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terval, a depreciation of thirty three per eat. The wages oí Carpenters, bricklarers, and oiber domestic artificers, declinec, during the same prind, from 217 pints of wbeat to 116.

The di preci tion of husbandry labour, wen, the only kind of labour vbich ull very lately has come ucder the supposed ope. ralion of ibe Poor Laus, has been a growing evil during the past seventy years. And yet, for a great part of that time, ibis courry bas enjoyed an unesampled degree of prosperity. Agriculture, in particular, bas proved so prufitable, notwithstanding all the burdens entailed up on the land, as to draw to itself an immense accession of capital. Our farmers have been growing rich, have actually risen as a class in the scale of society; while the landed arisiocracy bave been enabled to secure a vast augmentation of revenue. This progressive reduction of the wages of labour, which bas proved a source of profit to the farmer, would seem to have been necessarily attended by a proportionate increase of suffering on the part of the labouring classes : but such bas not been the case.

• Although the labourer's command over the necessaries and convenierices of life is very mal rially lessened, that unfavourable change has been so far counteracted by improved habits of living, that upon the whole bis condition seems to be more tolerable than it was sixty or seventy years ago ; for our registers of mortality, which afford a prerty Accurate standard of the measure of suffering endured by the poor at different periods, diecisively prove that the healthiness of the people is greatly increased. The improvement in this respect within the last century is indeed so astonishingly great, that it would appear quite incredible, had we noi so much evidence on the subject, collected from such various quarters, and founded on different principles of computa. tion, yet agreeing in ihe general result. The average number of deaths yearly within the limits of the London Bills of Mortality, exceeded in the reign of George I. 26,000:-of late years, notwithstanding the prodigious accession of inhabitants, it has not amounted to 20,000. Froin 1780 to 1784, the average number of deaths yearly entered in the Parish Registers of England and Wales, equalled 1-40th part of the population,--- from 1804 10 1809 only 1-53d. It is hardly possible that ibis extraordinary change can arise from any inaccuracy in the registers ; --for the omissions are likely to be fewer in later years, since a higher degree of importance has been altached to their correctness, than formerly. But if the omissions in early times were more numerous than at present, the rate of mortality was in fact still higher in comparison with Jater years than the above statements would indicate. It may be added that the registers not only shew a great decrease in the total number of deaths, they also indicate that those deaths take place on an average at a much later period of life ; that a much smaller proportion die in infancy than forinerly,--a much larger proportion attain to longevity. pp.13-- 15.

Mr. Barton remarks that there is no satisfactory way of accounting for this wonderful increase of healthiness, except by

referring it to an impacterbest ia be tests diese people : since the abatement of Lorris ir frastrgas seis in those diseases of which re Dude * -usere

ses resz. 553 the greatest improvement. Tbe (224 us jare 2.1995 in the bealth of the people oí E19.21, Dr. Hueria 14.20 attributes to the ix proreces's saja kare 9732.7259 in all great to wos, particolaris at sunset ET1 Ventilation. The cbearbess of 90s. T. the perfection to wbich the use of Deniosas be 1939 tri by which means cur lower crees gerente deze while their clothirg, being in itse les artis frequently received a be assicure improved habits of tbe peo-l ia răspet Berget mi era ness, and of ibe consequent decrease of mort.

To what cause soerer tue tus is a 2 * 2 s that the babits and the condition or ter besserter

at the same time that the aire DOIS DE DISTURE #classes has suffered a vast retserior. 4: 1 VÝLE 1991

of the charges so often brought against the possa! extravagance and idleness M. Barra eres ute EDTUBE the First Report of the Commons Conte se 10 Pro Laws, in which the necessities of tbe degustas por eascribed to an abaterest of those ezera , 256 ' ing to the nature of things, the refere 251 kere det. < kind has been made to rest, accorsed by mon 11

position to make provision is tbe sezon si bab ini TIBU 6 for the wants of sickness and o' age;" 200 bis Luet 15-3 C. for the proof of the grorb a titase aga TDS ; sities.

On what grounds is ibe songs VI: Exams SUDET MUL SUFE against it. Does the presentes en la 9, 21, wardness on the part of tte pet. Izke & TITIE COJIL seal

against a day of want? Is 2, 2012 CUENTAS G1 innen Dr_ 4 verable in the fact that trat. 2. Joer met FIDU.190

members of Friedly Socket; 2-ROU v I was selves, gererally wiboutite 21, VIN cours superiors, for the express purpo** *21-452 Pret: 22 n die health and vigoar for the mass cá DZI* * tega ne 3 ta sai

dence brought forward to prest 12. - 1* us Serre E

the progreseive growth of paymen. * * *sp 1e suure e

poor increases, *e are coid 1531 post 2 190 P a desa trious, we are referred back to me. 3 clear that if the recordance on last 3* GOLO V VSV funds may increase wiilarsi $67.3 E bw 1 11 part of the applicants. "bosat si vam nu's tbar soffice for the decease avesse 65, who bate farzet izmites czo do so as VUL. XIV. S.S.

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terval, a depreciation of thirty three per cent. The wages of carpenters, bricklayers, and other domestic artificers, declined, during the same period, froin 247 pints of wheat to 116.

The depreciation of husbandry labour, then, the only kind of labour which till very lately has come under the supposed operation of the Poor Laws, has been a growing evil during the past seventy years. And yet, for a great part of that time, this country has enjoyed an unexampled degree of prosperity. Agriculture, in particular, bas proved so profitable, not withstanding all the burdens entailed upon the land, as to draw to itself an immense accession of capital. Our farmers have been growing rich, have actually risen as a class in the scale of society; while the landed aristocracy have been enabled to secure a vast augmentation of revenue. This progressive reduction of the wages of labour, which has proved a source of profit to the farmer, would seem to have been necessarily attended by a proportionate increase of suffering on the part of the labouring classes : but such has not been the case.

• Although the labourer's command over the necessaries and conveniences of life is very materially lessened, that unfavourable change has been so far counteracted by improved habits of living, that upon the whole his condition seems to be more tolerable than it was sixty or seventy years ago ; for our registers of mortality, which afford a pretty accurate standard of the measure of suffering endured by the poor at different periods, decisively prove that the healthiness of the people is greatly increased. The improvement in this respect within the last century is indeed so astonishingly great, that it would appear quite incredible, had we noi so much evidence on the subject, collected from such various quarters, and founded on different principles of computa. tion, yet agreeing in the general result. The average number of deaths yearly within the limits of the London Bills of Mortality, exceeded in the reign of George I. 26,000:-of late years, notwithstanding the prodigious accession of inhabitants, it has not amounted to 20,000. From 1780 to 1784, the average number of deaths yearly entered in the Parish Registers of England and Wales, equalled 1.40th part of the populationg-from 1804 to 1809 only 1-53d. It is hardly possible that This extraordinary change can arise from anyinaccuracy in the registers ; --for the omissions are likely to be fewer in later years, since a higher degree of importance has been attached to their correctness, than formerly. But if the omissions in early times were more numerous than at present, the rate of mortality was in fact still higher in comparison with Jater years than the above statements would indicate.

It may be added that the registers not only shew a great decrease in the total number of deaths, they also indicate that those deaths take place on an average at a mucb later period of life; that a much smaller proportion die in infancy than forinerly,-a much larger proportion attain to longevity.' pp.13~ 15.

Mr. Barton remarks that there is no satisfactory way of aceounting for this wonderful increase of healthiness, except by

referring it to an improvement in the habits of the people ; since the abatement of mortality is far from being most sensible ip ihose diseases of which the node of treatment bas received the greatest improvement. The cause of this decided alteration in the health of the people of England, Dr. Heberden explicitly attributes to the improvements which have gradually taken place in all great towns, particularly with respect to cleanliness and Ventilation. The cheapness of manufactured goods, owing to the perfection to which the use of machinery has been carried; by which means our lower classes generally are better clothed, while their clothing, being in itself less substantial, is more frequently renewed,--may be assigned as a further cause of the improved habits of the people in respect to decency and cleanliHess, and of the consequent decrease of mortality.

To what cause soever the change is referrible, it is a fact, that the habits and the condition of the poor have been bettered, at the same tiine that the effective incoine of the industrious classes has suffered a vast reduction. And now what becomes of the charges so often brought against the poor, of increased extravagance and idleness Mr. Barton cites the language of the First Report of the Commons' Committee on the Poor Laws, in which the necessities of the depressed population are ascribed to an abatement of those exertions on which, accord• ing to the nature of things, the welfare and happiness of man

kind has been made to rest, accompanied by a growing indis

position to make provision in the season of health and vigour • for the wants of sickness and old age;' and he then justly asks for the proof of the growth of these alleged vicious propensities:

On what grounds is the accusation built ? Every presumption surely is against it. Does the present state of the Savings Banks imply any backwardness on the part of the poor to make a reserve from their earnings against a day of want? Is any increasing carelessness of the future discos verable in the fact that nearly a million of our labouring population are members of Friendly Societies; associations formed by the poot them selves, generally without the aid, often without the countenance, of their superiors, for the express purpose of“ making a provision in the season of health and vigour for the wants of sickness and old age?" The only evi. dence brought forward to prove the reality of this moral deterioration is the progressive growth of pauperism. If we ask why the number of poor increases, we are told that the people are less careful and industrious tban sormerly:--if we require proof that they are less careful and industrious, we are referred back to the spread of pauperism. But it is very clear that if the recompence of labour decline, the demands on parochial funds may increase without supposing any peculiar misconduct on the part of the applicants. When the ordinary rate of wages does not more ibati suffice for the decent maintenance of a wife and two children, those who have larger fanilies can do no other tban apply for relief. Wheti

VUL. XIV. N.Ş.

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the price of bread in good years is so high as only just to allow the labourer to live on his earnings, it argues no extraordinary defect of care and forethought if he is in part supported by the public after a bad harvest. In fact it is admitted on all hands that this description of allowances, viz. allowances granted to able labourers in compensation of the deficiency of their earnings, has principally contributed to raise the amount of parochial taxation to its present height. It is not pretended that the relief granted to those reduced to indigence by their own misconduct, forms any considerable proportion of the burden; nor is there any reason to suppose that the number of paupers of this unworthy class has experienced any considerable increase. To the depreciation of labour, therefore, the growing pressure of pauperism in agricultural districts may be safely attributed, rather than to any unfavourable change in the moral character or habits of the labourer. pp. 17-19.

But although this depreciation of country labour has hitberto been attended by mitigating circunstances which have prevented much of the misery that would otherwise bave ensued, there is obviously a point at which the condition of the labourer must become intolerable, unless some remedy can be proposed that shall prevent any further depression. The great evil, the root of all the sufferings of the poor, is, the low price of labour; that is, of agricultural labour, the price of which is liable to none of those violent fluctuations which are inevitable in some branches of manufacturing industry, in consequence of a stagnation of trade. In such cases, the wages of the workmen often suffer a sudden and extreme depression, for which it would be ridiculous to assign as the cause a redundant population, and still more so to refer the excess of supply beyond demand to any other origin than the over stimulated power of production in the bands of the capitalists. There can be no question that the country is suffering at this moment from an excess of population : but how has this excess been produced ? As to the inanufacturing class of labourers, the answer is clearly this : either there is no longer capital sufficient to co-operate with the number of hands which were formerly demanded for the production of mercantile wealth, or there is no longer room for the operations of manufacturing capital. The unemployed poor may be viewed in much the same light as so much fixed capital, of which there has taken place throughout the country an abandonment to a great extent; but unfortunately, this species of fixed capital, the living machinery, cannot be put up to the hammer and sold for the materials. In agricultural districts, there also exists, confessedly, a redundant population, but we deny that this has arisen from the causes to which it is generally referred. Those writers whose object it is to throw the blame of all the present distresses on the Poor Laws, bave taken it for granted tbat the existing excess has arisen from a growing increase of early or

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