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quires) to that “ perfect law of liberty” which Christ has ten
dered to us for the regulation of our conduct towards all man• kind, as well as for self-preservation? or-Whether we rather
prefer the empire of Satan, the spiritual enemy, for the sake
of those temporal gratifications and vile indulgences by which " he holds men in bondage, through their carnal affections, till • they become personal enemies even to themselves.'* We shall offer no comment on this passage, which we have extracted for the simple purpose of illustrating the theological views of the Writer, further than this, that there can be no question whether his sentiments were, or were not, more nearly related to a Scriptural faith and to practical piety, ihan the Sadducean notions on this subject which have so extensively gained ground in wbat is termed the religious world. In Granville Sharp, they produced no other fruits than genuine fortitude and deep humility, a constant sense of a peculiar direction of Providence guiding and impelling bis labours, and the devotion and watchfulness of the Christian.
• Once, in a committee of the Sierra Leone Company, after a long discussion of the difficulties which had impeded the progress of their undertaking, he suddenly rose, and said with great warmth, “ All these impediments arise from our great enemy, the devil, against whom there is no power of resistance, except by fervent prayers to God.”
That this was his own constant practice, he strikingly evinced on another occasion. When Sir William Jones, bis intimate friend in youth, was departing for India, Granville, in their farewell interview, thus addressed him: “ We have talked to“ gether on many subjects : 'we have not yet spoken on the most “ material one, our reliance on the will of our Creator in all " things. You are leaving us for India. I have drawn up a col“ lection of prayers : suffer me to present it to you, and to en“ treat that, wben you are far removed from me, you will adopt " the use of it." Sir William's reply is stated to have been, that the request was a high gratification to him, and that he was glad to be able to say that he was bimself constant' in prayer. In fact, it is a high but not overcharged encomium which has been passed upon this excellent man by an individual who knew him well, and who was a fellow-labourer in the cause of Africa, Mr. Z. Macauley, that he was one, ' who for near eighty years, stemmed the tide of oppression and corruption; who, animated by a simple view of his duty, and that Christian philanthropy which emanates from the love of God and Christ, stood before kings and judges in the cause of the friendless and the faint ; who laboured for God and man with unexampled as
* Pp. 199–201. Second Edition. sm. 8vo. 1809.
siduity and perseverance, and who yet made no account of his labours ; who waged no war but with the devil and the works of the devil and the flesh; and whose highest enjoyment arose from the advancement of Christ's spiritual kingdom in his own soul, and from the anticipation of its full establishment in every heart. I verily believe that purer and more upright mind, one more single in its aim and intention, and more unequivocally scrupulous as to the rectitude of his means, more simply directed to the glory of God and the good of man, has never left this world.'
Little needs be said beyond what has already been intimated, with regard to the manner in which Mr. Hoare has executed his honourable task. He speaks of a' tedious research into confused
and crowded documents,' as having rendered his performance somewhat embarrassing; and to this circumstance we must ascribe the deficiency both of arrangement and of compression, (though there is rather a parade of method and orderly distribution of the materials, which constitutes the chief defect of the work. Occasionally, but only occasionally, (as at p. 411.) the Author bas indulged in the attempt at fine writing : he has for the most part laudably confined himself to the simple style which is adapted to biography. Upon the whole, he bas presented to us a very interesting and even valuable volume; but in the event of a new edition in an octavo size, we would earnestly recommend an abridgement of the historical portions of the work, as well as a more concise view of Mr. Sharp's sentiments and character, which are at present too much left to be gathered from notices scattered throughout the Memoirs. If the collected letters are to make their appearance in a complete form, those which are introduced in this volume, will of course, be omitted in a new edition. It were a pity, that the life of such a man should not be exhibited within the compass of a volume better adapted, both as to bulk and price, to general readers. A portrait of Mr, Sharp is prefixed, engraved from a drawing by Dance, made when he was fifty-eight : it presents a physiognomy exceedingly striking, but deficient in that cheerful benignity which was so prominent a trait in Mr. Sharp's countenance as well as character. We much prefer, on this account, the small medallion in Mr. Bowyer's publication of “ Poems on the Abolition of the Slave « Trade."
Art. II. 1. Journals of two Expeditions into the Interior of New
South Wales, undertaken by Order of the British Government in the Years 1817–18. By John Oxley, Surveyor-general of the Territory, and Lieutenant of the Royal Navy. With Maps and
Views. 4to. Price 21. 10s. London, 1820. 2. Van Dieman's Land. Geographical and descriptive Delineations
of the Island of Van Dieman's Land. By Lieut. Ch. Jeffreys,
R. N. Svo. Price 5s. London, 1820. 3. The History of New South Wales. By Mr. O'Hara. 8vo. Price
14s. London.. 4. A Statistical, historical, and political Description of the Colony of
New South Wales, and its dependent Settlements in Van Diemen's Land. With a particular Enumeration of the Advantages which these Colonies offer for Emigration, and their Superiority in many Respects over those possessed by the United States of America. By W. C. Wentworth, Esq. a Native of the Colony. 8vo. Price
12s. London, 1819. WE have, especially in our own language, a considerable
quantity of valuable matter illustrative of the various inquiries connected with the systematic adjustment of Colonial policy, but it is to be found, for the most part, only in a scattered or an imperfect state: a distinct and comprehensive work on that very important and pressing subject, has now become, on many accounts, highly desirable. Adam Smith discussed the general question vigorously, but on narrow grounds. J. B. Say, in his excellent “ Traité d'Economie Politique,” has adverted to it luminously, but incompletely and with unavoidable brevity. Mr. Brougham's “ Inquiry into the Colonial Policy “ of the European Powers," is a useful and an able book, but the Writer was then at an age too early to have treasured up the results of mature reflection and protracted inquiry; it is not always clearly written, and its reasonings are too frequently indistinct and unfinished. Some valuable gleanings are to be obtained from Talleyrand; and the somewhat too voluminous “ Collection de Memoires sur les colonies" of M. Malouet, will afford many available facts, and just, though merely incidental remarks. M. de Pradt's very lively and by no means uninstructive octavo“ On the Colonies and the present American “ Revolutions," is altogether too superficial and hasty to supply the deficiency wbich we are now regretting.
There is a strong and very natural, though perfectly irrational tendency in the administrators of all long established governments, to be guided rather by precedent than by sound principle, and to follow the easy track marked out by custom and routine, in preference to the more difficult, though safer road of reason and general experience. In addition to this, it is obvious to remark, that there is too ordinarily among public cha
racters, a failure in those personal qualities and political virtues wbich are necessary to enable them to make a resolute and successful stand against the interests and prejudices by which they are beset; and we much fear that to these prevailing deficiencies and errors, the well-being of the State will, as in former instances, and most grossly in the case of our Colonial connexions, be again and again sacrificed. Perhaps there is not a transaction on record in which the conduct of a parent country towards its colonies, has been entirely free from imputation; but we shall incur no hazard in aflirming that, in this respect, Great Britain is entitled to a melancholy pre-eminence in absurdity, obstinacy, and disaster. Her behaviour towards her American colonists, was, we verily believe, perfectly unrivalled in its gratuitous and incredible impolicy; and its result has materially contributed to the exhausted and doubtful condition in which we now find ourselves. Yet we seem, by a conduct which, though not precisely parallel, may be traced to the same principles, to be preparivg for a repetition of similar scenes. Whether we colonize our distant possessions, or hold them on the yet weaker tenure of military occupancy, our negligence and apathy take no account of the future: uprès nous le deluge, seems to be the national motto, and it is to be apprehended that we are indeed bequeathing to our posterity, even if we ourselves escape the storm, an inundation of evils. The defects of our Indian system are radical, and the very foundations of our Eastern empire, rotten : the army which secures it to us, is mainly native; and a race of half-casts, the offspring of the English sojourners and Hindoo women, is formidably increasing, who will
, probably, like the creoles and mestizos of South America, be the future masters of the land. The colonies of New South Wales, though at present necessarily dependent on the mother-country, already claim a more special notice and a far wiser legislation than have yet been deemed necessary by listless and procrastinating statesmen. A strong case for inquiry has been made out by Mr. Wentworth, whose allegations, though rather vehement and altogether ex parte, yet bear on their general aspect, the appearance of accuracy and fairness. His statements and documents establish the facts, that our Australian settlements are without a fixed and settled system of administration ; that the principles on which they are governed are vagne, and in their operation, though not in their intention, oppressive; and that, how desirable soever it may be to encourage the enterprises of free settlers, yet, the impolitic restrictions imposed on commerce, and the want of a sounder scheme of government, must have a decidedly counteractive effect.
The first discovery of New Holland, erroneously ascribed by
Mr. O'llara to de Quiros, is in reality due to Torres, his second in command, who having been separated from his admiral, accomplished the diflicult navigation of the straits since distinguished by bis name, and during bis passage saw some of the northern projections of that continent. The Dutch, however, were the principal discoverers, since they coasted, at different periods, nearly the whole of the southern, western, and northern limits, including the gulf of Carpentaria. Captain Cook first sailed along the eastern shore, and ascertained the insularity of this immense tract. No serious intention of forming a settlement seems to have been entertained by any of the European nations, until, in 1780, the British Government determined on taking possession of part of the coast discovered by Cook, as an eligible situation for the disposal of convicts sentenced to exile. The spot selected for that purpose, lies on the banks of a spacious inlet, to which, from the profusion and variety of 'the floral productions which surrounded it, that great navigator had given the name of Botany Bay; but it was soon ascertained that, captivating as might be the appearance that the adjacent country presented to the naturalist, neither the bay nor the land afforded shelter to commerce, or hope to the agriculturist. Another opening, a very few miles northward, bad, from some misconception of its nature, been passed by with a superficial survey when Captain Cook explored the coast : it was inserted in his charts as an open bay, and named Port Jackson. This magnificent barbour was now examined by Governor Phillip. The boats under bis command entered with no anticipations of any thing more than a common inlet; but the men were astonished by the discovery of a capacious haven, coinpletely landlocked, of depth and extent suflicient to contain all the navies of the world, and most advantageously adapted to commerce, by its innumerable branches, coves, creeks, and islands. Here, then, was made the first and principal settlement, which received the name of Sidney; and wise and vigorous measures were adopted for the regulation of the colony. An establishment was at the saine time made on Norfolk Island, chiefly for the purpose of securing a supply of the flax plant, described as growing there spontaneously; but the various disadvantages connected with this settlement, among which the want of a good port was conspicuous, ultimately led to its abandonment. It will be readily conceived that the difficulties encountered by the colonists were for several years multiplied and urgent, and that the successive governors had no easy task in the control and direction of the indolent and immoral association at the head of which they were placed. Generally speaking, they were men of worth and talent: the names of Phillip, Hunter, and King, are to be mentioned with honour; and the atlairs of