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small band of mountaineers. Treachery opened to the invaders the otherwise impenetrable passes, and the Suliots, worn dowo at length by war and famine, and strictly blockaded, were reduced to the necessity of accepting terms of capitulation, which Ali never meant to fulfil

. The treaty was ratified on the 12th of Dec. 1803, by which the whole population was to be allowed to emigrate and settle wherever they might please. Men, women, and children being gathered together, they separated into two bodies; one taking the direction of Parga, the other that of Prevesa. Both parties were waylaid by the troops of the perfidious tyrant : the former fought their way through, but the latter all eventually perished. A party of about a hundred women and children, being cut off from the rest, fled, it is stated, to a steep precipice near the monastery of Zalongo: there, the children were first thrown over the rocks by their mothers, and then the matrons, joining hand in hand, and raising their minds to the bighest pitch of enthusiasm by native songs, whirled round and round in a species of frantic dance till they approached the edge of the cliff, from which they one and all threw themselves headlong. Another small detachment had been taken captive and subsequently released, and allowed by Ali to settle at Vurgareli at the foot of Mount Tzumerka ; but this was only a treacherous respite : they were afterwards extirpated by an army of Albanians, except a few that escaped into Acarnania. The scattered remnant of the tribe took refuge, some at Santa Maura, others with the Albanian beys; but the greater part retired to Parga and Corfu, to subsist on charity, or to enrol themselves in the service of their protectors. A number of them subsequently entered into the Russian service, and formed a regiment in the Albanian battalion. After the peace of Tilsit, this corps passed into the service of the French under Col. Minot. Foto Tzavella and Mosco his mother, both held commissions for some time, but resigned them from disgust at ill treatment. The former passed over to loanpina, threw himself at the feet of the destroyer of his country, and was received into his service. Mosco, who accompanied him, married a second husband, and was living in the capital at the time of our Author's visit. Their native mountains form now the strongest post in their conqueror's dominions, and a splendid fortified serai adorns the highest top of Kiaffa as a monument of his base triumph.

The conquest of Suli cost the invader one year more than was occupied by the siege of Troy, and the struggle is not less worthy of an epic. But there is no Romaic Homer. Mr. Hughes gives us, however, a specimen of some patriotic songs in which the valour of the sons of Suli is still coinmemorated :



the song is stated to be still a great favourite in Albania. A respectable version accompanies it.

During this protracted series of operations against the Suliots, Ali did not lose sight of other means of consolidating his power. In 1797, when the French gained possession of the Ionian Islands together with the continental towns on the opposite shore, Ali sent a confidential agent to Bonaparte's head quarters in the north of Italy, and, as the fruits of a secret alliance, gained permission for bis flotilla to sail through the channel of Corfu. To establish bimself on the coast, he surprised the two independent towns of Aghio Vasili and Nivitza one Easter Sunday, and massacred the inhabitants in the churches. His next acquisitions were, the important fishery at Santa Quaranta and the excellent barbour of Porto Palermo. All which acts, his agents at Constantinople represented as having for their meritorious object the extirpation of infidels; and Ali did not fail to confirm the representation by paying tribute to the Porte for his conquests. He took care, at the same time, to keep at a respectful distance from the court of his sublime Sovereign, Once, during the campaign against Paswan Oglou, * the Grand Vizir, under pretence of bestowing public approbation upon his conduct, requested his attendance in full divan. Ali, conscious how much more he merited the bowstring than half the victims upon whom that punishment has fallen, went boldly, but surrounded the vizir's tent with six thousand faithful Albanians : as might be expected, his reception was courteous, but the conference was short.'

When the Porte declared war against the French Republic, Ali, finding that it would not suit his purpose to maintain any longer his French alliance, seized upon Prevesa : it was given up to pillage, and the prisoners, according to his diabolical custom on similar occasions, massacred in cold blood. Santa Maura and Parga, at the same period, narrowly escaped falling into bis hands, before they were taken possession of by the Russian fleet; 'a disappointment which he never forgave. To console him under it, he received the public thanks of the Porte for his eminent services, was presented with the kelich-caftan (a fine ermine pelisse) and a sword richly decorated with brilliants, and was made viceroy of Rumelia, by virtue of wbich office lie acquired the high title of vizir.

His complicated intrigues and counter-intrigues with French and English, alternately, and sometimes at one and the same period, now become too interwoven with historical details, to admit of being brought within the compass of this brief sketch. His grand object was, the possession, by any means, of Parga and the Seven Islands. Through the French minister at the Porte, when his influence was dominant, he procured the pashalics of Lepanto and the Morea for his sons Mouchtar and

Vely, as a return for assisting Sebastiani in promoting a rupture between Turkey and Russia. His services in bringing about a peace in 1808 between the Porte and this country, were rewarded with the not less useful acquisition of a very fine park of artillery, and several hundreds of Congreve's rockets. The effect of the latter he presently tried, by way of a first experiment, under the direction of an English engineer officer, in the bombardment of Berat. This pashalic also was given to his son Mouchtar, though the seizure of the place was an act of the most unprovoked aggression, and Ibrabim, the dispossessed pasha, was held in the highest esteem at court. After this, it cost but a short conflict to overthrow the Pasha of Delvino, and take possession of the place, and to make himself master of Argyro-Castro, by which the whole valley of the Druno, the richest and most populous in Albania, fell entirely under bis dominion. The destruction of Gardiki completed his triumphs in that direction, and formed the crowning atrocity of his demon career. But his most brilliant stroke of policy, the achievement in which he most exults, is his baving wrested the last tract of Christian land from the hands of Christians, by the cession of Parga; the possession of which makes him master of continental Greece from the Attic boundary of Parnes to the rugged mountains of Illyricum.'

In the personal character of this faithful servant of the Father of murderers, we should look in vain for any traits that might relieve the darkness of the portrait. To say, that he is reported to be fond of his children, is only to ascribe to him just so much brute virtue as is compatible with the paramount selfishness of bis character. That he is not wantonly savage, or rather that he is not 80 wantonly savage as some despots have shewn themselves, proceeds more from his courage and his strength of intellect, than from any compunctious scruples, or from a want of taste for the pleasures of cruelty. Those tyrants who have taken the most delight in human suffering as a spectacle, bave always been characterised by native imbecility and cowardice; or else have bad recourse to that way of amusing themselves in the impotence of dotage. The powers of Ali's mind did not, at the time of our Author's visit, appear to have become enfeebled by age, notwithstanding that be is upwards of seventy, and has for many years been the subject of an incurable disease. Since then, however, his increased bulk is said considerably to have soured his temper, and, as a consequence, to have urged bim to many acts of wanton barbarity that have left on his character stains of a much deeper dye than it had acquired from any of bis former deeds. It has been his policy to exterminate all the independent Albanian chiefs whose struggles to regain their power, might interfere with the interests of bis heir; and if he lives

much longer, we are told, the whole race will be extinct. This jealousy of his subjects will naturally increase as he is conscious of the failure of his physical energies ; and he will become more and more cruel, partly out of fear, partly out of ill-bumour. He seems to have a pretty correct idea of bis own character, as well as of the disposition of his subjeots, if we may judge from the following anecdote, which is adduced to illustrate his firmness and self-command.

. In the year 1813, as he was inspecting some repairs in the great serai of the Castron, a large block of stone fell from a scaffold upon his shoulder, and laid him prostrate on the ground. Every one present thought he was killed, and a general alarm was spread: but Ali, though seriously hurt, ordered a horse to be equipped instantly, upon which he mounted and rode round the city, with a single Albanian attendant, without discovering the least mark of pain, though he had received a wound which confined him several weeks to his bed. After his recovery he told Mons. Pouqueville that he acted thus to assure his people of his safety, and to deprive his enemies of the pleasure of thinking he was likely to die. The consul replied, that every man had his enemies, but he could not think those of his highdess went so far as to desire his death. " What?" said Ali, “ there is not a minute of the day in which they do not offer up prayers to heaven for my destruction : how can it be otherwise for forty years I have been doing every thing bad to every body: in this period I have caused 30,000 persons to be hung and put to death in various ways; and they know that if I live longer I shall do more: would you have them not hate me then their hatred, however, will not affect my health.” And upon this he burst into his usual Sardonic laugh.'

Torquemada, the first Spanish inquisitor-general, during the eighteen years of bis administration, committed upwards of ten thousand victims to the flames, and sentenced upwards of ninety seven thousand to confiscation and various penances. When Ali and Torquemada meet, the Mussulman vizir will be enraged to find himself outdone by a priest, and that priest a Christian. There is nothing extraordinary in Ali's achievements as a destroyer. What is extraordinary in him, is, his wonderful cleverness, penetration, and physical energy. All the affairs of bis government he transacts himself. He is his own prime minister, giving daily attention to all the concerns of his arıny, navy, and revenue, receiving petitions and deciding causes in person, and rarely calling for the services of his ministers. His quickness of perception and decision are equalled only by bis perseverance. In like manner, all bis deep-laid schemes of aggrandisement, all the ramifications of his policy, appear to have their origin in his own mind. On these points, as well as in respect of Ali's consummate dissimulation and address, his insight into character, his engaging familiarity towards his adherents,

especially his troops, and his power of fascinating bis victims, Mr. Hughes's testimony perfectly coincides with the very minute account given by Dr. Holland. Nothing is more astonishing than that a man wbose perfidy is so notorious that not the slightest reliance can be placed on his most solemu engagements, should yet be capable of beguiling into a fatal confidence those whom he has before deceived ; should be able repeatedly to deceive, not only individuals, but his own government; and not only his own governinent, but every other which bas attempted to turn him to its advantage. The following anecdote, if authentic, is higbly curious.

• He once gave a man a bouyourdee to kill another who was obnoxious to him : the bloody deed was perpetrated, but the assassin found in the pocket of his victim a similar bouyourdee for his own destruction. "He carried it to the vizir, and expressed some signs of astonishment; when Ali, laughing, replied, “ Hey murrie, * if I had not given him this, he would never have put himself in your way, and you would have had no chance of effecting your purpose.”

In fact, the tyrant wished to get rid of both or either of them.

But although the character of Ali is without relies, and bis crimes admit of no palliation, there are considerations which tend to reconcile the mind to the growth and prolonged existence of this monstrous despotism. One is at first almost at a loss to conceive what the previous state of that country must have been, to wbich the government of this ferocious autocrat should have proved on the whole, as it is on all hands agreed that it is, a very great advantage. Mr. Hughes tells us, that • he should pronounce the people of Albania comparatively happy, whether reference be made to their own state before the consoli. dation of Ali's power, or to that which still exists in other parts of the Turkish empire. In Albania, though all are subject to one mighty despot, no petty tyrants are suffered to exist, and protection is given equally to the Turk, the Greek, and the Albanian, against the aggressions of each other. Religious toleration is freely granted, and the regularity of monarchical power has in some measure succeeded to the factions of aristocracies and republics. There exists at present a security in these dominions which we should seek in vain where the baleful influence of the Crescent elsewhere extends : a police is organised, robbers are extirpated, roads and canals are made or repaired, rivers are rendered navigable, so that the merchant can now iraverse the Albanian districts with safety, and the traveller with convenience; agriculture in spite of all obstacles improves, commerce increases, and the whole nation advances perhaps unconsciously towards higher destinies and greater happiness.'

The truth is, that, in this world, evil only can cope with evil

• Blockhead; derived, says Mr. H., from the vocative of pupose It is a favourite word with the Vizir.

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