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orbit, to the state of the whole, in those respects
others. This connexion, probably, also extends to the remotest bodies in the universe: so that it is impossible to say, that the withdrawing of any one would not, in some respect or other, affect all the rest.
The clouds and the rain are designed to moisten the earth, and the sun to warm it; and the texture and juices of the earth are formed so as to receive the genial influences of both, in order to ripen and bring to perfection that infinite variety of plants and fruits, the seeds of which are deposited in it. Again, is not each plant peculiarly adapted to its proper soil and climate, so that every country is furnished with those productions which are peculiarly suited to it? Are not all plants likewise suited to the various kinds of animals which feed upon them ; so that, though they enjoy a kind of life peculiar to themselves, and all the influences they are exposed to be adapted to promote that life, they themselves are as much adapted to maintain that higher kind of life which is enjoyed by creatures of the animal nature ?
. The various kinds of animals are again, in a. thousand ways, adapted to, and formed for, the use of one another. Beasts of a fiercer nature prey upon the tamer cattle : fishes of a larger size live almost wholly upon those of a less : and there are some birds which prey y pon land-animals, others upon fishes, and others upon creatures of their own species.
That brute animals are excellently adapted to the use of man, and were, therefore, made to be subservient to the use of man, man will not deny. The strength of some, and the sagacity of others, are as much at our command, and are as effectu. ally employed for our use, as if they belonged to ourselves. We can even turn to our advantage every passion of their nature; so that we can safely repose the greatest confidence in many of them. They are the guardians of our possessions and of our lives. They even enter into our resentments, and, at our instigation, take part in our revenge.
Having now advanced to man, the chief of this lower creation, and shewn that all creatures of the vegetable, and merely animal nature, live and die for his use; pride might bid us here break off the chain of mutual relations and uses, which we have been pursuing thus far, and leave man in the enjoyment of his superiority; but beside that it is contrary to the analogy of nature, in which we see nothing but what has innumerable secondary relalions and uses, that man only should be made for himself;
2. The situation of man in this world, or the external circumstances of human nature still oblige us to assert, with Paul, that no man liveth to him. self, and no man dieth to himself. Man himself is but a link, though the highest link, of this great chain, all the parts of which are closely connected by the hand of our divine author. Nay, the more various and extensive are our powers, either for action or enjoyment, on that very account the more multiplied and extensive are our wants : so that, at the same time that they are marks of our superiority to, they are bonds of our connection with, and signs of our dependence upon, the various parts of the world around us, and of our subservi. ence to one another.
fact, every time that we gratify any of our senses, though it be in consequence of the exerti- . on of our own powers, we are reminded (if we will be so just to ourselves as to take the hint) of our dependence upon something without us. For the means of our gratifications are, in all cases, evi. dently without ourselves.
If webe served by the vegetables and the animals which this earth affords, we are obliged, in our turn, to favour their propagation, to promote their cultivation, and to preserve them in a healthy and vigorous state and employment of this kind doth, in fact, take up a great part of our attention and labour. We must make the creature in some measạre happy, if we would be effectually served by it. And the attention which domestic animals give to us, and their anxiety for us, is not to be compared to the attention we bestow on them, and the anxi. ety we undergo on their account. . But my subject leads me to attend to the connexion which man has with man, rather than with the inferior part of the creation; though it seemed not improper to point out that. In general, nothing can be more obvious than the mutual dependence of men on one another. We see it in the most barbarous countries, where the connexions of mankind are the fewest and the slightest. This dependence is more sensible, indeed, in a state of infancy, when the least remission of the care of others would be fatal to us; but it is as real and necessary, and even vastly more extensive, though less striking, when we are more advanced in life, especially in civilized countries. And the more perfect is the state of civil society, the more various and extended are the connexions which man
has with man, and the less able is he to subsist confortably without the help of others.
The business of human life, where it is enjoyed in perfection, is subdivided into so many parts (each of which is executed by different hands) that a person who would reap the benefit of all the arts of life in perfection must employ, and consequently be dependent upon thousands : he must even be under obligations to numbers of whom he has not the least knowledge.
These connexions of man with man are every day 'growing more extensive. The most distant parts of the earth are now connected : every part
is every day growing still more necessary to every other part. And the nearer advances we make to general happiness, and the more commodious our circumstances in this world are made for us, the more intimately and extensively we become connected with, and the more closely we are dependent upon, one another.
.By thus tracing the progress of man to that state of happiness which he now enjoys, we may be led to think, that, in pursuing it still farther to a more happy state of being, adapted to our social natures, we shall find ourselves still more variously and intiinately connected with, and more closely depen