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prohibited, some of the papists and other sectaries, it seems, used to taunt the good churchmen with the non-visibility of that which, if a part of the true Church, must needs suffer no interruption of existence. Some of our readers may be tempted to sinile at hearing the way in wbich this objection was repelled. Sir Richard Browne, Mr. Evelyn's father-in-law, during the whole of his nineteen years' exile,' kept up in his chapel the • Liturgy and Offices of the Church of England, to his no small • honour, and in a time when it was so low, and, as many
thought, utterly lost, that in various controversies both with papists and sectaries, our divines used to argue for the visi•bility of the Church, from his chapel and congregation !! No wonder that they should have found in the restoration of the monarchy in the person of Charles II., a parallel to the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity.
But there were more rational grounds for rejoicing, or at least for acquiescing in that event. There were sober-minded men who regarded the King's return as the only means of re-establishing a constitutional, in place of a military government. Cromwell was no more, who alone could tame the violence of rival factions, and give bond, by his personal energy, for the security of men's social interests. The wizard was dead, whose spells the army, bis demon servant, obeyed, which now threatened to turn against its masters, and would be exorcised only by the name of king. To escape from the evils of anarchy, or even from the uncertainties of an unsettled government, a very large portion of the nation would have been glad to submit to almost any arrangement that promised to be permanent; and they suffered themselves to be quietly made over by Monk to a Stuart, without taking a single precaution to secure their dearly purchased liberties. What it was that they bad consented to have restored, and wbat they had parted with, it was not long before they were enabled very feelingly to ascertain. A few extracts from subsequent pages of Mr. Evelyn's diary, will place the matter in a sufficiently clear point of view.
"6 July. [1660. About five weeks after the King's return] His Majestie began first to touch for ye evil, according to costome, thus : his Ma'tie sitting under his State in ye Banquetting House, the Chirurgeons cause the sick to be brought or led up to the throne, where they kneeling, ye King strokes their faces or cheekes with both his hands at once, at which instant a Chaplaine in his formalities says, “ He put his hands upon them and he healed them.” This is sayd to every one in particular. When they have ben all touch'd they come up againe in the same order, and the other Chaplaine kneeling, and having Angel gold strung on white ribbon on his arme, delivers them one by one to his M'ie, who puts them about the necks of the touched as they passe, whilst the first Chaplaine repeats, “ That is ye true
light who came into ye world." Then follows an Epistle (as at first a Gospell) with the Liturgy, prayers for the sick, with some alteration, lastly ye blessing; and then the Lo. Chamberlaine and Comptroller of the Household bring a basin, ewer and towell, for his Na'tie to wash.'
« 25 Jan. 1661. After divers yeares since I had seen any play, I went to see acted “ The Scornful Lady,” at a New Theater in Lincoln's Inn Fields.'
* 6 Jan. 1662. This evening, according to costome, his Majesty open'd the revells of that night by throwing the dice himselfe in the privy chamber, where was a table set on purpose, and lost his 1001. (The yeare before he won 15001.) The ladies also plaied very deepe. I came away when the Duke of Ormonde had won about 1000l. and left them still at passage, cards, &c. At other tables, both there and at ye Groom-porters, observing the wicked folly and monstrous ex. cesse of passion amongst some loosers ; sorry I am that such a wretched costome as play to that excesse should be countenanc'd in a Court which ought to be an example of virtue to the rest of the kingdome.
• 9. I saw acted “ The 3rd Part of the Siege of Rhodes.” In this acted ye faire and famous comedian call'd Roxalana from ye part she performed; and I think it was the last, she being taken to be the Earle of Oxford's misse (as at this time they began to call lewd women.)
• 15. There was a general fast thro' ye whole nation, and now celebrated at London, to avert God's heavy judgments on this land. There had fallen greate raine without any crost or seasonable cold, not only in England, but in Sweden, and the most Northern parts, being here neere as warme as at midsommer in some yeares. This solemn fast was held for ye House of Commons at St. Margaret's. Dr. Reeves, Dean of Windsor, preach'd on 7 Joshua, 12. Shewing how y neglect of exacting justice on offenders (by which lie insinuated such of the old King's murderers as were yet reprieved and in ye Tower) was a maine cause of God's punishing a land. He brought in that of the Gibeonites as well as Achan and others, concluding with an eulogie of the Parliament for their loyaltie in restoring ye Bishops and Cleargie, and vindicating the Church from sacrilege.
• 16. This night was acted before his Ma" “ The Widow," a lewd play.'
' 6 April. Being of the Vestry, in the afternoone we order'd that the Communion Table should be set as usual altar-wise, with a decent raile before it, as before the Rebellion.'
17 Aug. Being the Sunday when the Common Prayer Booke reformed and ordered to be used for the future, was appointed to be read, and the solemn League and Covenant to be abjured by all the incumbents of England under penalty of looseing their livings; our Vicar read it this morning.
* 20. There were strong guards in ye Citty this day, apprehending some tumults, many of the Presbyterian ministers not conforming.
21 Dec. One of his Ma'y" Chaplains preach'd, after which, in
stead of ye antient, grave, and solemn wind musiq accompanying y® organ, was introduc'd a concert of 24 violins betweene every pause, after the French fantastical light way, better suiting a tavern or playhouse than a church.'
These were early days, which exhibited but a sample and earnest of what the nation gained by the restoration of the Court, the Church and the Theatre, and their simultaneous efforts to de-puritanize the community. All was not indeed, even in good Mr. Evelyn's opinion, as it should have been ; but the King smiled upon him, and occupations of the most honourable and patriotic nature now devolving upon him, and engrossing his time, left little leisure for superfluous ruminatiou or boding augury. He dined with the King, or with the Chancellor, or with the Queen Mother, and he went to royal balls and royal theatricals, till he was tired of the burry of a court life, while at home he received the visits of Majesty and all its satellites. He could now go to church without seeing a me chanic, or one whose ordination was of doubtful validity, ascend the pulpit; he saw Ash Wednesday and Christmas day reinstituted, and the Communion Table again set altar-wise, the Presbyterians turned out, and the carcasses of those arch' rebels Cromwell, Bradshaw, and Ireton dragged out of their
superb tombs in Westminster among the Kings, to Tyburne, hanged on the gallows there, and then buried in a deep pit. He saw, and he records, these magnanimous triumphs, and could he but feel elated at such a Restoration ? It is a most salutary exercise of the feelings, to compel one's self to think none the worse of a man's integrity, piety, and even amiableness, on account of what seem to us palpable incongruities, but which, perhaps, taking all the circumstances into consideration, do not exceed what may be fairly allowed as the average proportion of human infirmity which forms the set off against the truest excellence of character. In our next Number, we shall endeavour to do justice to Mr. Evelyn's exemplary discharge of all the social relations, bis devout and resigned temper, his scientific ardour, and his unaffected philanthropy.
Art. IV. An Autumn near the Rhine ; or Sketches of Courts, Society,
Scenery, &c. in some of the German States bordering on the Rhine.
8vo. pp. 524. London, 1818. The Rhine, the magnificent Rhine, while its very name calls
up the idea of all that is wild, and rich, and majestic is scenery, formas a kind of central point in our historical recollee_ tions of marking periods and of illustrious individuals. With . out ascending to the times of romance or plausible conjecture, We
find, at a sufficiently early date of classical history, its banks te: nanted by rude and warlike tribes, whose inroads into Belgic Gaul, stimulated the policy and ambition of Julius Cæsar to lead, for the first time, the Roman armies across the Rhine. The fine, but doubtful campaigns of Drusus and Germanicus were manouvred and fought the adjacent country, in which was also the theatre of the splendid efforts of Arminius to liberate his country from the chains of Rome, Some of the most remarkable events of the reign of Charlemagne were transacted in this quarter ; and the conflicts between his descendants frequently rendered it a troubled scene. In the subsequent stages of Germanic story, the Rhenish territory has always formed a kind of debateable ground on which alien or native armies might contend for the mastery. It did not of course, escape the protracted visitations of the thirty years' war, when Gustavus and his school of warriors traversed Germany from the sea to the Carpathians, and from the Vistula to the Danube. Of the wars between the different Continental states, and between France and Great Britain, these regions have been the frequent field, and have given a melancholy immortality to the naines of Spinola, Farnese, Condé, Luxembourg, Marlborough, Eugene, Villars, and a host of equally illustrious homicides.
The Rhine has seldom, and only for a brief time, served as the boundary of great and powerful nations. In the earlier periods of authentic history we find it bordered by savage tribes, who were at all times ready either to engage in rautual quarrel 'or to range themselves under the command of some powerful or popuJar leader ; and the neighbouring regions still bear testimony to that more recent, and not less turbulent period, when the summits of the Bergstrasse and the Adenwald were crowned with fortresses, whose ruins blend richly with the wild and grand scenery of these romantic tracts, and whose original possessors descended from their mountain fastnesses to encounter each other in fierce rivalry, or to plunder the helpless traveller. Within a narrower limit of commemoration, the Rhenish states have presented the same general aspect of minute and intricate separation, but with a more tranquil and better defined policy, and on the whole, perhaps, with favourable results to the general interests of mankind. Ilad the whole of Germany, for instance, been under the dominion of Austria, the efforts of Luther would probably have been as little successful as were similar attempts in the adjacent country of Bohemia.; but the division of territory, the variety of interests, the difference of policy, and the distinctions of personal character among the reigning monarchs of the Imperial states, afforded favourable opportunities for the introduction and advancement of the reformation, of which the great
instruments raised up by Providence for that transcendent work, did not fail to make skilful and vigorous use.
We have no present motive for discussing the now obliterated changes introduced into the Germanic constitution by Napoleon ; but we can have no hesitation in expressing our strong disapprobation of the plans adopted by the Allied powers in their dissolution of the Rhenish confederation and their construction of a semifeudal, semifederative system. If justice-justice on their own principles, we mean—bad been their object, it required something like the re-establishment of the former regime'; but if a sincere regard to the common weal had actuated tbem, we should have have heard nothing of the adjustments, absorptions, extensions, and mediatizations, by which they have arbitrarily, and as we apprehend, injuriously, altered the political aspect of Europe, and interposed formidable obstacles to the ascertainment and consolidation of civil and religious freedom. Not that we cherish much sympathy for the small princes and chieftains themselves who have been so unceremoniously ousted; nor that we regard the old system with any other feeling than with cordial dislike, and with sincere wishes for the substitution of a better; but we condemn the arrangements of the Allies, because we are Unable to trace in them that enlightened solicitude for the independence of sovereigns, the liberty of subjects, and the happiness of nations, which the royal and noble negociators on all occasions clamorously professed. There was a fine opportunity for the proof of their sincerity, presented to them in the condition of the free cities and states of the Empire, and, to speak in courteous phrase, they neglected it. There is no part of German history on which the mind and memory dwell with greater interest, than on the rise, vicissitudes, and decay of those privileged establishments. In the olden time of Germany. her
merchants were princes,' and wbatever might be the defects of their mercantile policy, whatever of error or of ambition might occasionally sully the internal rule or the honourable rivalry of the commercial states, there was a republican energy in their character, a boldness and a grandeur in their enterprises, which amply redeemed their vices, and almost authorized the occasional extravagance of their pretensions. In the dark periods of the Empire, they wereits best resources ; in its better days, they were its proudest boast. Amid surrounding deserts of despotisrn and poverty, they were as rich oases, flourishing in all the wealth of commerce, and in as large an enjoyment of the blessings of freedom as theconditions of mortality and the circumstances of political science would permit. Gradually, but forcibly and completely swept away by the tide of despotic encroachment and military violence, sound policy, the state of Europe, and the claims of man's moral and intellectual nature demanded their restoration. But the same