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was conspicuously exerted on this occasion. The principal capai of ihe city was choaked, and its quays covered with ruins; eight hundred houses were either destroyed or damaged, and a considerable number of individuals perished. Every practical measure was then and subsequently adopted for the relief of the inhabitants, who were exempted from certain taxes during the space of ten years. The finances of the state were still the great object of anxiety to the king and his ministers, and they seem to have exhausted every effort of economy, and all the resources of fiscal regulation, to supply their deficiency, It is in these great features of bis reigo, that Louis appears to the greatest advantage: he seems to have been deeply in earnest, and to bave availed himself with exemplary assiduity of every means of acquiring information. The legislative body seems to have been perfectly aware of his honest and intense desire to promote the prosperity of his kingdom, and to have been quite satisfied of the wisdom of his measures. A number of minor changes, in general judicious, were gradually introduced ; and the Hollanders seem to have attached themselves cordially to the amiable individual who had been placed over them. Surrounded, on one occasion, by the people of a small town, he told them, that he hoped the Dutch would one day forget that he was not born in Holland. We have entirely forgotten it since
the affair of Leyden'-was the immediate reply.-In May, he lost his eldest child ; shortly after, he visited the Pyrenees, partly for the re-establishment of his health, which bad been injured by the climate of Holland, and partly that he might for a season relieve himself froin the sight of the severe sufferings occasioned by the destruction of commerce. In September, he returned to the Hague.
In his summary of foreign transactions, Louis mentions the Copenhagen expedition under Lords Cathcart and Gambier, and introduces the following comments, honourable to bis feelings, and, we believe, in accordance with his general charac. ter.
• Thus concluded this expedition, astonishing in an age styled enlightened. It is impossible to justify it; and by setting this example of immorality, abuse of power, false and unjust policy, France and Europe were confirmed in the pernicious system of indulging in every thing that passion and hatred deemed advantageous to them; a system, of which, alas! we have long reaped the bitter fruits, without perceiving our error, and without being disposed to alter it.'
Our readers would scarcely thank us for a critical analysis of the remaining materials of these volumes: they afford various illustrations of the kind and honourable nature of Louis, while they also display a restlessness of disposition which prompted biun to mix himself with every thing that was going forward.
He seems to have been always actively employed, and to have felt uneasy because he could not be at once king and minister, commander and subaltern. He created a new order of knightbood; changed, with much bustle and procession, his residence, first, to Utrecht, and then to Amsterdam; founded a royal Institution of Arts and Sciences, and recommended the adoption of a new system of weights and measures. In the beginning of 1809, the dykes of a large district gave way, and Louis, as usual, bastened to the spot, and arged in person the necessary exertions. The narration of this event, contains some of the best description in the whole work. The finances still remained in the same shattered and nearly bopeless condition; and scheme after scheme was tried and failed. A large portion of the volumes is filled with the statements and calculations which were made and published from time to time. But matters at length approached their crisis. Various circuinstances had successively transpired, all tending to convince Louis tbat his brother had no intention of suffering bim to remain in his present situation; and the disastrous affair of Walcheren, afforded an opportunity for accumulating a large French force within the frontier of Holland. In this part of his history, Louis does not shew himself to advantage : he talks largely and absurdly of his disposition to resist, intimates that he was inclined to call in the aid of England, and even goes so far as to describe arrangements for defending the lines of Amsterdam. In the beginning of 1810, he was in Paris, where he had suffered himself to be enticed, as he says, against his own judgement, and in submission to the opinion of his council. Here he was detained as a kind of prisoner at large, and was treated with studied barshness by Napoleon in order to induce bis abdication; but at length, in April, he was permitted to depart, on bis signing the wellknown treaty which made important cessions of Dutch territory, and left the rest of Holland under the control, and entirely at the mercy, of France. Only a few weeks after his return, however, Louis received a letter from his brother, the length of which prevents our inserting it, containing a strange mixture of stern and contemptuous reproof with affected moderation. Whatever may be the view wbich it gives of the policy of Napoleon, it clearly shews the weak and temporizing character of Louis: it points out to him the inconsistency of bis conduct with the system which bad been dictated to bim, and with the purposes for which he had been placed on the throne of Holland; and it proves that he had entirely overrated his own resources, when he imagined himself equal to the complicated task of evading the stern and unrelaxing scrutiny of his brother, and of fixing himself permanently in bis kingdom, by complying as far as possible with the wisdoin and feelings of the nation. He
was compelled to resign his crown, after a little empty vapouring about resistance; and the instrument by which he endeavoured to convey it to his son, was treated with contempt. In the fallen fortunes of Napoleon, Louis made some demonstrations toward the resumption of his rank;
but his efforts met with no encouragement in any quarter. The remainder of his story is principally occupied with bis changes of residence; and it concludes with an eulogistic summary of his general views and feelings.
On the whole, it is a pity that Louis Bonaparte should have felt ambitious to distinguish himself as a writer. His character previously stood fair in the general sentiment, and though it will not be lessened, we are not aware that it will be much elevated by the publication of these volumes. As a king, • be bore his faculties so meekly,' and stood so clear in bis great office,' that he deserves the highest praise. On more than one occasion, he was reproached for bis humanity; and when he suppressed a riot by a simple explanation, it was made matter of accusation against him, that he did not hang up fifty of the rioters. As a political character, we have every reason to believe bim to be without reproach ; but as an author, we have no urgent wish to cultivate any more intimate acquaintance with him.
Art. VI. Horæ Homileticæ ; or Discourses (in the form of Skeletons)
upon the Whole Scriptures. By the Rev. C. Simeon, M.A. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Eleven Volumes, 8vo.
London, 1819 and 1820. THE name of the Author of this voluminous production, has
long been, with us, a pledge of that which is sound in doctrine, respectable in talent, and useful in tendency. To the influence of bis high character and unremitted exertions in the peculiarly important sphere allotted him, we ascribe, in a higher degree than to any other individual, the progress of evangelical sentiments among the clergy of the Established Church. Although not a Professor of Divinity in the University of which he is so bright an ornament, yet, to his instructions and advice, as well as to his writings, many hundreds of the younger clergy are ready, we doubt not, to acknowledge themselves indebted for the most valuable assistance they ever received in preparing for the duties of the sacred office. For the purpose of directing and facilitating their discharge of the arduous engagements of the pulpit, in the early stage of their ministry, the work before us is particularly designed. It is intended to supply a
regular series of Discourses on the most important parts of the whole Volume of Scripture; and to adapt those Discourses,
• by their general construction, their simplicity, and their « brevity, to the especial service of the Younger Orders of the · Clergy.'
Before we proceed to an examination of the structure and character of these Discourses, it is desirable to ascertain, whether there exist a necessity for the aid which they offer, and' if there be an exigency to justify the attempt, whether the assistance provided be adequate and efficient.
Were the first of these inquiries to be stated in the most comprehensive terms, so as to include the younger orders of Ministers among the Dissenters, as well as among the Clergy of the Establishment, we should be compelled to enter on a discrimination and coinparison which might appear invidious. Nor can we refrain from expressing the opinion, that the proffered aid is pot requisite for the younger orders of the Dissenting Ministry, after passing through the usual course of academic discipline and instruction. We learn from good authority and extensive information, that the candidates for admission into Dissenting Seminaries, are required to produce satisfactory attestations to their religious character, and the accuracy of their sentiments on the grand doctrines of the word of God; and that, during the greater part of their academic career, they are accustomed to present for the inspection of their tutors, both skeletons of sermons and discourses at greater length. By the habits thus acquired during a course of four or five years or more, it is to be presumed that, in ordinary cases, they are rendered independent of the aid which such a work as that before us is intended to render. In expressing this opinion, however, we do not intend to intimate, that we think these volumes would prove of little value, either to the theological student or to the ordained minister among the Dissenters. Although the primary design of the work may not be applicable to them, yet, in several points of view it may be regarded as valuable. It suggests to the mind a rich variety of well selected texts and topics for pulpit discussion, to which, in hours of perplexity and difficulty as to subjects for discourse, the minister may resort with great advantage. Nor is this all the benefit to be attained. The plan and the amplification exhibited may not only supply, but suggest valuable materials for thought; may excite activity of mind, and may conduct to a train of reflection, which, while it owes its origin to a page of the Horæ Homileticæ, may take a different direction, and pursue a course, if not more judicious, at least more consentaneous with the mental habits of the individual, and therefore adopted with greater facility, and conveyed to the hearer with greater effect. There is yet another, and perbaps a greater, advantage to be derived by the young minister, from the perusal of the discourses before us. They present many admirable specimens of that mode of treating subjects, whether doctrinal or practical, which comes home to every man's business and bosom. The great end of preaching is constantly kept in view by Mr. Simeon, and his object is, not to entertain, nor merely to inforın his hearers, but to impress, to convince, to persuade. There is a tone of feeling and a spirit of animation pervading the whole series of discourses, which we cannot but bighly appreciate. His appeals to the conscience are pointed and fervid, and well deserve the imitation of all who would make real usefulness to the souls of men the grand object of their ministry.
If the advantages now specified may accrue to all classes of those who preach the gospel of Christ, from the use of the volumes under consideration, they have undoubtedly the strongest clain on the attention of the younger order of the Clergy; and as for their benefit they were especially designed, it is by their adaptation to this end that the merit of the work should be estimated. Tried by this test, we are prepared to appreciate very bigbly its value, and we doubt not that the wish of the excellent and revered Author will be fully gratified that this
Jabour of love will be regarded by his brethren in the ministry,
pot as an act of presumption, but as an bumble and affectionate Sattempt to render their entrance on their holy and honourable calling more easy, and their prosecution of it more useful.'
We think it would have been still more useful, had there been afforded greater assistance in ascertaining the precise meaning of difficult texts, by the aids of legitimate and judicious criticism. The biblical student who is anxious to deterioine the true and literal import of passages on which criticism has been often expended, and obscurities still remain, will not receive all that assistance in the elucidation of Scripture, which in such a work, and from such an author, he might perhaps expect. It is true that the discourses are Homiletical and therefore not Critical ; still, as they are intended for the edification of ordinary assemblies, not in the first instance, but as modified and amplified by the preacher who avails biinself of their aid, that aid would have been additionally valuable, had it inore frequently presented to him the result of critical researches, and in some instances detailed at greater length the process of inquiry and examination by wbich the mind of the Author had arrived at the specified result. Such remarks, if not incorporated with the discourse, might have been, with rich advantage, introduced in the form of notes, either at the foot of the page, or at the conclusion of the discourse.
The principles of interpretation on which Mr. Simeon pro'. ceeds, in explaining the Sacred Scriptures, are, in general, such as we cordially approve. We'concur with him most upreservedly in the views expressed in his Preface, when he states, that he