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tion of them in the description. It is not yet too late to supply in some measure the deficiency; for, though the work was brought to an appearance of completeness and conclusion, a sequel, wbich might be accompanied by a selection of things of this nature, is announced in the following advertisement.
"This Volume will be found to contain what information was to be derived from the excavated City of Pompeii to the close of 1818 ; while the large Plan will shew the progress made during the two preceding years, as well as what still remains uncovered. The excava. tions, however, are still proceeded upon, since new objects continually present themselves, to excite the activity of the labourers, and gratify the curiosity of the learned and antiquarian.
• It is intended by the Authors of this work to collect these as they may turn up; and when a sufficient number of subjects accumulate to form about 20 Plates, to publish them as a Part. In these the colouring will be an object, where it presents any circumstance worthy of notice; and some Plates will be given of Implements, &c. so as to make the whole Work a complete Commentary upon Roman Domestic Economy.'
Every one will have observed how much more is said, in the current notices of the subterranean antiquities of the tract about Vesuvius, of the Pompeian than of the Herculanean discoveries. The case is, that but small progress, comparatively, has been made or attempted in the excavation of Herculaneum : indeed, Sir W. Gell says it is now discontinued. The operation was exceedingly difficult and toilsome, in consequence of the great depth (from sixty to more than a hundred feet) at which that city is buried, and of the much harder quality of the superincumbent substances, consisting of vast strata of stony mud and lava. Many objects of curiosity have indeed been discovered and brought up; but there is no such thing as laying the city open to the light. Nor are there any extensive cavern spaces to be viewed by going down, as the excavation has been carried on by conveying the materials removed at each stage into the spaces which had previously been cleared. Some of the travellers who have descended, bave described the scene below as bavipg the appearance of a gloomy and hideous pit. Pompeii, on the contrary, was lost under but a thin covering of ashes and pumice, with a smaller proportion of mud and pebbles.
• The excavations afford an opportunity of observing, that the ruin of Pompeii was not effected by an uniform shower of cinders, or pumice-stones. A section near the amphitheatre, gives the general proportions of the mass under which the city is buried to the depth of about twenty feet. Separating the whole into five portions, we shall find the first three to consist of pumice-stone in small pieces resembling a light white cinder, and covering the pavement to the depth of twelve feet : the next portion is composed of six parts, beginning with a stratum of small black stones, not more than three
inches in thickness ; to this succeeds a thin layer of mud, or earth which has been mixed with water, and appears to have been deposited in a liquid state ; upon this lies another thin stratum of little stones, of a mixed bue, in which blue predominates; a second stratum of mud, separated from a third by a thin wavy line of mixed blue stones, completes the fourth portion; while the fifth or highest division consists entirely of vegetable earth, principally formed by the gradual decomposition of the volcanic matter from the date of the eruption to the present day.'
The strata of mud were discharged in a very liquid state from the mountain, an event by no means uncommon during later eruptions: and it is from this circumstance that vaulted passages, of which the covering still remains entire, are usually found as completely full of the deposition as the open courts, or the chambers where the roofs have been consumed.'
The disappearance of the city was not so entire, at the time of its destruction, as we have been accustomed to imagine. The deposition of volcanic matter was not of depth to cover the higher parts of the-greater structures, or even, in many cases, of the more ordinary ones. It appears that the upper stories of many of the houses must have been left prominent above the surface, to be demolished for the materials, or to be reduced to rubbish, and ultimately covered with vegetation, in the lapse of time. Traces of some of them are found in staircases and pieces of the remaining walls. In many parts of the city, however, the upper stories were covered, and therefore have been preserved; but they seem to have been of very
inferior consequence to the apartments on the ground floor.' A small part of the top of the wall of one of the great public buildings has always remained in sight; but, till accident revealed the secret, it bad been considered as only the relic of some structure founded on the surface. So palpable, however, in the opinion of Sir W. Gell, must the signs on the surface always have been of what was inhumed below, that he wonders the antiquaries should have failed to detect the lost city.
• The ruins of the city must always have appeared above the soil : with reference to this assertion, we may recollect, that Pompeii was called by the first excavators Civita, a name the spot seems to have borne some centuries previously, and which it had probably borne from the time of its destruction.'
• As the soil is generally raised but little higher than the top of the lower stories of the houses, the upper apartments and the public buildings might have nearly equalled the trees which now clothe the summit.
• The ruins of Pompeii might have been observed by any traveller along the road.-No one, however, would have suspected how rich a mine of antiquities existed here, until a labourer, in the middle of the last century, found, in ploughing, a statue of brass ; which cir
cumstance being reported to the government, was one of the causes which led to the first excavations ; and subsequently the accidental discovery of the temple of Isis, while some workmen were employed in the construction of a subterranous aqueduct, contributed not a little to confirm the expectations which had been excited. Since that period the operations have always been carrying on, with more or less activity, so that by degrees the whole will be cleared. In the mean time, notwithstanding the great attention which has been bestowed on the preservation of the monuments first found, they are beginning to suffer from the effects of that exposure which has taken place since their second birth. In the short space of time which has elapsed since their discovery, the alternations of winter and summer have generally effaced the paintings, and in many instances entirely stripped every trace of stucco from the walls.'— So that we are not permitted to hope that the theatres, houses, or temples, constructed as they are of the most perishable materials, can remain for the satisfaction of posterity: and although in this point of view, it may be considered fortunate for the succeeding generation that the operation goes on so slowly, still too much cannot now be done to preserve the memory of what exists. The fortifications, however, which are in some parts built with solid blocks of stone, may yet remain for many centuries, as the Doric temple would have done, had it not been destroyed by external force; whereas a short period must suffice to destroy every vestige of the rest of the city, which is built of bricks and rubble work, without any pretension to durability or excellence of construction. The streets are curiously paved, with irregularly shaped pieces of black volcanic stone well put together, and generally exhibiting the tracks of wheels. The town was originally founded upon an ancient bed of lava, though there exists no record of an earlier eruption than that which destroyed it.'
The city is found in a state of very great dilapidation, which could not be caused by the descent of the dreadful volcanic showers which created its tomb. But a great earthquake accompanied the eruption; and the place is judged to have been very far from having recovered from the effects of a most destructive one which had bappened sixteen years before. "The • workmen's tools are still in many instances found accompany
ing the materials collected for the repair of the damages this earthquake had caused.'
Very striking memorials have occurred, of the gradual accumulation of the mass formed by these showers, and of the fate of such of the inhabitants as could not escape from the city, in the circumstance of skeletons found many feet above the ancient level. The victims had continued to struggle upward through the deepening stratum of ashes and mud. In one instance this had been done by a female, of whose bosom the mould, impressed in the substance which had subsequently hardened around her, is shewn in the Museum of Portici.
Before describing the sepulchral structures and monuments of Pompeii, Sir William adverts to the notions, feelings, customs, and enacted regulations of the ancient Romans respecting the dead, and gives an interesting representation of their funeral rites and commemorations. In general, they were very desirous to have their tombs placed in conspicuous and public situations, especially by the side of the great roads in the vicinity of the towns. It is striking and affecting thus to behold them seeking to relieve the gloom which oppressed their spirits in their hopeless darkness, or vague, cheerless superstition, respecting a future state, by expedients for making it unavoid able that those who should be alive when they were dead, should see their names, and perhaps sometimes talk of them. That also they, or their memory, might receive sometimes the expression of a transient farewell sentiment, appeared a matter of some importance to beings who had no assurance of surviving to be welcomed in another society.
LOLLI, VALE There were at the same time some in whom either pride or a certain refinement of sentiment, repressed this desire of a vulgar publicity of their names.
Some families still had burial places at their country-houses; not choosing to have their names exhibited to the popular gaze, or their memory recalled to animadversion. And thus Propertius :
Dii faciant, mea ne terra locet ossa frequenti,
Qua facit assiduo tramite vulgus iter.
Non juvat in media nomen habere via.' This feeling expressed in contrariety to the general passion for vulgar monumental exposure, is beyond all comparison in better taste, independently of any sentiment of pride, or apprebension of being made the subject of discussion and censorious opinion. It is far more consonant to the solemnity of death, as a total, final withdrawment from the active systein of the world. How obvious, too, is the greater congeniality of a seclusion of the memorials of the departed, with the sacredness of a pensive, affectionate remembrance in the surviving friends! Still, if we consider the natural effect of having no decided bold by faith of an invisible world, in combination with that instinctive reluctance to let go entirely the present state, which even Christian hope can seldom wholly suspend, we shall not greatly wonder at the eagerness to retain any possible connexion with the busy scene. We shall not, therefore, wonder that in the prospect of leaving
it, so many of those dark heathen spirits should have solicitously provided for memorials to retain them in some kind of fancied presence in its most thronged social situations. Our Author cites some examples of the care, particularity, and precaution with which testamentary appointments for this purpose were made.
There is one of the enumerated modes of monumental celebration, of which it really is not easy to conceive how it could be felt compatible with any dignified ideas of death and departed excellence. According to our associations with the subject, it would inevitably bear the character of a burlesque show, instead of a solemn commemoration. This was the custom of bringing out, as a part of the funeral ceremonies for persons recently deceased, waxen busts, wbich had been made in resemblance of the ancestors of those persons, to be publicly exbibited, in the robes, and with the insignia appropriate to their offices and dignities and drawn in cbariots to the forum, there to be placed in the same curule chairs with which when alive they had been
privileged.' The orator for the occasion, when he had exhausted all the topics of eulogy of the person lately dead, went back to celebrate the virtues and exploits of those former personages whose images were thus exposed in ludicrous pomp, endeavouring to make their examples and honours an incitement to the virtuous ambition of the descendants and all the beholders. • To modern feelings,' says our Author, it is difficult to con
ceive other than ludicrous effects from the display of a wax' work ancestry; yet we have the testimony of more than one (ancient to the good result of such exhibition.'*
The detailed survey of the city begins with the Street of the * Tombs. In the approach to Pompeii from Naples,
• both sides of the road, for nearly a furlong before entering the city, are occupied by tombs and public monuments, intermixed with shops ; in front of the latter, arcades were constructed, affording shelter from the rays of the sun, or inclemency of the weather. The carriage way, or agger, exhibiting the tracks or ruts worn by chariots, is narrow, seldom exceeding fourteen feet in width, with foot-ways, or margines, on each side, varying from four to six, elevated above the road about a foot, and separated therefrom by a curb and guard stones, raised about sixteen inches, and placed at intervals of from ten to twelve feet asunder.' • The ruts are sometimes four inches deep; the wheels seem to have been about three inches wide, and from three feet to three feet six inches apart. The wheels of a modern carriage are about four feet six inches.'
• The street of the tombs, as far as hitherto discovered, contains
• Sæpe audivi, Q. Maximum, P. Scipionem, præterea civitatis nostræ præclaros viros, solitos dicere; cum majorum imagines intuerentur, vehementissime accendi. Sallust.' Vol. XIV. N.S.