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nounced war were called feciales; and those of the heavens, was represented as the son of who went to demand peace caduceatores, be- Æther and Dies, the father of Saturn and Ops, cause they bore a caduceus in their hand. The and progenitor of all the gods. caduceus on medals is a common symbol, signi- CEMENT. See CEMENT. fying good conduct, peace, and prosperity. The CXEMENTUM, in oryctology, a genus of rod expresses power, the two serpents prudence, argiHaceous earths, consisting of iron, alumine, and the two wings diligence.
a large quantity of silica, and generally a small CADUCI, in botany, to fall, the name of a portion of carbonate of lime; hardish, lightish, class in Linnæus's Calycina, consisting of plants and porous; of an earthy texture; imbibing whose calyx is a simple perianthium, supporting water with a hissing noise; crackling when dried, a single flower or fructification, and falling off rough; without lustre: when powdered and either before or with the petals. It stands op- beaten up with water and quicklime, becoming so posed to the classes persistentes, and is ex- hard as 'not to be penetrated by water; easily emplified in mustard and ranunculus.
melting in the fire into a black scoria. Three CADURCUM, CADURCUS, or CADURX, in species. 1. C. tufa. Tufa. Tuffwacke. Colancient geography, a town of Aquitania; si- lected into entire cliffs, and vast strata about voltuated between the river Oldus, running from canic mountains. Found particularly about the north, and the Tarnis from the south, and Naples and Rome. It is commonly magnetic, falling into the Garumna; now called Cahors. of an earthy fracture, and not easily decomposed
CADUS, in antiquity, a wine-vessel, contain- by the action of the air. 2. C. tarras. I'rass. ing eighty amphoræ or firkins; each of which, Forming large strata under the surface of the according to the best accounts, held nine gallons, common soil. Found on the banks of the though some make them only seven. See Am- Rhine; principally near Andernach, and on
mount Vogelberg, some feet under the surface, CÆCILIA, in zoology, a genus of serpents where streams of water have not had access ; belonging to the ampbibia class. The cæcilia dull, gray or blackish, rarely variegated. When has no scales ; it is smooth, and moves by means pounded, it makes the best cement for buildings of lateral rugæ or prickles. The upper lip is under water. 3. C. columnare. Prismatic prominent, and furnished with two tentacula. cement. There are two varieties; the prisms It has no tail. There are only two species, viz. 1. being sometimes five and sometimes six-sided. C. glutinosa, with 340 rugæ or prickles above, and found on the banks of the Rhine, and someten below, the anus. It is of a brownish color, times near the base of mount Ætna, in columnar with a white line on the side, and is a native of masses of a gray color, close to each other, the Indies, and South America. 2. C. tentaculata, and forming internally the common mass. with 135 rugæ. It is about a foot long, and an CAEN, a considerable town in France, in the inch in circumference, preserving a uniform department of the Calvados, and ci-devant procylindrical shape from the one end to the other. vince of Lower Normandy, of which it was the The teeth are very small. It has such a resem- capital. It has a celebrated university, founded blance to an eel that it may easily be mistaken in 1431, by our Henry VI., and an academy of for one; but, as it has neither fins nor gills, it literature; and contains twelve parish churches, cannot be classed with the fishes. It is a native and about 40,000 citizens. It has also a castle of America, and its bite is not poisonous. which was built by the English. The town is
CÆCULUS, a son of Vulcan, conceived, as built chiefly of a white stone, which, though some say, by his mother, when a spark of fire not durable, is of beautiful appearance, and the fell into her bosom. He was called Cæculus, streets are wider than those of most French because his eyes were small. After a life spent towns. The principal squares are the Place in plundering and rapine, he built Præneste: Royal, and the Place St. Sauveur. In the but being unable to find inhabitants, he implored former is the Hotel de Ville, a public library, Vulcan to show whether he really, was his father, and the Musée des Arts. Our William the conUpon this a flame suddenly shone among the queror, who was buried here, built the Abbaye multitude who were assembled to see some aux Hommes; which is a noble, though rather spectacle, and they were immediately persuaded plain structure. The Palais de Justice is a to become the subjects of Cæculus. Virg. Æn. handsome modern building. Malherbe was 7, v. 680, says that he was found in fire by born here, and Huet, bishop of Avranches. shepherds, and on that account called son of There a considerable trade carried on at Caen Vulcan, who is the god of fire.
in linen, lace, stockings, caps, and serges, of home CÆCUM, or Cæcum, the blind gut, so manufacture, as well as in cattle, horses, dye called from its being perforated at one end only stuffs, cider, and skins. The town is but eight
The first portion of the large intestines, placed miles from the sea, and has a good communication in the right iliac region, about four fingers' with it by the river Orne, which vessels of 160 breadth in length. It is in this intestine that tons burden can ascend with the tide. The neighthe ileum terminates by a valve, called the valve bourhood is pleasant and fertile, but flat. Edof the cæcum, and the appendicula cæcı ver- ward III. was stoutly resisted here in 1346; but miformis is also attached to it. See ANATOMY. the English took Caen in 1417, and retained it
CÆLEBS, in entomology, a species of cimex, thirty-one years. It is sixty-two miles west by of brownish gray color, with three points on the south of Rouen, and 132 west by north of Paris. scutellum, and a yellowish apex. first found in Long. 0° 27' W., lat. 49° 11' N. New Holland.
CÆRE, in ancient geography, a town of EtruCÆLUS, in the Pagan mythology, the god ria, the royal residence of Mezentius. Itri an
cient name was Argyllæ. In Strabo's time not devoted to the virgin deity; the second, that a the least vestige of it remained, except the baths his holy associate Aaron, and illustrious for its called Cæritana.
order of regular canons; the third was at one CÆRITES TABULÆ, the tables of the time the metropolitan church of all Cambria.' Roman censors. In these were entered the Part of an ancient castle is still remaining; it names of such as for some misdemeanor for- appears to have been 300 yards in circumference; feited their right of suffrage, or were degraded and from the eminence on which it was situated, from a higher to a less honorable tribe. They commanded one of the most beautiful and exwere so named from the people of Cære, who tensive views in England. There is an amphihospitably receiving the Romans after the taking theatre on the banks of the Usk, of an oral of Rome by the Gauls, were, on the Romans re concavity, measuring seventy-four yards by sixtycovering their city, honored with all the privileges four, and six in depth: the natives call it king of citizens, except the right of voting.
Arthur's round table. The present church, a CAERMARTHEN. See CARMARTHEN. good specimen of the Norman era, is kept in CAERNARVON. See CARNARVON. good repair by the testanyentary benefaction of CAERLEON, an ancient market town of the late Charles Williams, Esq. a native of the Monmouthshire, on the Usk, over which is a place. He also founded a charity-school for handsome stone bridge, is said to have been a thirty boys and twenty girls. The town now CONresidence of one of the British kings, and was sists only of two or three small streets. In the at a very early period distinguished for its vicinity are extensive iron and tin works. The ecclesiastical and literary foundations. Its name market is on Thursday, and well supplied. There signifies the fort or town of Leon. By the Ro- is also a smaller market on Saturday. mans it was called Isca, Isca Colonia, and CÆRULATA, in entomology, a species of Civitas Legionis II. Augustæ. In order to dis- phalæna geometra, the wings of which are banded tinguish it from Exeter, which was likewise with two cæruleons bands. called Isca, it was also denominated Isca CÆRULEA, sky blue, the specific name of Silurum. Here the Roman prætor resided, a chrysomela, pimelia cicindelia, and necydalis, and had his Palatium, which, in all proba- so called froin their shining blue color. bility, was where the old mansion called the CÆRulfa, in ichthyology, a species of corylodge now stands. Here also the courts were phæna, found in the American Ocean. held for Britannia Secunda, and the imperial Cærulea, in ornithology, an American spe edicts were promulgated. Mr. Cox, the tourist, cies of ardca; the blue lieron of Latham; the endeavoured to take a survey of the ancient city, blue bittern of Catesby. The color of the bady which appeared to him to be oblong, inclining is blue, whence its name. Also, an Indian spe to a square, enclosing a circumference of 1800 cies of alcedo; the ispida indica torquata of yards, but the Roman city must have had exten- Brisson; and the white collared king's fister of sive suburbs.
Latham. Also, a species of procellaria ; the blue Giraldus Cambrensis visited Caerleon, in petrel of Latham. Also, a fine species of certhia making the tour of Wales with archbishop Bald- or creeper, from Cayenne. Also, a South Ame win, in the year 1180. At that time it was rican columba; the tlacapoilotl of Ray; and blue hastening to decay; but to the learned arch- pigeon of Latham. And, lastly, a species of deacon it continued to display evident marks of muscicapa, or fly-catcher, found in the Philipformer magnificence. He speaks of its splendid pine isles. This is the azure fly-catcher of Lapalaces, which once emulated with their gilded tham. roofs the grandeur of Rome, for it was originally
CÆRULEOCEPHALIA, in entomology, a built by the Roman princes, and adorned with species of cantharis with a red thorax, fuscous stately edifices; a gigantic tower, numerous wing cases, and the posterior part of the head baths, ruins of a temple, and a theatre, the walls blue black. Also, a species of bombyx, comof which are partly standing. Here we still see,' monly called the figure of eight moth. he adds, "both within and without the walls, CÆRULEOCEPHALA, in ornithology. 2 subterraneous buildings, aqueducts and vaulted species of alcedo. Buffon calls it martin-pecteur caverns, and stoves so excellently contrived, as a tete bleue, and petit-martin-pêcheur du Sece to convey their heat through secret and imper- gal; and it is the blue-headed king's fisher of ceptible pores.' Of its Christian antiquities he Latham. says, “ Here lie two illustrious, and next to Alban CÆRULEOCEPHALUS, in entomology, a and Amphibalus, the two most celebrated proto- species of curculio, of a violet color, with testamartyrs of Britain, Julius and Aaron, of whom ceous thorax and elytræ. Found in Germany. both had a church within the city, dedicated to CÆRULEOCEPHALUS, in ornithology, a species their memory; for, in former ages, it contained of psittacus; the red and blue parrot of Witthree fine churches: the first was that of Julius, loughby and Latham. Found in Guiana ani adorned with a convent of Franciscan friars, Cayenne.
END OF VOL. IV.