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boyhood, interposing between his brother and the artillery of the enemy, and as declining on another occasion to shelter himself from a fierce candonade. But the finest specimen of profound and patbetic absurdity in the whole book, is to be found in the following anecdote. At about the age of seventeen, he accompanied Napoleon to Paris, and • found in that immense capital, the innovations and disorders which always follow political convulsions. He reached the capital a few days after the disturbances of the 23d of May; and the misfortunes which he witnessed, naturally filled him with apprehension lest for, tune might one day abandon his brother. Every general was at that time exposed to the risk of losing his life, if unsuccessful; neither courage nor talent were in that case of any avail. They had scarcely reached the place destined for their residence near the Place de la Victoire, when Louis threw himself into an easy-chair and seeming to wake out of an anxious train of thought, he exclaimed, with a profound sigh and a prophetic tone-Here we are then, at Paris! The sententious tone, meditative air, involuntary emotion, and absence of mind, with which these words were uttered, astonished his brother and Junot, who happened to be present. On being asked the cause of the deep sigh and exclamation, he answered, that he was himself ignorant of it.'
During part of Napoleon's Italian campaigns, Louis was in the army; and he relates sundry instances of his own valour and skill at this period, attributiog to himself, moreover, a main share in the victory of Rivoli. He engaged, after the treaty of Campo Formio, in an honourable amour with a young lady, who was the schoolfellow of his sister ; but his brother, when informed of the affair, sent bim from Paris to take part in the Egyptian expedition. His notes of that eventful transaction contain nothing striking, excepting the narrative of the affecting attachment of young Casabianca to his father, which is told for the fiftieth time, but with such variations from the received accounts, as materially lessen the interest and probability of the story. Passing over the intermediate and unimportant details, we shall cite a few particulars respecting his marriage with Hortensia, the daughter of Josephine, which took place when he was two and twenty years
Our readers are aware that strange reports have been circulated, respecting the intimacy of Napoleon with his daughter-in-law; these are treated by Louis as calumnies and absurd
stories.' He resisted this matrimonial arrangement for a long time; but
• one evening when there was a ball at Malmaison, his sister-in-law (Josephine) took him apart, his brother joined them, and, after a long conference, they obtained from him his consent. The day for the ceremony was fixed, and on the 4th of January, 1802, the contract, the civil marriage, and the religious ceremony took place ******. Louis became a husband * * Never was there a more gloomy
ceremony; never had husband and wife a stronger presentiment of all the horrors of a forced and ill-suited marriage *
**. Before the ceremony, during the benediction, and ever afterwards, they both equally and constantly felt, that they were not suited for each other.
***. From the 4th of January, 1802, down to the month of September, 1807, when they finally parted from each other, they re. mained together in all not more than four months, and that at three separate periods, with long intervals between : but they had three children, whom they loved with equal affection.'
These circumstances are, no doubt, statel, in order to remove the suspicions which have attached to the legitimacy of tbe children; we question whether they will bave the desired effect.
The death of the Duke d'Enghien, one of the three fatal errors of Napoleon, is averred to have been the result of intrigue: the Consul, it is said, was perfidiously and rapidly drawn' into concurrence; and be is described as having been for several days, melancholy, absent, and extremely slovenly.' During the Austrian war of 1805, Louis held the command of the garrison of Paris, and he bestows much commendation on bimself for the ability which be displayed in that office. It was at this time, and in consequence of events connected with this campaign, that the attention of Napoleon was called to Holland. The wavering and imbecile conduct of Prussia towards France in the war which terminated with the battle of Austerlitz, had exasperated without intimidating the French leader; but he felt, at the same time, that if the partial demonstrations which were inade, or supposed to be made, on the Dutch frontier, bad been converted into a direct invasion, Holland would probably, have fallen; and its occupation by a hostile force, would have beeu inconceivably embarrassing, if not disastrous, in the actual circumstances of the French Em. pire. To prevent the recurrence of a similar hazard, Napoleon adopted a summary and decided policy: he deterinined on the virtual annexation of Holland to his doininions, though, to save appearances, he affected to leave the Dutch independent, and to guarantee to them the enjoyment of their institutions, under the administration of a monarch chosen by him, but approved by them. It was clearly the intention of the Emperor, to convert Holland into a strong military post, well fortified and garrisoned, with as little trouble and expense to France as possible : the Dutch were to be compelled to maintain a large army, and an effective fleet, without any regard whatever to their pecuniary or territorial means, for the three fold purpose of covering France in that quarter, of securing a formidable position in advance against Prussia and the Empire, and of excluding Eogland both from military occupation and from commercial intercourse. After much negotiation with the Dutch, and some real or affected reluctance on the part of Louis, who at last consented because
be was in a state of moral spasm,' Napoleon, on the 5th of June, 1806, caused bis brother to be proclaimed King of Holland; and the present work diligently records the speeches made on that occasion, although it is admitted that the address of the Emperor was not perfectly correct in its allusion to facts. Louis was escorted to his kingdom by several French officers, who attended him, as he says, on his own invitation; it appears, however, that, with the exception of two, they were little better than spies on bis conduct, and their principal amusement seems to have consisted in quizzing every thing that was Dutch. Before the newly-made monarch set out for his dominions, le gave, if he states the matter truly, a very signal proof of his simplicity, by pressing his brother for the payment of a debt due froin France to Holland. It is unnecessary to say that the application was made in vain. When near the frontier, he assumed the Batavian cockade, and he is careful to inform us that he wept on putting aside the French colours.
The first steps taken by Louis appear to have been suggested by wisdom and pure intention; but be ventured a little too soon on the business of reform, by abolisbing certain illegal fees exacted by French consuls from all vessels either entering or leaving the barbours of the country: this was rough-bandling a delicate matter, and he probably felt the consequences severely in the effect produced by the reports forwarded to France by those selfish and exasperated gentry. He began very early to revolve in his mind the scheme of a new constitution, which would, no doubt, had it been brought to the world's light,' have been a masterpiece, since it was to be of the most simple description,
suited to the taste of the nation, and, though monarchical, in en« tire conformity' to the ' habits' and ' taste' of a republican people. Its excellence, too, will be further illustrated by the depth and originality of the following speculations. The supreme
head of the administration should communicate his spirit and his will to all its branches. This unity of movement is the principal advantage of monarchy. The whole of the instructions necessary
in a monarchy, may be comprised in two words! With respect to the King, he ought to have a decided will of his own in all affairs, and to see that they all concur to one end, namely, the independence and safety of the state, and the independence, safety, and prosperity of individuals, and to cause his orders and his decisions to be executed without failure or evasion. As for the ministers or agents, they ought to follow the wishes and sentiments of the King, and never to lose sight of that object for a moment.'
This, he seems to think, is vot much unlike the general prinviple of the English monarchy. We can, certainly, have no kind of objection to the harmless speculations of a foreign gentleman who thinks himself as well qualifieel lo make constitutions
as the Abhé Sieyes; but we really wish that Continental writers were not quite so fond of dissertating on the institutions of England. Their blunders in this way are absolutely excruciating. Louis, moreover, with, we are persuaded, the best intentions possible, was a meddler; nothing escaped his restless eye, and he either regulated, or intended to regulate, a host of litile matters which are much better left to self-adjustment. For instance, he was a dabbler in physic: at an early period of manhood, in consequence of various accidents, he had injured different parts of bis frame, and was subject to a 'slow and extraordinary dis
ease,' for which he had tried all sorts of nostrums, and visited different medicinal baths in France and Germany, but all in vain; and he became both a valetudinarian, and, we imagine, a confirmied quack. On the subject of medicine he is prodigiously deep, and describes projected plans of compulsory regimen in all cases even of ordinary disease, in houses of convalescence,' established by authority. It was also the grave intention of this modern Solon, to prevent marriages between ' mutilated, de
formed, and ricketty persons, and to ship off to the colonies all such miserable individuals, in company with all cbildren of ' a defective conformation. As an appendage to this transcendent scheme for punishing by privations and exile, the visitations of God, he would have interdicted the long residence of de• formed foreigners in the kingdom.' Another weak invention was to have set on foot a kind of holy alliance between European powers, for the extirpation of venereal diseases, the yellow fever, and the small pox. Among his regal cares, the dykes occasioned him many an anxious thought; and we find it solemnly, and with full detail, recorded, that when the inhabitants of two districts brought their litigation before him,-one party requesting permission to raise a dyke which the sea threatened to overflow, and the other contending that if the sea was repelled there, it must rise above the dykes of Amsterdam,-Louis, although very much embarrassed,' and deserted by his engineers, who' durst not answer with sincerity,' yet, with exemplary firmness, and with an acuteness which would have done honour even to that most exquisite of justiciaries, the governor of Barataria, decreed--that both dykes should be raised !
In all the major departments of government, Louis and bis ministers seem to have been guided by a sound discretion and a steady rectitude of purpose. The finances were much in disorder, and they took the only effectual method of restoration, by vigorous reductions in the different branches of public expenditure. Little was done for the improvement of the navy, but considerable pains seem to have been taken to place the army in an effective condition: the conscription was disavowed, but asignificant reservation was made in the introduction of the phrase,
• extreme necessity. In the mean time, the correspondence between Louis and Napoleon, began very early
to betray symptoms of variance. The one complained of difficulties, and expressed his anxiety to adjust the affairs of his governinent on a moderate and salutary scale; the other urged a more summary policy, recommended a virtual bankruptcy in the reduction of the interest of the national debt, pressed the imposition of the conscription, and insisted on the maintenance, by Holland, of an army of 50,000 men, and a fleet of 20 sail of the line. The Prussian war called the Batavian troops into action, but little was done by them, excepting in the way of diversion. The following leiter, written to Louis by his brother, previously to the campaign of Jena, will shew the distinctness of bis antici. pations, and the decision of his plans.
• You will make a useful diversion at Wesel, where I request you to assemble your army, augmented by French troops. This army will take the name of army of the North. You will manage matters so as to induce a belief, that it is much stronger than it really is. If the Prussians show themselves in Holland, and allow themselves to be deceived, they are ruined. If they do not adopt this course, they are still ruined. Whilst they suppose that I am establishing my line of operations parallel to them and the Rhine, I have already calcu. lated that in a few hours after the declaration, they cannot prevent me from outflanking their left, and advancing a greater force against it than they can oppose to me, and than is necessary for its destruction. When their line is once broken, all their efforts to afford assistance to their left will operate against then selves. Separated and cut off in their march, they will fall successively into my lines. The results are incalculable. Perhaps I shall be at Berlin in less than six weeks. My army is stronger than that of the Prussians, and though they should even beat me at first, they would immediately find me in the centre with a hundred thousand fresh troops.'
Louis explicitly denies that he was fettered by any previous compact when he accepted the crown of Holland; but he admits that he very soon became aware of his brother's intention to displace him whenever it should suit his convenience. He kept his post, however, and endeavoured to steer an even course between the despotism of his brother, and the interests of Holland, without being able to accomplish bis object in satisfying both the parties concerned. The Berlin decrees added to bis embarrassment. He employs several pages in reasoning, with more acuteness than is quite Habitual to him, on their injurious effects both on the moral character and on the commercial interests of the Continent and of England. Although compelled to impose additional restraints on traffic, he refused to sequestrate English property, and beld sacred that of the Prince of Orange.
In January, 1807, a dreadful explosion of gunpowder shattered a great part of Leyden, and the humane activity of Louis