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GERMAN THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE.

Beiträge zur Aufhellung der Geschichte und der Briefe des Apostles Paulus, von Max Krenkel. Pp. vi, 468. Braunschweig : C. A. Schwetschke und Sohn (Appelhaus & Pfennigstorff). Mrk. 9. — The work treats of the most important problems in the life and letters of Paul. It falls into eight sections, the last three of which handle textual difficulties and questions relating to the Corinthians and the Pastoral Epistles. The first question presented is concerning Paul's birthplace. Acts ix. 11 ; xxi. 39; and xxii. 3, are disposed of, and the testimony of Jerome, “ Paulus apostolus, qui ante Saulus, extra numerum duodeciin apostolorum, de tribu Benjamin et oppido Judææ Giscalis fuit, quo a Romanis capto cum parentibus suis Tarsum Ciliciæ commigravit,” is supported. Paul therefore was not born in Tarsus as he supposed, but in an riu, in Galilee, a day's journey south of Tiberias. “Was Paul originally called Saul ? ” No. In all of his letters Paul refers to himself exclusively as Paul. He belonged to the tribe of Benjamin. Between King Saul and the Apostle the name Saul does not appear. Saul persecuted David, the man after God's own heart. Christ was the son of David. Saul stood as the type of the persecutor ; David as the type of the persecuted. Laoúd, Saoud, tu ÔLØKELS; Compare 1 Sam. xxiv. 15; xxvi. 18.– Acts xx. 25; and 1 Sam. xii. 2 ; ii. 30. dcépxeobal= 7579,77. Paul was regarded as a second Saul. “ Was Paul ever married ?” Yes. So thought Reuchlin, Luther, Grotius, and so thinks the author. The argumentum u silentio has no force. A correct exegesis plus the testimony of the Fathers give an affirmative answer. The fourth study is of the Thorn in the Flesh. As okódoy occurs but once in the New Testament, we must consult the Septuagint. Paul has in view Numbers xxxiii. 55. A thorn, or that which gives physical pain, is the content of the word. The thorn was a kind of epilepsy common in the East, and not unknown elsewhere. Of the nature of this disease, the author has furnished abundant testimony from ancient and modern physicians. A causal connection is found between epilepsy and visions. Mohammed, Cæsar, Alfred the Great, Napoleon, and a score of other great men have been subject to what Paul calls a thorn in the flesh. Concerning Paul's fight with beasts in Ephesus, the author finds traces of an esoteric use of language in the early Christian community, and endeavors to prove that the conflict was with the Roman power, which being regarded as the lion or beast, Osp often used for déwv, Paul, with a tacit reference to Daniel, uses this form of speech. The sixth chapter, pages 153–379, “ The Personal and Epistolary Intercourse of the Apostle with the Community at Corinth,” seems to be an important piece of work. Here, as throughout, the author shows great familiarity with Hebrew and Patristic sources as well as with the mass of modern literature on the subject.

Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, in Gemeinschaft mit Hermann Diels, Wilhelm Dilthey, Benno Erdmann und Eduard Zeller, herausgegeben von Ludwig Stein. Band i, Heft 4. Berlin : Druck u. Verlag von Georg Reimer. Preis pro Band, Mrk. 12. — For the history of philosophy this quarterly is without a rival. The aim is to present critical studies of difficult questions, to gather up and digest un

published fragments, and to review the literature and conditions of philosophy in various countries. In the present number we notice among other important articles an unpublished letter of Descartes, and a review of recent Russian works on the history of philosophy. Of more interest to theologians is the article by Dr. Geil, “ Die Gottesidee bei Locke und dessen Gottesbeweis.” In 1887 Dr. Geil published a dissertation on “ The Dependence of Locke on Descartes," and in the same year Dr. Sommer's Prize Essay, “Locke's Relation to Descartes," appeared. By both writers an attempt was made to establish a close relation between Locke and Descartes. In 1889 Benno Erdmann, in the above-named Zeitschrift (ii. 99–122), made an excellent criticism of these two essays, showing that Locke represented the reaction against Descartes, and was in no respect dependent upon him. Erdmann is undoubtedly correct in finding in Locke a thorough-going reaction against Descartes, but seems to fall into error in thinking that Locke in his theology had Descartes in mind, as it is not clear that Locke examined Descartes' proofs earlier than 1696, when he rejected them. Lord King; “Life of Locke," pages 314-316. It is also a common error to associate Locke with Hobbes, whose doctrines he openly repudiated. Dr. Geil now endeavors to justify himself on one point against the criticism of Erdmann by maintaining, “ First that Locke presents a double idea of God, a psychologico-negative and an ontologico-positive ; secondly, that Locke teaches a twofold proof of God, viz., the cosmological and the metaphysico-ontological ; and thirdly, that we are justified in holding Locke's doctrine, so far as it concerns the idea and proof of God, for Cartesian.” So far as Locke's doctrine of God is concerned, the first terms in the couplets presented are gratuitous importations. Locke holds that we come upon the idea of God through thought and meditation ; that our conception of God is the enlargement of all our ideas of perfection to infinity and objectified, and that the proof of his existence is the fundamental certainty of the demonstrative reason, resting upon two principles, namely, self-existence and causation. To associate Locke with Descartes on this point is to obliterate the distinction between intuitive and demonstrative knowledge. Locke recognized the force of the teleological argument, and criticised Descartes' attempt to invalidate all proofs except his own; but he presents as his own proof the psychological argument, and that only. A consideration of the De Veritate of Lord Herbert leaves no occasion for historical reference to Descartes, so far as Locke's negative side is concerned, while on the positive side Descartes and Locke owe what they have in common to Augustine and Campanella.

Geschichte der Griechischen Litteratur bis auf die Zeit Justinians, von Wilhelm Christ, ord. Professor an der Universität München. Zweite vermehrte Auflage. Mit 24 Abbildungen. Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, herausgegeben von Iwan v. Müller. VII. Band. Pp. xii, 770. München : C. H. Beck'sche Verlags Buchhandlung (Oskar Beck). Mrk. 13.50, geb. 15.50. — Upon its appearance, this work took the lead of all manuals on the subject, and is now generally regarded as the authority. Its popularity is indicated in the call for a second edition within a year of its first publication. The present edition has been carefully corrected, and is augmented by about one hundred pages. An attempt to make clear the relations between Hellenism and Christianity, and to justify the treatment of a large portion of Christian writings under Grecian literature, accounts for much of this enlargement. The first part of the work is given to the classical period of Greek poetry and prose, beginning with the earliest time and closing with Aristotle. The second part, pages 425–710, considers the post-classical literature under three periods, the Alexandrian, the Roman from Augustus to Constantine, and, finally, from Constantine to Justinian. The third part is concerned, mainly, with Christian writers. Dr. Christ does not regard Christianity as an offshoot of Hellenism, but finds that Christian writers and writings were early forced under Gre cian influence and forms, and that the writings of the Church Fathers of the fourth century formally belong to Greek literature. There is a tendency to find the Greek in the Jew, Christian, or Roman, and to overlook external infinences in the development of Grecian literature. For instance, Greece is regarded too much as an isolated, undisturbed unit, independent of Oriental influences, and such moments as the Persian and Peloponnesian wars are not sufficiently recognized in their effects upon the spiritual life and power of Athens. But such objections are not to be urged, as Dr. Christ informs us that he would have much preferred writing four volumes instead of one on this large field. So far as possible, the lives of authors are sketched, and the content of their writings indicated. In the case of important persons this is done with great care and completeness. At the close of each subject the most important literature bearing directly on the topic is given. The twenty-four heads or statues of Greek authors are selected from the best models, and add inuch to the appearance and value of the work. No one who has any interest in Greek literature can afford to be without this admirable handbook.

Theologische Briefe der Professoren Delitzsch und v. Hofmann. Herausgegeben, bevorwortet und mit Registern versehen, von D. Wilhelm Volck, ord. Professor der Theologie an der Universität in Dorpat. Pp. xiv, 233. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. 1891. Mrk. 5.60. — The correspondence between these celebrated men in the years 1859-1863 has until now remained a secret. The letters from Delitzsch were corrected, shortly before his death, by his own hand; those of Hofmann are published as they were first written. Letters on theological subjects could scarcely be more brilliant, or contain more original and striking thoughts. They concern questions of permanent interest, such as the decensus Christi ad inferos, the standpoint and method of systematic theology, the nature of the Scriptures, and of the origin of sin. These letters bring before us the characteristics of the two men : the strong objectivity and sharp dialectical skill of Hofmann ; the half mystical subjectivity and mellow perspectives of Delitzsch. With all their difference, they were most devoted friends, — a spectacle for the gods. It is from such controversies as these, carried on by strong and earnest men, apart from the eyes of the world and the “sic 'em” of the vulgar, that one receives the best instruction and the deepest impressions. If our hold on dogma is somewhat relaxed, our grasp of life and truth is strengthened. Further, these letters do more than all other literature combined to make clear the relations of Delitzsch and Hofmann, and to fix their positions in the advance of theological science. To the editor belong our thanks for this most serviceable volume, and for its indices of names, subjects, and Biblical texts.

Die Religion der alten Deutschen und ihr Fortbestand in Volkssagen, Aufzügen und Festbrauchen bis zur Gegenwart. Mit durchgreifen; der Religions - Vergleichung, von Professor Dr. Sepp. Pp. xx, 419. München : Verlag der J. Lindauerschen Buchhandlung (Schöpping). Mrk. 6. — “I am a German and will, against the ignorance which has hitherto prevailed and the depreciation growing out of it, proclaim and exalt, to the honor of our nation, the old father religion.” These are the closing words of the preface. This is the spirit of the work. The volume stands under the same catagory as “ Heathenism and its Meaning for Christianity,” and “Life and Doctrines of Christ in their Relation to Universal History," earlier works of the author. Dr. Sepp's views may be sufficiently indicated in two general points. First, of all religions the old German is the best. Heathenism was better than Judaism, Christianity than Heathenism, and the German than Christianity. Paul recognized the superiority of Heathenism over Judaism, but the German religion had the power to keep its people morally clean, and Tacitus placed it as a pattern before the Romans. “Who believes with Bugge that the Christian legends created the German mythology? Vice versâ.” Secondly, “ It is not what corresponds to the rationalistic judgment of one century, but the agreement of human ideas and the unconscious identity of human thought that leads to universal reason." Thus Augustine remarks: “What we call the Christian religion has existed from the beginning of time.” Although the author is as extreme on the one side as Gibbon is on the other, his work is perhaps the best we have on the subject. It presents one hundred and sixty-one studies or phases of the old German religion, and by their comparisons with other cult forms involves reference to much valuable literature. It is a book which will appeal to a large class of people, from those who are interested in myths merely to those who are endeavoring to construct a philosophy of religion.

Aristoteles Metaphysik, übersetzt von Hermann Bonitz. Aus dem Nachlass herausgegeben, von Eduard Wellmann. Pp. iv, 341. Berlin: Druck und Verlag von Georg Reimer. Mrk. 6. — With the exception of about twenty-five passages, this translation was made in the years 1841 and 1842. The editor has filled out these lacunæ, reviewed and corrected the whole in the light of the more recent writings of the distinguished scholar, and given to students of Aristotle a translation of the Metaphysik which is certainly clear and apparently satisfactory. The text followed, for the most part, is that of Bekker, but Bonitz regarded this text by no means as final.

Mattoon M. Curtis. LEIPZIG, GERMANY.

BOOKS RECEIVED.

Congregational Sunday-school and Publishing Society, Boston and Chicago. Sermons on the International Sunday-school Lessons for 1891. By the Monday Club. Sixteenth Series. Pp. 412. $1.25. Orders of Worship for the Sunday-school. Arranged by D. E. Curtis. Pp. 45. 1890. Price $12.00 for 100 copies. The Sunday-school Primary Teachers' Manual. By Louise Ord way Tead. Pp. 83. Cloth 35 cents, paper 25 cents.

D. C. Heath & Co., Boston. An Introduction to the Study of Shakespeare. By Hiram Corson, LL. D., Professor of English Literature in the Cornell University. Pp. 397. 1889.

Ginn & Conipany, Boston. Ancient History for Colleges and High Schools. By P. V. N. Myers, Acting Professor of History and Political Economy in the University of Cincinnati, author of “Mediæval and Modern History," and “A General History.” Part II. A History of Rome. Pp. xiii, 230. 1890. 91.10.

Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston and New York. Essays in Philosophy, Old and New. By William Knight, Professor of Moral Philosophy and Political Economy in the University of St. Andrews. Pp. xx, 367. 1890. $1.25.

- Richard Henry Dana. A Biography by Charles Francis Adams. In two volumes. Vol. 1, pp. 378. Vol. 2, pp. 436. 1890. Price $4.00 for the set. Over the Teacups. By Oliver Wendell Holmes, author of “The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table." Pp. 319. 1891. $1.50.

James H. West, Boston. Sociology. Popular Lectures and Discussions before the Brooklyn Ethical Association. Pp. X, 403. 1890.

A. C. Armstrong & Son, New York. The Sermon Bible. Vol. v., Matthew i.-xxi. Pp. 410. 1890. $1.50. For sale by De Wolfe, Fiske & Co., Boston.

A. S. Barnes & Company, New York and Chicago. Israel's Apostasy and Studies from the Gospel of St. John, covering International Sunday-school Lessons for 1891. By George F. Pentecost, A. M., D. D., author of “In the Volume of the Book” etc., etc. Pp. ix, 405.

Funk & Wagnalls, New York, London. Samantha Among the Brethren. By Josiah Allen's Wife (Marietta Holley). With Illustrations. Pp. xiv, 437. 1890. — In Darkest England and the Way Out. By General Booth. 8vo. Pp. 285, Appendix, xxxi. 1890. $1.50. — William E. Dodge, The Christian Merchant. By Carlos Martyn, author of "A Life of John Milton," “ The Pilgrim Fathers of New England," etc., etc. Pp. 349. 1890. $1.50.

- Studies in Young Life. A Series of Word-Pictures and Practical Papers. By Bishop John H. Vincent. Pp. vi, 254. 1890. $1.25.

*Hunt g Eaton, New York ; Cranston & Stowe, Cincinnati. Eschatology ; or, the Doctrine of the Last Things according to the Chronology and Symbolism of the Apocalypse. By F. G. Hibbard, D. D., author of “The Psalms Chronologically arranged with Historical Introduction," etc., etc. Pp. viii, 360. 1890. $1.25. — The Credentials of the Gospel. A Statement of the Reason of the Christian Hope, being the Nineteenth Fernley Lecture, delivered in Carver St. Chapel, Sheffield, on Monday evening, August 5, 1890, by Joseph Agar Beet. 8vo. Pp. viii, 199. 1890. $1.00. — By Canoe and DogTrain among the Cree and Salteaux Indians. By Egerton Ryerson Young (Missionary). With an Introduction by Mark Guy Pearse. Pp. xvi, 267. 1890. $1.25. — Supremacy of Law. By John P. Newman, D. D., LL. D., a Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Pp. 239. 1890. $1.00.Christian Missions in the Nineteenth Century. By Rev. Elbert S. Todd, D. D. Pp. 171. 1890. 75 cents. — Philosophy of Christian Experience. Eight Lectures delivered before the Ohio Wesleyan University on the Merrick Foundation. By Randolph S. Foster. Third Series. Pp. 188. 1890. $1.00. — Illustrative Notes. A Guide to the Study of the Sunday-school Lessons for 1891. Including Original and Selected Expositions, Plans of Instruction, Illustrative Anecdotes, Practical Applications, Archæological Notes, Library References, Maps, Pictures, Diagrams, by Jesse L. Hurlbut, D. D., and Robert R. Doherty, Ph. D. 8vo. Pp. 394. 1890. $1.25.

The New-Church Board of Publication, New York Manuals of Religious Instruction. Doctrinal Series, No. 3. Descriptions of the Spiritual World. For Use with Children. From the Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg, with Introductory Talks and Explanatory Notes. Prepared by a Committee of the American New-Church Sabbath-school Association. Pp. iv, 288. 1890. 50 cents.

Scribner & Welford, New York. Manual Training in Education. By C. B. Woodward, A. B. (Harvard), Ph. D. (W. U.), Thayer Professor of Mathematics and Applied Mechanics, Dean of the Polytechnic School, and Director of the Manual Training School of Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. With Illustrations. Pp. viii, 310. 1890. $1.25.

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