III. Band. Die Religion der alten Ägypter. Dargetsellt von Dr. A. Wiedemann. Pp. 175. Aschendorff'sche Buchhandlung, Münster i. W. Mrk. 2.75. — The object of this series, in which Buddhism and South-Slavonism have already been treated, is to give the results which have been reached in the various fields of the history of religion, and to point out, so far as is consistent with truth, the analogies in these different religions to ideas and doctrines contained in the Bible. Concerning the Egyptians we are told that “one may speak of religious ideas, but not of an Egyptian religion.” “ As to the oldest form of the Egyptian religion, whether it was Monotheistic, Pantheistic, Polytheistic, Starworship, Ancestorworship, or some other idea, is impossible to decide.” This unbiased judgment runs throughout the book. There are no vicious parallels; no criticisms of theory. The author has used

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